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historical, ©eograp^al anb Staiistital. 






^' 05^ - e •^ I Google 







Tbis Work is Dbdicateb, 




Thb momentoiu erents that have recently occaired in the East of 
Gnrope were the seqael and consequence of revolutions whicb have 
agitated that part of the vrorld for several centnriee. To thoroaghly 
nnderstand the facts accomplished within the last few years, it is 
necessarj to follow in its principal featares, general resnlta, and most 
important revolations, the histoiy of the formation, grandenr, and 
decadence of the Ottouan Ehfiije. In tracing the historical develop- 
ment and ethnical pecnliarities of the Turks, the author has endea- 
voured to give a clear idea of the institntions, manners, races, peoples, 
and reli^ons of the Empire, composed of so many different elements ; 
and also as far as practicable an accurate knowledge of the geography 
of tboee still imperfectly known countries. This last-named feature, 
it is hoped, will be of great service to geography aa well as history, 
and of the utmost interest to all who follow with serious attention 
the progress of events affecting what in this country is broadly and 
generally known as the Eastbrv Qubbtiok. The war in Egypt and 
the statistics of the Uttoman Empire are derived from the most trust- 
worthy sources. For the latter the Author has been greatly indebted 
to recent researches — notably those of M. Vladimir Jaksohitj, 
Director of the Statistical Department of Servia, and of Mr. J. W. 
Bedhonse, the well-known Turkish scholar, as also Herren Behm and 

The sources to which recourse has been made in the historical 
portion of the work are too nuroerons to cite here, but they are 
acknowledged either in the text or in the foot-notes. 

AiiiiAXDai lUiiii, 






1. ADtaganum of the But and Weit 

it. Hahomet, tha Eoiiii, its Dogm&a uid Fieoapti 

8. Erron oE the Kaika 

t. Death of Mahnmet Arab Caoqueeta 

S. The Pint Khalifes, the Ommiadea uid Abauidee 

Funf TBB Apmr or thi SiLiuriDis to tbit or thb OnoHim. 

1. Origin of the Tarka. DecadeuM of the Kbalifate 

S. iBTiaion of the Moagola 

S. Sequel of the Uongol Conqae.ta. D«etnictien of the Kbilifate of Bagftad. 
Baminai7 of the aii piecedin;; centuriea 

Tb» Ono«*i ToiiB TO THI Rkiom ot Akcsath I. (1231-1360). 
1. Origio of (he OttonuuiB. Oithoguel ........ 

3. Keign of Othaoiaa 

S. Keign ol Uichau 

4. Bui; Canleata of the Tarki and Oreeka ia Borope 

5. HiitOT7 of Servii, Botoia, Albania, &c 

RBiom or Ahokiib I. Ain> Buahi I. <136I)-I102). 

1. Amaralh I. OrguiiiatioD of the Jaaisariea 

2. Aoqaiai^na in Alia Minor. Feudal orginiiatloD of the Sipahia 

I. New Conqaeata in Europe and Aeia. Battle of looaium .... 


i. Batlle of Kauori. D«Klh of Amninth ^ 

C. Bijazct I. AbaMment of the Oreek Binpanm. AcqaisitioDS in AbU Hinar. 

Conqaeat ol W&llachia and Balgaru G 

6. Snbminion of Ah[b Minor. Battle of Kicopolis. Couqoest of Qreece 5 

7. Conqaesti of Tamerlsos 6 

8. War between Timant uid Bajutt. BMtle of Angon. Death of B«juet 6 


KBiona 01 Uibout I., or Ahubatb II., aim or Mabokki II. to the Cirrosi o 

CosflTiiiTnioPi,B <li03-li68). 

1. iDterregnniD. War between the sons of B^iz«t (1403-1413) ... 61 

2. B«<gn of MkhoiDet I. (14)8-1421) 6 

S. Amnrath IL (1421-1450). CitU War. Siege of ConatanUDopls. Sab- 

minian of tbe Tdrklih Statu of Asia Minor 7 

4. Win in Albania, Wallaebii, and Serria. Hnnjade CorrinBs. Defeat of tho 

Ottoauma 7 

fi. Battle of Verna. Scanderbeg. Battle of KaMova 7' 

5. B«ign of Mahomet 11. Biege asd Capture of Conatantinoiile ... 7 

PaoK TBI Caftvu or Coistabtihopli to tbi Fiaoe or CjWLowitx 



Rsiaa or Mahohei II. raoH m Ciptdbc or CoHn*)ranioFi.i (1453-1431). 

1. Condition of the Qrofba after the Coaqnest . . . , 

S. The Conqoeat of Serria 

5. Sobjectioo of the Morea. War against Scanderbeg. Conqneata in Ada 
4. Cooqueat oF Wallachia. Craeltiea of Wlad the Denl 

6. Conqaeit of Boinia. War with tbe Venetiani and in Albania 

6. Conqaeat of Karamania 

7. War in Moldavia. Conquest of the Crimea .... 

8. Capture of Crola. Siege of Scutari. Feaee with tha Venettana . 

9. Biperfitiona into Hungaij and lulf. Ri^e of Ohode* 
10. Character of Mahomet II. His laatitnljoni .... 

Ktiaa OF BuuKT II. urn or Siuii (14S1-1S20). 

1. Beiolt and AdreatareB of Djtm .... 

2. BipeditioDs in Hangai7, MoldaTia, and Asia Minor 

3. Fint Relationa with Bnnia. War with the VenatianB 

4. Reiolt of the Sods of BaJBiet. Hie death 




1. Krat A«l*af BolToiao. dptnra of Belgnds and of KbadM . .121 

3. Tbe OnDd Tiiier Ibrabim. Tionbtn in Egypt, in the Oiimt*, in WtUtobk 124 

5. Sew Foli<7 of Fnnce with K«l*tioa to Ibe Ottoman Bmpiiv. Franeii L ulu 

aid from Sol; man. Tb> Saltan's Lett«r 125 

4. The Battle of Uohaca 12S 

G. BaToltainAna 130 

6. Kb* Kela^ooa of Fraoeis I. and Solyman 131 

7. Second Bipedition into Bnngaiy. Siege of Vienna 132 

5. nird BxpedltioD into HDOgar;. BmbaMf of PranciB I. Siege of ClUni. 

Peace with Anatria 13S 

9. War wiUi Penia. Capture of Bagdad. Ohursddin-Barbaroaaa. Capture of 

rani* bj Charlei T 138 

ID. Tint Capitnlation of the Porte vith Pranoe 140 


EnoB Of SoMHur fko> lai CAMnjiAnosB with FaAaoB to his Diath 


1. S«tael of theFraneo-TaTkish Allianoe. War vith Venice . . . .144 

2. Affair* of Bnngaiy. Caplnre of Buda I4G 

5. New Allianne between Turkey and France 146 

4. War in Alia IGO 

fi. Afbin of HoDgiTT. Siege of Brian. Sequel of the Fnnea-Torkiab 

Alliance 151 

6. War witb Penia. The SolUna Boxalana. Death of Miutapba . . .163 

7. Aftin of Hangar;. . BeioH and Death of Bajsiet 164 

8. Peace witb Aostria. KaTal Affairs. Siege of Halts ■ . 1 >>G 

9. Benewal of the War in Hoogaiy. Si>ge of Siigeth. Death et Soljman . 157 

Eiiaas OT Siuk U, akd AKDaitn III. (1E60-159(>). 
1. Selimn. mmamed tA; i)niniiinf (1666-1674]. BcTolt of the Janioarica. 

Peace witb Anatria 164 

8. Briatiooe witb Franco IflS 

5. Bipedition to Arabia , 1 67 

4. Conqnest of Cjpnis 1 68 

5. Battle of Lepanto 160 

6. Embaaaf from fiance. Peace with Venice 171 

7. Capture of TDaia. Albin of Poland and Moldavia. Death of Selim . 172 

8. Araniath ID. <1.'S74-1505). Pint Ada o( bU ileign . . . .174 
D. War with Hongirr. Rehtioni -ilh Piance 17S 


10. War with Persi* 178 

11. Rtl&UoDB wilb Pmic«, Englutd, VeDJoe, kc. Pwoe with Penis ISO 
13. fiavolls of the J&nlauritB and tmablei in th« Fraviacea. Witr Tonewed in 

Hungarj. Death of Amurtth III. 182 

Ebiins or Mabohkt UL imd Aobhet I. (1596-lfil7)- 

1. Fint Act* uid CbarscUr of Mahamet III. Bevolt in Asia. Indepcndtnoa 

of WallBChia 184 

2. War in Hnngarjr. Treatment oE the CbiiatianB by the Vizien. Michael the 

VnvD 186 

3. BelatioDs of tbs Porte with Piauce 188 

4. DoQuleDce of the Empire 190 

6. War and Treatj with Peraia. Treatj of SitTatorok 193 

6. Minion of Sarai? de Brivei. Inflaence of France in the Eait . . 194 

BiiuMS or Mdbtifha I., Otuxs II., Ahdbitb tV., aid iBaiHtH 


1. Beigns of Hnstapha BJid Osman IL (1617-1622) iOO 

2. Restoration of Mnetapha I. Atnnrath IT. (1623) SOS 

9. Charecler of Amurath IV. State of the Arm; 205 

4. BelalioDfi with Prance 206 

6. Depredations of the Barharj Coniire 203 

6. Ibiahim 1. (1639). War againM Vtnioe 210 

Krioh or HiHoMit IV. ntmi 1669. 

1. laiolence of the Janisiariei ; Eerolts in Aua. War in TnaajlTania, Servia, 

and MoUavia 212 

2. Diplomatio Rupture with France. Death of Knpmli I SIS 

3. War in Hnngarj. luterTen^on of Prance. Battle of St. Qotbard. Treatj 

ot Vaatar S17 

4. Hostililiee againet the Barbaij Pinilee . . . .219 

6. France ■ocooara Candia. Capture of that place 223 

0. Freih disagreement with France 226 

7. The Bmbaaa; of NoinieL New Capiinlatiani ' . S27 


FbOII IHB CiPTDBB 01 CiBDli TO THB PliOB 0? ClElOWIM (1668-1698). 

1. State of the Ottoman Empire after the Captare of Oandia. Submiarion of the 

Coeucks. War in Poland, Treatj of 1676 232 

2. Death of Ahmed-Knpruli (1676); Kaia-Uuatapha nioceeds him. War with 

Boisia. Feaoeot Badiin(i681) 235 


8. W»r in HuDgaT. Policy of Looia XIV. Siege and Reliof of Vionna . 

i. Power of Piauca io the Htdlterranettn 

6. VTw aguDBt the Holf AllknFe. DeposiUoo of Mthomst IV. (1637) . 

6. Sol;mau IL CoatiiiDBtioii of tbe War. Viiierat« of Kupruli-MmUpb« 

7. Beign of Achmet IL aod Unalsplu It Peace of Carlowiti 


Para tHB PuCB or Culowitz to the Puci of Just (1699-1792). 


PbOM TBI PbIOI or CABLOVltl TO THB PllOB Or Fassaroititi (1699-171B). 

1. AdminiEtiktian of Eaprnli Hnasein. Depodtion of HiiBtapha II. . 258 

2. Aehmet III. Diminution of Pcencb Inflnenee, Camnienceaient of Roadui 

reteneioDB. Charles Zll. U Bender 2G9 

8. War igainat Bassia. Peace of Falksen 261 

4. Var agsiiut Venice aod agaioA Aartria. Treat; of Pasaaroirjti. Freeh 

Treaty wilh BnB«& 266 


PaoH TBI Fuoi or FAsgmowiti to thk Peaoi or Bilobidb (1718-1739). 

1. rHiaalroaa Policy of Turkey. War against Persia 267 

2. Uahmood I. Peace «itb Penia. War of Prance in FaroDr of Poluid . 269 

5. Wai aith Runia and Austria. Port taken by Franca. Treaty af Belgrade . 272 


P*0> TBI PlAOa or BlLSBlDI TO THE FeAOI OF KllMAKMI (17iO-1774). 

1. Tnatyvitb Sweden. CapitotatiooB of 1710 275 

2. War of the Anatriaa SaeeeMJon. Nentratity of Turkey .... 277 

5. Kfibrta of France to ODlighteD Torkey. EncroacbmeaU of RoBsia . 279 

4. NeT Adminiatration of Walloehiauid Ualdana. The Fanariotes 281 

6. Ounan III. Change in the Poli'^y of France. Aflair o( the Holy Plaeei , 282 

6. llostapha III. Interrentton of Bmaia in Poland ; her Intrignea in the 

OreeV ProrinoBs of Tnrkej 287 

7. Roalfn aggrca^on. DaBigos of Catherine II. 28S 

5. Blate el Uie Aaiatlo ProTincee. Egypt onder All Bey. Syria onder Daber . 201 

9. BffoHa of Frsoee to decide the Porte to make War against Russia. Letters of 

Lonii XV. 293 

10. Wai against Bnssia. Rising of the Her ea. Kaval Victory of tbe RnssiaDS. 

Opentioua in Wallachia 296 

11. Efforts of France in FaTonr of Turkey 300 

12. Threats of Engbnd as regarded France. Seqael of the War. Death of 

Mnstepha III 303 

13. Accession of Abdnl Abmed. Treaty o( Kainardji 806 


Pboh the PiACt or Kaikakmi to thi Pun or Jisar (1T71-I792). 

1. C<iDB(qDane«B of ths Peace of Kainardji. ConTentioD of 1770 . . 308 

2. CoDqnett of the Crimea hj tbe Bouiaiu 310 

S. Chuige in the Policj of Pntnce. The Empresi GaCfaariae'i Project of & New 

Bkitern Empire S13 

t. Wot with Rnnia Renewed. Death of Abdnl Ahmed. Selim I[I. {1702}. 

CoDtinastioD of the War. Feaoe of Janj (1792) 81S 


Paoa tut TtiOt or Jun (o thb Tmui or FiKU (1702-1808). 


Fboh Ibi pMwn or Ju»t to ifim Accxssioii ot Hihhodi' II. 

1. Beboand of the French BeTolntioD *t CoDituUnople 320 

2. DiaordeiB in Seiria. Paeran Ogloo 323 

S. Ali Pacha 825 

4. Hinian of Sebastiani to the Lerant S2T 

5. Eoplnre of tbe Peace of Amiena. Condnet of the Forte . . . . 8S8 

6. Tronbtes in Roamelia. lonitTection of Berria S29 

7. Roptnre of the Porte with Itnnia and England. Tbe Rnraiaoi inTade the 

Daonbian PioTiacea . 331 

8. Napoleon wnde Aid to the Porte. D'partnre of tiie Engliah Ambaandor. 

Admiral Dackwortli panea the Dsrdanellet 33i 

5. Seboatiani deoidea the Saltan to offer Reautanoe. Ueaaniea of Defsnoe. Be- 

tteat of Bir John Duchworth 336 

10. Tbe Tnrlu attack the Enaaian Fleet Bipedition of the Bugliab againat 

Sg^fL UehemetAli 330 

11. Rerolt of the TamakL DepodtioD of the Sollu 340 

12. Maetapha IV. (Sgth Ua?, 1807, to 26th Jnlj, 1803). Peace ot Tilsit . . 812 

13. The Conapiracf of Baralclar. Deporition ot Uuta^ IV 3i4 

Rbiom or Uahmoud II. tq tbi Paul or Adkukofli {1S0S-1S29). 

1. Swaf and Downfall of Baialctar 34S 

2. Diecnsaion of Napoleon and Alexander DpoD tbe TiuUih Eminn. 

Beaomption of Hoatilities with Eoaaia. Treat; of Bncbareat . . . 347 

8. Beqafl of Senian Ininirection 360 

4. The Wahabitea. Fowei of Hehemet AIL Eeralt of Alt Pacha . . .353 

6. Tbe Hetieria. Inaonection of Qiee«e. AttenipS of Tpilanti . 3G6 
6. Eiecntion of the Qreek Patriarch. Innirreotioa of the Iile;. Progrevoftbe 

iDiurtection 3Sg 


7. DmUi of Ali PtcbM. Hunore of Sdo. Diannaioni amoBg (be OiMki . 860 

8. iDtarrgatioD of the Troops of the Paob& of ^pt Ckptare of Hinolonghi . >63 

9. Diisaaioiw of the Porte with Engiia ..•.,.. 808 

10. OoDTtnluHi of AekennaD. Treaty of Bib Jal;, 1827 SAG 

11. Battle of Nivkrino. Deeluatiaii of Wu (gunrt Eniaui .... 36fl 

12. Deitnietiau of tbe JuiiM>ri«a ggg 

13. Bip«ilitiDnDrUiePraDch into ths Horn S7I 

14. Cvnpwgmot lBSg-1829. Treatj of Aananople. IndepeDdenoo of 0TMce . S72 

Fbox ras Piaci or ADEiAnopLm to tbi Piici oi Pis» (1S29-1S£0). 

1. BeUUoiu of Fnno* with the Lonnt during the Baatontion and after the 

EoTolntion of 1830 

2. Power of Uahemet Ali. Hii Rupture with the Forte. Battle of Borne and 

3. InterrentiOD of Pmuoe aod Eojaia. Treatj between the Snllan sod the 

taeh» of ^Tpt. Trsatj of Dnkiar Skdean 

4. RatomB of Hi^ood. Freeh Bnpture with the Faaha of B^pt. Battle o( 

Noib. Death of Hahmoad 

5. SMcewioo of Abdol Hedjid. Treatj of the 16th Jul;, 1 810. Conclanon of 

the Diffaresce between the Sultan and the Faoha of Kgjpt 

6. Bdgn of Abdol Hedjid 

7. Diieoniotts ralatife to the Holji Plaoee. The Eouian Troopa innule the 

Dannbian Prinmpalitiei. Beginning of the Crimean War 

From tbb Rxd or ihi Cbikiin Wis to inn Eukofiih Cofnainci at 


1. End of (ha Crimean War. Ti«itT of Pari* 

2. Diaorden of the iDaoTrectioni in the Tribntat7 FrOTineea .... 

3. The Attitude of Ro«ia towards Tnrlu; in 1876-1877 .... 
i. Depoailka and Death of Abdnt Aiii. Acoenion of Abdal Hamld. 

Bniopeaa Conference at Conatantinople 

5. Fall and BaniabiaeDt of the Qrand Tiiier Uidhat Pacha .... 

d. Bona daclarea War igiinst the Forte 

7. The Campaign on tbe Dannbe 

6. Fall of Plema and Snnender of Osman Pacha 

9. Eifaanation of the Tarkieh Anaiea 

1. Bnd of the Rono-TnrLiah War. Cririe at Conilantjnople. The Anniatioe . 

S. The Berlin Congrew. The Treatj of Berlin 

3. War in BgTpt. ^882 



1. Tiuk«jiD Europe, Aaiauid AMca, AdmuuBttatiTe ud Stotirtioal DiTuiou*. 163 

2. Tnrka; in Europe. GotuUntiaople 154 

3. The Danube, from its Scarce to its Uoatba 450 

4. WalloaliiB and Holdsvift (Ronmaiiift) ! . 473 

6. Bosnia 47B 

a. Servia 481 

7. BnliaFia 4S6 


Pbdviitcbs or tqi Axchipruoo. 

1. The HelleDic FeninsaU 193 

2. Thrace 404 

3. The Dardtuielles, uid Sea ot Hannora 499 

4. The Botphonu gOI 

5. MacedODJa 504 

8. Thesuljr Sng 

7. The Balkan 511 



1. HenegoTJna 614 

2. Monlenegro il5 

3- Alicia 516 


tilltKRCE AND THI Il'LIS OF tut 


TusKBT IK Abu. 

.. The CaucasQii 539 

I. Baiina of the Fhaaia, the Kanr and the Araies figQ 

I. Hoantaiai of Wertern Alia 533 

. Baiini of the Baphrit«> and Tigris 533 


Asu MiwoR <Aniiolia). 

. Cilicia, Pamphjlia, and Lje'ia 63j 

2. Calia, L^dia, Myaia 


;l. Rjth;tiia, Pontiu, Pnphlngonln 
1. QaUtik, Phrygla, Capptdociit 
6. Tbs Mm ot Ani* Minor 

Stria aud Abaha. 

1 HonntaliM of S 

2. CouU AQd To* 

S. PalMtJw 



ABDn. Hjudd , Froalifieet 

AkOfl or Chohou , 21 

Baodad ... SO 

Batazid , . . G9 

Sbktum OomiTRi Pboplr ST 

ScARPBBBima 90 

SCDTAM flfi 

HiBoMn n. 101 

HABBomt or Bhodbs 123 

Lakk iND FosntEw or Vab 138 


Habbm , . , , 19U 

HoDKT Ida, im Ckbtb 224 

0OBrTAiriI]fOPI.B AHD QoLDBM HOBB ,1,, 238 

OtoDiHO IBB Sdltak wttb Oimam'i Swoyi) Sia 

Alsxahdbb H.. BiCPBBOB or Rdmia S98 

Abddl Axis 408 

ouiah pacba . .418 

OAmATHBODoRi Facea, Sadoduub Bbt, MsHBaBT Au Paoha - 427 


AmuvoPLB 41IS 

AlAAITlAlll 523 

CiBOAauAin ... u28 

IiATOtOAPB or THB Tadshs 533 

HuiAxux (Ou) Tbot) Anatolia "40 

(The greater nninber of the ItliutrAtiaiu are from drawingi tnken by % Qeriii*n 
srtUt dnriiut the Uite Riuuo-Tarkiib wsr.) 




Thi recent war waged between BuBsia and Tnrkej is onl; t^e latest 
episode in a great conflict of races which has lasted in £hirope for 
more than five centuries, and the origin of which bas to be traced 
back through a good many more than a thousand Tears into the 
obscnritj of primitive and barbaric life in Central AeiA. A brief 
review of this ancient fend will help ns to understand the essential 
conditions of the strife that has so long existed between the two 
nations, and also serve as a fitting introduction of the following 
hJstoij of the Ottoman Empire. 

Long ages before Greece or Rome existed, ethnologists tell ns, two 
widely different races occupied the more habitable parts of the great 
Asiatic Continent, and as soon as they became too nnmeroas to follow 
their nomadic ways of life withoat coming into collision with one 
another, began to stm^le for the mastery. One of these races, the 
Mongolian, spreading westward from China, helped to displace the 
other race, the Aryan, already breaking into rival fragments, and 
branching oat into independent nations and clusters of nationa 
From the Aryan stock sprang the Hindoos to the sonth of the 
Himalayas, and the snccessive colonies of Eelts, Tentons, Italians, 
Greeks, and others, who gradually took possession of the chief 
portions of Europe. The Slavonic tribes, more numerous but less 
open to civilizing agencies than most of the others, formed onn if 
these families. The vast tract of conntiy now known as F 
Russia was in conrse of time appropriated by them, before o 
the period of the Rotnui Empire, and at a later date some branches 
of them stretched eonthward, and established themselves among the 
mins of the Byzantine Empire that had succeeded to the effete rule of 
Rome in the East. Meanwhile the Mongol race had in its turn broken 
np into separate nations and clusters of nations, of which the Tartars 
were the most lawless and daring. The newly-fonnded religion of Ma- 
homet, especially favoured by them and their kinsmen, gave cohesion 
and increased ferocity to these Tartars, and after various nations of them 
had overrun and mastered the territoriee between the Himalayas and 
the Mediterranean, we find some tribes crosKing the Caucasus and 
encroaching on the Knssian Slavs, while the most desperate and 
adventurous of them all, the Ottoman Turks, aspired to the conquest 



of the Earopeaii proyiDces BtlU under the nominal sway of the 
Byzantine empurorB, and also now protected by the Slavs. Hence it 
waa that the far more remote straggle between Mongols and Aryans 
in Asia was reprodnoed in Europe by their descendants, the Tartars 
and Slavs. 

The new struggle began in the thirteenth century. The Bnsaian, 
or Muscovite, Kmpire dates from the year 662 ; bat it had no solid 
existence till seven hundred years later. Grand dnkes, grand princes, 
and kings, without nnmber, ruled, or attempted to rale, over the 
disorganized barbarians, who were thinly scattered over the immense 
territory, but it was really torn asnnder by rival factions of free- 
booters and military aggressors, who swarmed in every generation. 
Indeed, the soIidiBcation of the nation only began in conseqnence of 
the necessity of union among the Slavs to resist the Tartar invaders, 
and the resistance was not snccessfnl until they had endnred the 
Tartar oppression for more than two centuries. The Oolden Horde, 
as it was called, invaded Mnscovy, and burnt Moscow in 1240. It 
swept over all the central and southern parts of the country, con- 
quered Poland, ravaged Hungary, and was barely prevented from 
seizing Germany as well. The then Ghand Prince of ^Russia only 
secnred for himself a continnance of nominal authority by becoming 
a tributary of the Tartar conqueror, and his successors had to submit 
to this galling yoke until 1481, when the revolt of Ivan the Threatening 
was snccessfnl, and the last Khan of the Golden Horde was killed in 
battle. Ivan the Threatening's grandson, Ivan the Terrible, was the 
first Czar of Russia, and from his time to the time of Peter the Oi-eat, 
amid freqaent civil war and almost constant anarchy, the nation 
slowly grew ; but more than that century and a half were needed for 
its recovery from the oppression which left in the mind of every 
patriotic Bnssian a bitter natred of all Tartars, and all of the Tartar's 
Kindred and religion. It is not strange that the chief objects of that 
hatred should have been, and should still be, the Turks, who had 
in the meanwhile conquered Constantinople, and established in Europe 
a dominion which extended to the Russian frontier, and that, along 
with their hatred of the Turks, should hare been maintained a yearn* 
ing to deliver from Turkish tyranny their own less fortanate kinsmen 
and fellow religionists south of the Danube. 

It was in 1321, about eighty years after the invasion of Russia by 
the Golden Horde, that the Ottoman Turks crossed the BosphoruB 
to make their first raid in Europe. It took them 1<10 years to conquer 
Constantinople ; bnt before that final exploit was achieved they had 
overrun and mastered nearly all the country from the Black Sea to 
the Adriatic, from the .i^gean to the' Danube. The Moldavians and 
Wallachians, the Bulgarians, Servians, Bosnians, and others — most 
of them being of Slavonic or^n, or containing a large admix- 
ture of Slavonic blood, and all belonging to the same religion 
as the Russian Slavs — had made far greater advances in civilization 
than their noriihem kinsfolk; but perhaps this civilization made 
their conquest all the easier, and they fell quickly under the dominion 



of the mvaderB. Of what n&tiiTe that dominion, 'was daring tho first 
three centariea or bo, we shall read in these dark pages of Tarldsh 
history, and in the records of travellers' visits to the coantry. What 
it has continued to be in those provinces left to the nncontroUed 
anthority of the Tnrks, the proceedings id Bolearia and Bosnia some 
tivo or three rears since show na only too vividly and paiofally. Con- 
siderable modifications in the lot of the commnnities subject to the 
Ottomans have taken place, however, daring the past century or 
more. This has been mainly dne to the spread of civilizinjr inSnences 
from Western £urope, affecting to some extent the Turks themselves, 
and to a greater extent their rivals and enemies. Before the time of 
Peter the Great — ^that is, till aboat a century and a half ago — the 
Eastern half of Europe was European only in name. Under his 
hand the huge nnwieldv Rassian Empire first took some sort of 
orderly shape, and since his day it has steadily increased in size, and 
yet more in power. One consequence of its development has been 
the havoc committed by it among the disorganized commnnities ont- 
side its borders. Tarkey furnished one cluster of these comm.unities, 
till then very loosely bound together under the central authorities of 
the Sultans in Constantinople. The immediat« effect of Bassian 
aggrandizement upon the Porto has undoubtedly been to compel it to 
adopt a store vigorous policy — whether more prudent uid states- 
manlike, or more reckless and tyrannical, we need not say — towards 
the inhabitants in the several provinces under its own set of states- 
men or tyrants; the result has been a gradual breaking off of those 
provinces in which the aggravated miagovemment, instead of 
strengthening the allegiance of the inhabitants, has bred so much 
fresh resistance and confusion that they could no longer be controlled 
l^ the central authority, and ^hich, invoking and obtaining Bossian 
ud, have secured their partial independence. 

It is not to be supposed that the aid thus given by Russia to the 
Moldavians, Wallachians, Servians, and Greeks has been wholly 
disinterested, or based exclusively upon sympathies of race and re- 
ligion ; bat, whatever may have been the motives prompting the 
Czars and statesmen, it isevidentthatsympathiesof race and religion, 
joined with hatred and jealousy of the Turks, have always been 
powerful among the Russian people. From the earliest times of 
which we have records about them, the Slavonians in Russia have 
looked npon the whole country from the White Sea down to the 
Black Sea as theirs by right. As far back as the year 904 we find 
them invading Constantinople, and before at^ separate Slavonic com- 
munities had been planted south of the Danube, aiming to gain 
possession of the district. When the Greek Empire had cmmbled 
away, and the Russian grand princes became the heads of the Greek 
Church, their desire to gain the holy city of their religion gave new 
lest to their political ambition. Ever since they have freed them, 
selves from Mahometan oppressors, and have seen Constantinople in 
the hands of Uahometans, their ambition, religious as well as political, 
has been yet farther intensified. Ivan the Threatening's triumph 



OTBT the Golden Horde, and bis exptilsionof the Tartars from Russia, 
vere followed, as a matter of coarse, by Iran the Terrible's victories 
over the Tartars in their own territories, and his invasion of the 
Crimea, at that time no part of Bnssia. All his Bnccessors vho were 
not too mach absorbed in internal qnarrels carried on, or tried to 
carry on, the work, and Peter the Great moat zealonsly of all. 
Peter's most sacred legacy to the nation that he really hnilt np was 
the overthrow of Tnrk^- Catherine II. conqnered the Crimea ia 
1771, and acquired Azofl in 1774. What Nicholas did, and attempted, 
daring his long reign is well known. By the treaty of Akennann 
in 1826 he obtained Bnssian protection for Moldavia, Wallachia, and 
Servia. In coniunction with England he secured the independence 
of Greece in 1830, He embarked on the Crimean war in 1853. 
That there should have been bo long a panse as one-and -twenty years 
in the conflict between Uusaia and Tnrkey is the fact to be wondered 
at, rather than that war shonld have been resumed so soon. It is a 
fend of races that, extending from time immemonal, can only termi- 
nate with the utter overthrow of one or other of them. As to which 
of the two is destined to be overthrown, that is a problem by no 
means eany of solution. 




1. Anlationitm of the Eatt and the Wetl. 
The £^t and the West form two distinct worlds oE popnlations, 
mannere, beliefs, between wbicb there baa been perpetnal hatred and 
strife, which have songht, down to the present time, to invade and 
dominate each other. The remote af^s saw that antagoniam marked 
chieBy bj the invasions of the Persians into Greece, invasions 
glorionslj- repulsed bj the European victories of Salamis and Mara- 
thon; then came the reaction of the West npon the East hj the 
conqnests of Alexander, which was continned and completed by the 
Roman domination. Western Asia seemed then for ever acquired to 
civilization; barbarism, driven back within the unknown table-lands 
of Thibet, was henceforward impotent to invade Europe ; the Medi- 
terranean, that sea which nnites and separatee the East and the West, 
became solely an European sea; finally, Christianity, given by the 
conqnered to the conqnerors, in uniting them by the sorest of all 
bonds, appeared to have consummated for ever the work of pacifica- 
tion commenced by arms. That pacification was not, however, 
de6nitive : neither the Roman power nor the Christian faith had 
sncceeded in blending those two natures so opposed to each other, 
and when the Roman world divided itself into Eastern Empire and 
Western Empire, the struggle commenced. 

It manifested itself at first by the creeds : Christianity separated 
itself into rival Churches ; that of the East was speedily vitiated by 
the sophistical and disputations spirit, the subtle and allegorical 
ima^nation, the frivolous and corrupt manners of Qreece ; it wandered 
into the most dangerous controversies, into errors which caused the 
human race to relapse into the paths of the past ; finally, it becanie the 
mother of unmerons sects, daug'htBrs of ancient philosophic schools, and 
which seemed all to have one thought in common, the negation, more 
or less veiled, of the divinity of Jesns Christ. That fatal thought, which 
made of Christianity only a non-reveaJed and an invented relij^on, 
with the mental reservabon that a better-inspired legislator m^ht 
some day bring forward one more perfect, was destined to give birth 


r OLD AND KEW. [a-D. 609—633, 

to a snpreme heresy or new religion — Islamism, for IslamiBin is no 
other than & bastard Chr stiEmitf, incompleto and barbaroas, the oS- 
Bpring of the heresies of Anna, Eatychas, and Nestorina. 

2. Mahomet, the Koran. Us Dogmas and Precepts. 

A. man of marvellons genius, Uahomet, bom in 570, having seen 
that state of the East, announced himself as eent from G)od to explain 
the laws of Moses and of Christ, and to continue their 'work ; he said 
that the Oospel had been the vaj of salvation during six centnries, 
bnt that, the Christians having forgotten the laws of their founder, 
he was the Paraclete whose coming had been predicted, the last and 
most perfect of the prophets ;• conseqnentlj, he resnmed in his 
doctrine the Arian, Ifestorian, and Ent^chian heresies, mixed them 
np with Jewish practices, adjusted them to Arab manners, and pro- 
claimed the Unity of God alone. It was not a new religion that he 
annonnced, bnt the old religion of Moses and of Jesns, purified and 

Mahomet at first had in view, when he fonnded his doctrine, only 
Arabia, his native conntir-, then plunged into the wildest idolatry, 
and that religion was, in tact, an immense benefit to it, as for all the 
barbarons conntries that adopted'it. "What you said of our poverty, 
of OUT divisions, of our borlMiroua condition," said an Arab deputy 
to the Persian King Tezdedjerd, " was jast formerly. Tes, we were 
so miserable, that men amongst us were seen to sustain themselves 
upon insects and serpents, some pnt their danghters to death to avoid 
sharing their food with them. Plnnged in the darkness of anper- 
stition and idolatry, lawless and uncurbed, for ever enemies of one 
another, we were only occupied with mutually pillaging and destroy- 
ing onrselves. That is what we have be^ ; we are now a new 
people. Qod has raised np in the midst of ns a man, the most dis- 
tinguished among Arabs by the nobility of his birth, by his virtues, 
1^ his genins, and has chosen him to be His envoy and Hie prophet. 
By the organs of that man, God has said to us : * I am the One 
Eternal God, Creator of the Universe. My benevolence sends yon a 
gnide to direct yonr steps ; the way that he points out to you will 
Bave yon from l^e pnnishments which I reserve in another life for 
the impious and the cruel, and will lead yon near Me in the regions 
of bliss.' We have believed in the prophet's mission; we have 
recognized that his words were the words of Qod ; hie commands the 
commands of God; the religion that he uinoanced to ns the only 
true religion. He has enlightened our minds, he has extii^piished 
onr hatreds, he has united ns in a society of brotherhood under lawB 
dictated by divine wisdom." t The truth of that eulogium bestowed 
by the Arab people upon its benefactor cannot be denied ; Mahomet 
civilized Arabia. Religion, morals, legislation, society, all was con- 


A.». 809—132.] tlOOMlS OF THI EORIH. 7 

tained in the scattered otiaptera of the Koran, source of tJl I&w, 
principle of &11 datj ; MiiasuInutD society sprang from it in its 
eDtiretj, Therefore do the Masenlmaiis profess the most profoand 
Tenemtion for that sacred book ; they never open it but with tokens 
of respect ; they read it, they cite and apply it, unceasingly ; they 
inscribe verses from it everywhere upon the walls of their mosqnes 
and in the interior of their houses ; it is the guide of all their actions, 
the constant role of their whole life, their sole hook. And the 
hundred and fourteen chapters or euTat revealed to the prophet are 
not only ^^raven in the memory of the believers : theirspirit breathes 
in all their institutions, manners, thonghts. The Koran is for the 
UoBsnlmans very nearly what the Bible was for the Hebrews, and 
moch more than what the Qospel is for the Christians : it embraces 
all the relatione of political life, civil and religious, and regulates 
alike the conscience of individuals and the duties of the State, the 
government of nations and the details of the household. 

lalainism encloses, in reality, only a single dogma, the unity of 
God, a dogma which dominates and fecundates all the new religion, 
and which must have appeared like light itself at that epoch, when 
the Greek heresies had obscured and even dishonoured it. " God is 
one," said Uahomet, " and the God eternal. He has not b^^t and 
is not begotten. He has no equal." In placing Jesus in the front 
rank of prophets, in acknowledging his miracles and his divine 
mission, in treating his mother as a holy and immaculate virgin, he 
rejects as idolatry the Trinity of the Christians. 

To the dogma of the unity of God, Islamism adds the immortality 
of the soul and future rewards. The tortures of hell, the joys of 
paradise, are represented, in the Koran, by coarse imagery ; but, 
after having described the material delights reserved for the just 
man, Mahomet adds ; "The most favoured of God will be he who 
shall behold his face night and morning: that is a happiness which 
transcends all the pleasures of the senses, as the ocean surpasses a 
drop of dew." 

The worship is, like the dogma, of an extreme simplicity : no 
mysteries, no altars, no images of any kind, not even priests.* The 
practice of Islamism consists solely in prayers, alms, fosting, in ablu- 
tions which are hygienic obligations appropriate to the climate. 
Pnyer is an essential duty : it is offered up Gve times daily — at sun- 
rise, at noon, at three o'clock, at sunset, at night. The mueiiin pro- 
claims t£e hours of those five prayers by crying from the top of the 
towers or minarets of the mosques : " God is great ! I attest that 
there is only one God 1 I attest that Mahomet is God's prophet. 
Come to prayer ! Come to salvation ! God is great ! " It is the 
formula of announcement, edhan, adopted by the prophet. The face 
of the Mussulman in prayer must always be turned towards Mecca. 
Finally, cireomcision, borrowed from the Jews, the sancti£cation of 


8 TDBKBT OLP AND KIW. \k.v. 009-682. 

Friday, the fast of Bhamadan, resembling the Chrietian Lent, abeti- 
nenoe from wine, from blood and the flesh of pork, afe other external 
practiceB imposed upon Mnsenlmans. 

Bat Mahomet did not reduce religion to those external signs. 
" The flesh and blood of victims," he said himself, " ascend not up to 
God ; it is your piety that reaches him." • 

" Virtue consists not in turning one's face during prayer towards 
the East or the West, but holieving in Qod and the last day, in the 
Book and the prophets ; in giving for the love of God, in succouring 
<me's parents, the indigent and the traveller, in ransoming captives, 
in observing prayer, in doing charity, in keeping one's engagements, 
by showing oneself patient in adversity, in times of hardship and 
violence. Hiose who do thus are just and God-fearing," t 

" Prayer," said the Khalife Omar, " conducts us haJf-way towards 
God ; fating leads us to the gate of his palace ; charity allows us 
to enter therein." Alma are obligatory; they are fised for each indi- 
vidual at a tenth {lecat) of his poaseBstODs. Those whoae liberalities 
are conferred through ostentation will derive no profit from their 
work. Praiseworthy if they exercise charity publicly, believers will 
be the more so every time that they practise it in secret.J Hospi- 
tality is in the same way prescribed by law and practised with the 
same simplicity. 

The consequence of that universal charity, to be found in every 
page of the Koran, is a feeling of equality and fraternity which is as 
profound in the manners as in the law, and the basis of all Mnssal- 
man society. " There are neither princes nor beggars in Islamism," 
said the first Khalife ; " there are only Mussulmans." No nobility, 
no castes, no classes, no privileges, no distinctions ; the lowest and 
poorest of believers ascends quite naturally to the highest functions 
of the State by his intelligence or his virtue ; he descends thence 
without shame, and thns returns simply into his poverty. 

Thus, as will be seen, the morality of the Koran is the morality of 
the Gospel, and in all questions which do not touch upon dopna, 
that book is almost always accordant with Christianity: it recom- 
mends the forgiveness of injuries, love of one another, good faith 
even towards infidels ; it cutsos pride, anger, and especially hypoc- 
risy i but with a contradiction tl^t is not rare in its code, it admita 
of revenge, the le^e talionit, evil for evil. Notwithstanding that, and 
to sum op, it may be said that the law of Mahomet is only a plagia- 
rism of the Gospel accommodated to the barbarous manners of 
Arabia. " Thns," remarks an historian of the Middle Ages, " it 
would be more exact to call its votaries heretics than unbelieverB ; 
but custom has prevailed."§ 

• Somt iiiL T. 38. + 3u™t u, t. 172. 

t Sunt ii. T. 266 and faliowing. 

§ Jacqaei de Vilrj, "Hiiloin dM Crolgades," Ht. i. 



3. Errors of Ike Koran. 
If Uabomet approaches Christiaiiitr throngh ita morality, he 
Mperates himself from, it by three grand errors, which dominate and 
characterize his doctrine, which open an abyss of separation between 
Christians and Uussnlmans, which are the canse of the immobility 
of the latter in face of the progressive advance of the former, which 
in short includes the whole secret of the destinies of lElam.ism. 
Those three errors are : the confnBion of the civil and the religions 
law, fatal predestination, the abasement and plurality of women. 

1. The Koran is asserted to be a work inspired by Ood, perfect 
and immntable, and, as it is a political and civil as well as a religions 
code, it follows that nothing can be changed in the social order, snch 
as the Koran has regulated it, withont impiety and sacrilege.* 
What Christianity has separated, God and Coesar, the spiritual power 
and the temporal power, is thus fonnd reunited anij confonnded, and 
the concentration of those two powers has brought about despotism. 
Moreover, the Koran having only been annonnced by Mahomet in 
fn^jments, and during a space of twenty-three years, contains 
numerous contradictions ; and its interpretation is not confided to a 
supreme and infallible aothority, but to the judgment of the alemat, 
learned or literate, whom the Khalifes, ovorwholmed by temporal 
abirs, have chai^d with religions and judicial functions which they 
can no longer fulfil : those ulenias, which have become a very power, 
ful body, have every interest to let the civil law be confounded with 
the ruligious, and, consequently, are opposed to any change and all 

2. Fatal predestination is inscribed even in the name of the reli- 

S'Oa, IsloTji, " abandoned of God," and in that of his votaries, 
oslem, "resigned to God." " The elect, as the reprobate," savs 
Mahomet, " is predestined to happiness or woe eternal, being yet ike 
one and the other in the bosom of their mother." " Among man- 
kind, many a one will be reprobate, many aone blttsaed." "Man dies 
only by the will of God, according to the book which fixes the term 
of his life." + And that terrible dogma regards not only individuals, 
but nations. " Every people has its time," says the Koran; "when 
the term has come, men can neither recede nor advance." It is this 
dogma which must inspire its votaries with the blind spirit of con- 
quest, contempt of death, fanaticism ; but also with the stolid sab- 
mtssion to despotism, political apathy, the resistance to all reform, 
immobility. The vlemas, however, relying upon the authority of 
the old imang, have repeatedly declared that predestination regards 
only the future life, and that the Koran leaves man all his freewill ; 

* RniDfroBa «umplM night b« cited. Thut, in tbew recant timai, tbe OttowHi 
OoTcniMiit could onlj introdnce Taodaation and qnanntine into tb« Kmpire b; com- 
bcUng popnlir prejndkea throngh the aid of an interpretation mare or Ins exact of thi 


10 TUBKBT OLD AND HtW. [a.». SOO— U2. 

bnt that belief is instinctive in the manners and ideas of the Massnl* 
mans ; it pleases them, it agrees with their careless nature, with 
their innate reckleasnees, their oriental life ; it gives them, moreover, 
in adversity, a singnlar dignity, and inapires the poor and unfor- 
tunate Trith contentment with their lot, the absence of all envy, a 
resienation which baa something of the evangelic. 

Mahomet coansels, aa laudable, the restricting oneself to one wife, 
bnt he permits the taking of four legitimate, and as many illegitimate 
or slaves as can be supported. The offspring of those diverse unions 
were equal,* Women might be purchased ; they were repudiated at 
the will of the husband ; they lived continually shut np ; they 
received no instruction ; they had no dowry ; they were, in short, 
only instruments of pleasure. Polygamy, donbtless, is only practised 
in the East by comparatively a few men — those ciily capable of 
supporting the ezpeuBes and luxury of a harem ; but the principle of 
the abasement of women shows itself not the less in the manners, 
with all their conBequences — that is to say, in the imperfect condition 
of the family. However, it must be owned that Mahomet ameliorated 
the condition of women, who, before him, were, in Arabia, treated as 
animals. " Men," said he, "you have rights over joar women, and 
yonr women have rights over you. Their duty is not to sully your 
couch by an adulterous intercourse : if they fail therein, Ood permits 
yott to no longer cohabit with them, and to beat them, but not so far 
as to deprive them of life. If they conduct themselves well, you 
ought to nourish and clothe them suitably. Treat them with kindness 
and affection. They have delivered up their persons to you, trusting 
in God, and that is a trust which God has confided to you."t Before 
his time, the father of a family put his daughters to death when he 
fonnd them burthensome ; but, one day, one of his principal chiefs, 
converted to Islamism, found bim holding on his knees a little girl, 
whom he wascareasing. " What is that litfle lamb you are petting ? " 
asked the Arab. "It is my child," replied the prophet. " By heaven," 
rejoined Cays, son of Acim, " I have had many little girls like that, 
bnt I have bnried them all alive." Mahomet abolished that execrable 
custom. He commanded children to show love, respect, toid humility 
to their mother, more especiallj' still towards their father. " O, 
Mussulmans ! " said he, " the kiss given by a child to its mother 
equals in sweetness that which we shall impress upon the sill of 
paradise. A daughter wins paradise at the feet of her mother." 

The Koran having been, originally, an immutable rule, destined for 
a particular race, the three-fold error that we have pointed out had 
not at first grave consequences ; the union of the religious and civil 
power was so conformable to the habitudes ot patriarchal life, 
fatalism so consonant to the slothful nature of the Arab, the plurality 
of wives so suitable to his gross and voluptuous habits, that those 
preecriptions were proper to maintain order and tranquillity in a 

* Cftotalnda Panerkl, "Histoira dm Antbea,"t. lii. (Elmer, "Dm KM» de la 
Religion de Ualuimet mr i'Baprit, las Mceora et le QonTernement dee Tenples," Ac 
+ Bnmt— VsijobI, t 258. 


I.D. flW— 032.] DUTH OF MAHOMET. 11 

oation 'whose exceptional position seemed to have destined it to ft 
perpetnitl immobility. lalamiam, semi- Christian semi- barbarian, was 
the most purified religion that it could receive, and the legislation 
best appropriate to its genios, its manners, to all its conditions of 
existence. Transported amon^ a people of a difFerent geains, npon 
whom the vicinage of Europe imposed a more active life, those prin- 
ciples most have produced the most fatal results. The history of 
the Mossnlman states is, therefore, everywhere the same : a period of 
Rkpid conquests and great splendour, followed by a precocious and 
incnnible decadence ; everywhere feebleness and discord, inseparable 
from excess of ahsolate power, with a society which emits, at first, 

S learns of civilization ; then becomes immobile, retrogrades, and 
eecends by degrees to the semi-savage state. After having re- 
awakened the old stmggle of the East and the West, after having 
precipitated the peoples into that strn^le with an irresistible vigoar, 
Islamism, " the religion of the sword," as soon as it had ceased to 
conquer, ceased to propagate itself ; it did not subjugate the peoples 
in order to convert and render them better, but to ransom and 
dominate them. It founded nothing dorable; it haa everywhere 
shown iteetf impotent in face of the peaceful propaganda and 
progressive principles of Christianity. All the empires that Islam 
has successively raised up have disappeared, with the exception of 
thre^^Tnrkey, Persia, and Morocco — all three struck with decrepi- 
tude, and without hope, life, or future, save on condition of trans- 
forming themselves radically by the abandonment of the triple error 
contained in the code of Mahomet. 
Let ns retnm to history. 

4, Death ofitahomeL — Arab Conquests. 

Mahomet preached at first his dootrine at Mecca : he was 
persecnted there ; condemned to death by the Sheik Abou-Sophian, 
ne took refuge in Medina with his disciples (622). From that event 
dates the era of the Mahometans called kegira or flight Medina 
acknowledged the proscribed as prophet and sovereign. Then he 
declared that Gk>d ordered him to propagate his religion by the 
sword, " the sword," said he, " which opens heaven and hell." " Be 
humane and jnst among yonrselvcs," said he to his followers; "all 
Mussulmans are brothers ; but let not two religions subsist in Arabia : 
idolatry is worse than murder. The sacred months expired, slay the 
infidels everywhere that you may find them." At the end of ten years 
"the prophet, who was at once a torch to light the world, and a 
sword to strike the impious," had subjected all Arabia to his doctrines 
and his arms. 

He did not stop there. " I have a mission," said be, " to fight the 
infidels until they cir : There are none other Godt hut Cfod. When 
they have prononnced those words, they have safeguarded their blood 
and tlieir possessions from all injury on my part ; as to their belief, 


12 TURKEY OLD AND NBW, [a.d, 600—632. 

they shall render account oi it to God." He then divided the earth 
into two parts, Dar-ul-Itlatn, the hoose of Islam, and Dar-ul-Harb, 
the house of the war or conntiy of the infidels, and he said to his 
followers : " Achieve mj works, extend on all sides the house of 
Islam ; the hoase of war is tor God, God gives it to yon." That was 
a proclamation of the jehad, or state of permanent war, a state whioh 
might be suspended by treaties, bnt which subsists by law so long as 
there remains a single infidel unconverted to Islamism, or who lias 
not consented to pay the tribnt«.* He traced even the plan of the 
conquest, regulated beforehand the condition of the conquered 
nations, and promised to the believers the possession of Constanti- 
nople. But at the moment when he was preparing to enter Syria 
at the head of an army, he died (632), leaving of bis seventeen women 
only a daughter named Fatima, married to the first of his disciples, 
Ali. His work aocomplished itself after him : he had caused to pasa 
into the souls of all his followers his warlike fanaticism. "The 
UuBsulman," says the Koran, "is a soldier in the service of God ; be 
enrols himself by conscience; the handling of arms is for him a 
religious act." Once under the standard, he cannot refuse to fight, 
eves in a duel, when bis chief commands. Desertion or refusal to 
contribute to the costs of the war are placed in the rank of the most 
odions of crimes. Children, fools and maniacs, are alone exempted 
from fighting ; and, as war is a holy work, it ought only to be waged 
by holy men ; no games, no debannhea, not even idle words in the 
camp of the faithful ; prayer must alone be a distraction from 
fighting.t " Fight," said Mahomet, " even to extermination. Some 
few among you will fall in the struggle ; for those who perish, 
pai'adise ; for the survivors, victoiy." Paradiie it in front of you — 
hell behind; with those words alone, the succeesors of Mahomet 
hurried away the believers to the conqneeta of the East and the 

The Arab chiefs elected to succeed Mahomet, his father-in-law, 
Abn-Bekr, who took the title of Khalife y repml Allah, vicar of the 
prophet of God ; but Ali, son-in-law of Mahomet, protested against 
that election, and commenced the first schism of Islam. However, 
the holy war opened against the empire of the Greeks and that of 
the Persians, empires enfeebled by factions, defended by mercenary 
troops, divided by religions sects whose minds were favoDrable to 
Islamism. Mahomet had only been intolerant in Arabia, where he 
desired that his religion should reign undivided ; but, in order to 
favour exterior conqnests, he had recommended indulgence towards 
the Kitabi, or the peoples who had received booke, that is to say, the 
Christians and Jews. " The nations," he had said, " who shall 
embrace your faith will be assimilated to yourselves ; they will enjoy 
the same advantages, and will be subjected to the same duties ; to 
those who shall desire to preserve their beliefs, impose only the 
obligation of declaring themselves your subjects and paying you 
* Uliioliil, "IsttenDpon Turkey." 
+ Saritiv. T. 75, 79 ; fi. 38, 3», *«. 



tribate, in ezcliange for wMch jon will cover them ^1111 joar pro- 
tection ; bat those who shall refoee to accept IslamiBm or the 
copditioii of tributaries, fight them eren to extermination." Ereiy- 
where the disciples of Moses and of Jesna were therefore exhorted to 
admit "the more perfect revelation of Mahomet; everywhere the 
Christian heretics manifested a siacere and cordial atlaohment for 
the Mahometans."* Nestorians, Arians, Eatjchians, at the first 
mmmons, welcomed them as deliverers, hastened to embrace the new 
religion and stifle their discords in a new apostasy'. As for those 
who were nnwilling to renounce their faith, they adapted themselves 
readily to the conditiona which the conqnerors offered them. 

Jernsalem was the first city rendered tributary (637), and the act 
-which consecrated the snbniission of the Holy City served as a model 
for all the transactions of the MnssulmaQs with the peoples who, 
became rayahg, desired to preserve their religion by means of a tribute. 
The following were the principal clanses of the capitnlation : The 
Christians shall pay an annnal rent; they shall neither monnt on 
horseback, nor carry arms, nor change garments ; they shall not place 
the Cross upon their chnrches and shall not ring their bells; they 
shall not build new churches, neither in the city nor in its territory ; 
they shall not hinder the Mussulmans from entering their chnrches, 
either day or night ; they shall open to all passers and all travel- 
lers. If any Mnssalman, being ea route, passes by their city and 
sojourns therein, they shall be compelled to defray his expenses 
dnring the three first days of his arrival. ^Hiey shall not apeak openly 
of Iheir religion; they shall not engage any one to embrace it, and 
shall not hinder their relatives from becoming Mussulmans-t 

These concessions, it is true, were often rendered illnsory by the 
transporte of a fanatical multitnde ; the Christians had to undergo 
a thousand insnlte, a thousand persecutions, the inevitable result of 
religions hatreds ; they became, in fact, in spite of the law, the prey 
and sport of the conquerors ; but it may be conceived that, in the 
origin, that spirit of tolerance with which the conquerors appeared 
animated must have singularly facilitated their progress. 

Under Abu-Bekr (632-634), Chaldea was conquered, Syria in- 
Tftded, the army of the Emperor of the East overcome ; Damascus 
opened it« gates to the victor. Three years after (63?), Omar, 
second Khalife, who took the title of Emir-ul-mcruminin, Commander 
of the Faithful, after having received the submission of Jerusalem, 
conquered Egypt. Othman, third Khalife, made the conquest of 
Persia (651), and the race of the Sassanides disappeared with the 
religion of the Magi ; he began also the conquest of Africa. The 
fourth Khalife was Ali (655). 

The Mahometans then divided themselves into two great sects, 
which still exist, hating each other as strongly as ever. The thiites 
regard the three first Khalifes as nsnrpers, and Ali as the true vicar 
- * {KbboD, " Fsll o( the RonikD Empire," rol. i. p. S3G. 

t Cbbt Funin, " Histoire de U RivsIJlf et da Frotectorat dn BgliuB Cbn^ieniic* 


14 THRKET OLD AND NSW. (ii.i». 881— 7il, 

of the prophet ; the twnnitee pretend tli&t aanctity hu regulated the 
order of Baccession, and that Ali ie inferior to his predeceesors. 
Moreover, the first are less attached than the second to predeatination, 
and, in admitting that the Koran has been created, believe that it 
is perfectible. The Turks of the present day are snnnites and the 
Persians shlitea. 

Notwithstanding the schism, the conqnests oontinned, and the 
Koran propagated itself with a marrelloas rapidity. Mesopotamia, 
Cilicia, the best part of Asia Minor, were sabjectod. In the year 32 
of the he^ra (6d4), the Arabs appeared nnder the walls of Constan. 
tioople. They retamed thither in 668, guided by an old companion 
of uie prophet, l^onb, an octogenarian, who died during the siege, 
and whose tomb the Turks discorered later on in one of the suborbs.* 
The cicy, asaaulted with fory, was only saved by the Greek fire 
invented for its defence. Bat the Mossalmane fell furioosly upon 
that prey which was promised them. Before the end of the first 
century of the hegira, the capital of the Greek Empire had already 
been foor times besieged, and it was only after twelve si^es and 
eight centnries of efForte that they suooeeded in gaining possession 
of it. 

£. The First Khalifei, the Ommiadet, and Ahbaetides. 

During the gh-rious period of the Fer/eet Khali/ate (as the Mns- 
Bulmans designated the reign of the four first Khalifes), the Mnssol- 
mans showed themselves worthy of the cause to which they had 
consecrated their arms ; they brought to the service of the God of 
Mahomet an indomitable courage and warlike virtues. That was the 
palmy time of Islamism. The Khalifes, elected by the whole of the 
faithful, subjected to the common law, having only the authority 
which they derived from the Koran, appear to us like the popular 
magistrates of ancient Rome. " Toa behold me charged with the 
care of governing yon," said Abon-Bekr on assuming the possession 
of power ; "if I do well, assist me ; if I do ill, set me up again in 
the right way. To speak the truth to a depositary of public autho- 
rity is an act of zeal and of devotion ; to conceal it from, him is a 
treason. Before me the weak man and the powerful man are equal ; 
I wonid render impartial justice to all. li I ever should deviate 
from the laws of God and his prophet, I shall cease to have the right 
to your obedience." 

The first chiefs of Islamism, faithful to the exantple of Mahomet^ 
lived with the greatest simplicity. The believers loved to see the 
prophet shear his sheep, or seated on the ground, mending with his 
own hand his woollen vestments and his shoes, lighting his fire, 
sweeping out his chamber, in order to be entiralv his own help- 
mate.f Abou-Bekr, who waa a merchant, continnea, during the mi 

* The Hosqng of ETOab, «li«mii tha BattMu now gird an the ivord of Omuui, ««■ 
ersctad otbt taia tomb. 

+ Aboalbdd, "Life of Hahomet," tnuwUtedbj Deirergtii, p. 65, 


t.*. 75t— rSi.] , THU riBST XHILIPEB. 16 

first moniha of his Ebalifate, to support bis family with the produce 
of hie commerce. Afterwards, he applied himeelf ezclneiTelj to 
State aS&irs, and drew daily from the public treasury that which 
was necessary for his wants. Before his death, be ordered a calou- 
lation to be made of the sums thus placed at his disposal. They 
amounted to eight thousand drachmas. " I bequeath to the Mnssuf- 
mans," sftid he, "the land that I posseas, as an indemnity for the 
expenses that I have occasioned them."* Omar, on quitting Medina, 
in order to receive the submission of Jerusalem, set forth in the most 
modest guise. Clad in a coarse garment, attended by one slave only, 
be mounted s camel laden with two sacks, the one containing barley, 
the other datee ; before him was a leather bottle filled with water, 
behind him a large wooden platter. 

In 661 the Perfect Khali/ate ceased, as well as the patriarchal 
bimplicity and the elective rule which characterized it. Moaviah, 
whose father, Abou-Sophian, had persecuted Mahomet, revolted 
against Ali, caused him to be assosBinated, took the title of Khalife, 
which he rendered hereditary in his family, and commenced the 
dynasty of the Beni-UmmahU or Ommiadea, which gave fourteen 
^halifes during ninety years. The empire of Islam then underwent 
a great change. The Ommiades placed reliance chiefly on the 
Syrians; Damascus became the capital of Islamism; the Arab 
element ceased to predominate ; the Khalifes adopted the manners 
of the conquered peoples ; the Mussulmans began to grow corrupt, 
lo despise the too severe practices enjoined by the Koran ; uumerouB 
sects were formed and sought to triumph by civil war, persecution, 
and assassination. Nevertheless, their conquests contiuned ) Northern 
Africa was subjected ; Carthage definitely destroyed ; the Empire of 
the East parcelled out on its frontiers ; the Koran overspread Khou< 
aresm, Bokhara, Sinde, &c. ; finally, before the end of the first 
century of the h^ra, Arab domination had attained its eitreme 
limits. It extended itself — in Africa, from the Isthmns of Suez 
to the Straits of Gibraltar ; in Europe, in the Iberian peninsula, and 
in the isles of the Meditetrauean ; in Asia, from the Bed Sea, from 
the coasts of Syria and the slopes of the Caucasus to the steppes of 
Turkestan, to the banks of the Indus and the Persian- Glulf. 

But the conquering march of Islam was about, for the first time, 
to find itself arrested by the band of a people destined to play a 
great part in the history of the MahommedAn empires, and whose 
glorious name had already reached the ears of the Arabs. 

With Islamism the struggle between the East and the West had 
recommenced, and the West, under the sahro of the votaries of the 
Koran, found itself already encroached upon. Masters of Spain, they 
soQght to penetrate into Gaul, to pass thence into Italy, and from 
Italy to Constantinople. The empire of the Ceesars, thus taken in 
reverse, might be easily destroyed. But, if the Romans no longer 
existed, there was then a people who appeared to have succeeded 
them in the domination of the West — the Franks. Aloue of all tba 
barbarians who had invaded the Roman Empiro, they had secured 
• '•'E»l)Mi,"iL 152. 



for themselTes a future in embracing CatboHcism, in defending tbe 
Latin Cbnrch, of whicli tbey called tbemselves the eldest sonB, in 
preBsrving amidst tbe wreck of the ancient civilization tbelr warlike 
and conqnering atrengtb. Their renown waa so great that alone it 
had already arrested an Arab army. In fact, at the fonrth siege 
that Constantinople underwent on the part of the Arabs, in 718, the 
Oreekg, seeing themselves lost, had spread a report that the domina- 
tora of the West were hastening with a fleet and an army for their 
deliverance, and npon that rumour the siege had been raised. How- 
ever, the Mnssnlmans entered Oani fall of pride and confidence ; bat 
they fonnd at Tonrs the Frankish hammer (Charles Martel) who 
crushed them, and the Asiatic invasion was for ever arrested by that 
liberating victory. They kept, nevertheless, one foot in Oaal ; they 
continued to dominate Spain ; they essayed to conquer Italy ; but 
everywhere, dnring a century, they encountered the sword of the 
Pranks, which drove them out of 0«n], thrust them back into Spain, 
restrained them in Italy. 

As a result of these events, the unity of the empire and of the 
religion of Mahomet was broken up. In 752 the dynasty of the 
Ommiadee was despoiled of the Ehalifete, and destroyed by the 
Aibasddes, descendants of the prophet's ancle. A single scion of 
the Ommiades escaped from the massacre of his &mily, sought 
refuge in Spain, and there founded at Cordova an independent 
Khali fate. 

With the Abbassides the empire of Islam took a new form ; the 
domination passed to the peoples of Khorassan and Chaldea; the 
seat of the empire was transferred to those plains which had seen the 
great empires of antiquity, at first to Eouffa, then to Bagdad, and 
there it remained during five hundred years ; the Koran, forgotten 
under the Ommiades, was restored to such honour that it was de- 
clared " nncreated " — that is to say, divine and immutable. Beligioua 
zeal was reborn ; bat, friend of the marvellous, it enveloped Islam 
and its fonnder with legends and miracles ; the Khalifes became 
absolate sovereigns, despotic, feared, and venerated, even to adora- 
tion ; the age of luxury, of light, and of Amb civilization commenced 
and produced, besides edifices of a perfect elegance, works in mathe- 
matics, philosophy, astronomy, and geography, which enlightened the 
world dorinff centuries. 

Among the Abbaeside Khalifes — tbe one who personifies for as that 
age BO remarkable in the history of the East — is Harons-al-Baechid, 
with whom we are acquainted especially, owing to his relations with 

The Franks, since the battle of Poitiers, had become for the 
Mussulmans, as they had already been for the Christians, the great 
people of the West. Islamiam knew Europe only under the name of 
Frangiitan or Frankiiian — the country of the Franks — a name which 
the Orientals had not yet ceased to give it. Pacific relations com- 
menced with the Arabs, and which had principally for objoct those 
Christians of Asia whom the Ceesars of Byzantium were henceforth 
incapable of defending. 


I.D. 78ft— 088.] TBE OBAGSIDI XBUirSB. 17 

Charlemagne filled the West with hie gloiT) when the Patriarch of 
Jernsalem claiiaed hie aid against the infidels who profaned the Holy 
Places. He wannlj responded to those complainte, sent large sams 
of money into Palestine to be applied to the restoration of the 
chnrches ; then he despatched an ambassador with presents to the 
Khalife Haronn, praying him to ]ook apon the Christians indnl- 
gentlj. The Khalife, who had need of the alliance of the Ceesar of 
the West against the schismatic Mussulmans of Spain, answered his 
letters by sending him the keys of the Holy Sepulchre, as a testi- 
mony that he abandoned the sovereignty of the places consecrated by 
the death of Christ. Then, says Eginhard, Charles took openly under 
his proteetion the Christians beyond seas. He caused an hospitinm 
to be built at Jerusalem for pilgrims, and even endowed it with a 
libraiy ; finally, ho concluded with Haroun commercial treaties, by 
which tariffs of duties were fixed and places of safety assigned for 
the Frank merchants in Egypt and Syria. These conventions were 
respected for at least fifty years ; for we find that in the ninth cen- 
tury the inhabitants of Lyons and Marseilles had, at Alexandria, 
factors who sent into Europe all the merchandise of Asia. A Frank 
bazaar was established at Jerusalem. Finallv, the troops of pilgrims 
who turned their faces annually towards tne Holy Places became 
veritable caravans of commerce. 

The era of the Abbassidea marks the end of the Arab conquests. 
Jslamism retired within its Eastern possessions, and at the same time 
the empire was dismembered into several independent s'ates — inde- 
pendent so far as the peoples newly converted to Islaniism restored 
to it its warlike and aggrosBiTe spirit. 

It has been already said that Spain had its Khalifate at Cordova. 
In the ninth century, Mauritania, under the Madratites ; Libra, under 
the Aglabites; Transoxiana, nfader the Samanides; the Eiiorassan, 
under the Taherides and afterwards under the Soffarides, formed 
separate states, scarcely acknowledging the religions sovereignty of 
the Khalifes of Bagdad. In the middle of the tenth century the 
greater part of Persia obeyed the Boujidea ; Georgia, Armenia, and 
Syria, were independent or only nominally subjected to the authority 
of the Prophet's vicars, and the letter had no longer any real power 
save at Bagdad, in Mesopotamia and in Arabia. The most considerable 
of these States was that of the Fatimites or descendants of Ali, who 
after having long sought to overthrow the Abbassides, reunited all 
the Shiites of northern Africa, and ended by conquering Egypt; 
they founded (968) at Cairo an independent Khalifate, which waged 
against that of Bagdad a furious war ; then they seized upon Syria 
and were acknowledged by a portion of Arabia. 

In that dismemberment the history of the Abbassides is merely a 
monstrous narrative of revolts, cruelties, battles, executions and 
barbarities of every kind; twenty -eight Khalifes perished by vio- 
lence. FinaUranew people appeared, who plaved a great part in the 
empire of the Akbassides, and who was destined one day to succeed to 
their inheritMice ; these were the Turks. 



•tarn SiLiDUSia n> thai or tbi OrTOMin. 

1, Origin of the Tarkt. — Decadence of t]ie Khalifate. 
Tee Tarka were probablr the primitive inhabitants of those coantriea 
comptised between the Cafipi&n Sea, the Altai Monntnina, the Onrals 
and Thibet, atill known at the present daj by the name of Tnrlcestin. 
Thence have emerged, at different epochs, the barbarian peoples who 
hare invaded the West — those devastating hordes of Mongol -Tartars, 
Kirgis, and Calmucks, nations of the same origin, which we confound 
under the general denomination of TartAra, and of which the Tnrk 
family appears to have been a considerable fraction. Probably the 
name of Tnrk has been, at certain epochs, a generic name Dom.mon 
to all those tribes. The Ottomans, to whom we apply it at the 
present time, repudiate it. They do not call themselves Tnrks, unless 
they apply the term to each other in dispar^ement, as denoting 
onconthnese or barbariem ; whilst they take pride in the name of 
Osmanli from the bygone splendour of that line, and although the 
family of their princes may be perhaps that which appears with the 
greatest certitnde to descend from the ancient inhabitants of Tarkes- 
tin, they will only commence their history at Othman, the illostrions 
founder of their dynasty. 

The Osmanli are a branch of the Turks in the larger meaning of 
the word. The Turks, a race distinguished from other nations by 
their language, cnstoms, and physical character, are now thinly spread 
over an immense extent of Asia, from the Desert of Gobi to the 
shores of the Mediterranean, and from the northern part of Siberia 
to the Persian Gulf. In some parts, aa in South Siberia, in Tnrkes- 
t&n, and in the greater part of Asia Minor, they form a compact 
population ; in others, as in Syria, Armenia, and Meaopotamia, they 
are much less nnmerous than the original inhabitants. In Europe, 
the Turkish population is compact in Boumelia, and in the govent- 
ment of Kazan, and some adjacent tracks in Eastern Russia. In. 
Africa there are only a few Osmanli Turks. 

According to an ancieut legend, Oghuz Khan, the son of Kar&- 
Ehan, a descendant of Turk, the common ancestor of all the Turks, 
was a mighty king in the time of Abrahaui. His kingdom was the 
conntiy called Turkestin, known to the Persians by the name of 
Tur^. The legend says that Oghuz had six sons. He sent them 
one day to the chase, as though in search of their future destiny. 
They brought back to him a bow and arrowa which they had found. 
The father gave the bow to the three eldest, and the three arrows to 
the youngest ; of the latter each took one, but the first three broke 
the bow, and each kept a piece of it. Oghai called the eldeat 



"BoBuk" (ihehreakerg), and tLejoangeBfUtachok" {the three arrowi)- 
Ho confided to the first the right wing, and to the others the left 
wing of hia annj. Under his BocceBsorG the kingdom was divided. 
Three kbanA, " the three airowB," ruled over the eastern Oghnzea, 
and extended their dominiona towards China; three other khaus, 
" the three breakers," were masters over the westera Oghuzes, aronnd 
the Oxns and the Jaxartes. The first of these " three breakers " was 
the "Khan of the Mountains;" he is the ancestor of the younger 
Ogkuzet, or that sept of the Oghnzes who preserved their name in 
later times, and of the Turkomans. The second waa the " Khan of 
the Sea," the ancestor of the Seljuit ; and the third was the " Ehan 
of the Heaven," the ancestor of the tribe Kavi, from which are 
descended the Otmanli. These three tribes nltimately embraced 
Isliunism, and played snoceasively an important part in the history of 
the MoBsnlman States.* 

The Eastern Turks (Olgourt) spread themselves through the 
steppes, where they are still cantoned. Conquered by Zinghis- 
Ehan, they bore, in the Middle Ages, the names of Usbegs, io memory 
of a chief of the family of the Mogal conqueror ; but TJabegs or 
Qigours, and although separated from their Western brothers by the 
whole extent of Persia, they have always remained in relations of 
alliance with them against their common enemies, the Persians; they 
spesk even yet a langnage that is recognized as being of the same 
family as the dialect of the Ottomans, and which the latter call the 
Old Turkith. 

The Western Turks occnpy the portions of Turkeat&n nearest the 
bordeni of Persia and the Caspian Sea ; they gave birth to three 
principal tribes : the Oghitze», the Seljukidea, and the Ottomant, 
whose chiefs claimed direct descent from the three eldest sons of 
Oghua, from the three khans of " the right wing." 

All the Turkish tribes who have enacted a conspicuous part in 
history embraced at on early period the Mahommed&u religion ; their 
dialects have in consequence been more or less modified by an admix- 
ture of Persian and Arabic, and their historical traditions are those 
common to all Moslems. 

Zieaving, however, the other Turkish tribes to divide and difEnse 
themsblves, some into Tnrkest^, to which they gave their name, 
others along the shore of the Caspian Sea and the valleys of Armenia, 
wo shall restrict this history mainly to that branch of those Tnrks 
who, after having adopted Islamism and traversed Syria, conqnered 
stop by step Asia Minor, and ultimately founded tJie Ottoman Empire. 

Before tracing the rapid rise to power of that conquering race, it 
may be well to preface the narrative by a brief retrospect o( that 
portion of the Christian era which preceded the birth of the rival 
fiiith of Islamism, with a glance at its early progress and gradual 
extension during three centuries following upon the death of the 

* To cub of the lii hein of Oghoi Uie I^«nd g^vei torn kobu, vho becams ths chi«{i 
of twcnty-foDT Xniluli tribo. " Von Hamoier," torn. i. {-. 7. 

c 2 



The Roman Empire Rt its greatest extent, during the age nf the 
Antoninea (a.d. 96 — IciO), may be said to have takeo in all the old 
world within the Rhine, the Daonbe, the Tigris, and Euphrates, and 
the great desert of Africa. Behind the Rhine and the Danube were 
the Franks, the Germane and the OoChs, and other Teatonic tribes, 
■who were destined to overthrow the fabric of the Roman Empire in 
Enrope ; and behind the Tigris and Euphrates were the Parthiana 
and Persians, the great rivals of Rome in Asia. Three centnries 
more (a.D. 4-76), and Odoacer, the 'King of the Kemli, had taken 
Rome, and the fall of the Western Empire was completed. Bnt 
Rome still ruled the Eastern Empire from Constantinople, and Rome 
and Persia still contended along the border lands of the Tigris and 
Euphrates for the supremacy of Asia, where the memory of their 
rivaliy lingers in the spell which the mighty names tremendiE majeg- 
tatis of Cfesar and of Chosroos yet, after twelve centuries, exercise 
over the tranced nations of the East. 

It was at the commencoment of the seventh century that the tribe 
and family of Mahomet obtained the sovereignty of Mecca, and the 
guardianship of the Caaba, and a series of events was set in motion 
in the heart of Arabia which was to result in a succession of the 
most stupendous religious and political revolutions the world haa 
ever witnessed. Within one handred years from the death of 
Mahomet every nation and tribe of the old Ronum and Persian 
world, from India and the confines of China to France and Spain, 
was almost simultaneously assailed by the Saracen Arabs. The 
empire of Chostroes fell at a blow. Syria, Egypt, and all the Greek 
possessions in Asia and Africa were subjugated almost aa rapidly. 
For a thousand years, from the fii-st Arab irruption in 664, until 
Baber founded the Mongol Empire of Delhi in 1526, and which 
lasted, in form at least, to 1857, the history of India is chiefly occu- 
pied with the struggles of the Hindoo races against their Mahom- 
medan conquerors of various tribes. In the thirteenth century the 
Golden Horde under Baton, a grandson of Zinghis-Kban, overran 
and barbarized Russia. And two centuries later, when the Moora 
were being driven out of Spain, after it had been held for 700 years 
by the Saracens and Moors, the imperial rule of the Ottoman Turks 
was, on the final rnin of the Eastern Empire, permanently estab- 
lished in Constantinople. When the second Chosroes, at the height 
of his power and glory, was contemplating with pride the great 
Artemita which he had built, and all its fabulous treasures, he 
received a letter from Mahomet, then an obscure citizen of Mecca, 
despised and rejected of his own family and his fellow-townsmen, 
bidding the Persian king of kings acknowledge him as the Prophet 
of God. Chosroes tore the letter in pieces. " It is thus," exclaimed 
Mahomet, when it was told him, "that God will rend his kingdom, 
and reject his supplications." Eight centuries before his prophetic 
vision was fulfilled, ha looked forward to the fall of Constantinople 
as the secular triumph of Islam. The faithful were never to rest 
nntil it was gained, and he promised the absolution of all their sins 




1.11.733—833.] DECADCHCB OP THB XHALIFATE. 21 

to tlie first army of Iuh followers which aliould enter the city of the 
Ctesara and the metropolis of Christiamty. For a thoa&and years, 
indeed, it was a life and death simple between Christendom and 
Islam for the mastery of Europe. When the empire of the Saracens 
WAS destroyed at Ba^ad by the Uongola, and at Cordova by the 
Moors, the hordes of Mongulo, Tarks, and Moors continaed the 
Ma)ioininedan attacks on Europe, as they continaed and extended 
them in Asia. 

We will now retnm for an instant to that period of Mahommedan 
history which is embraced by the Khalifate of Bagdad, Bnbseqneat 
to the rise of the Abbasside dynasty (the descendants of Abbes, 
Afahoioet's nncle), daring which the fatal policy of embodying the 
naclens of a etanding army of T- rkish mercenaries, and their con- 
version to Islamifim, was the signal of the overthrow of the Kmpire 
of the Arabs and the Khalifate. Long befoi'e thin, however — 
between a.d. 499 and 678 — Bnccessive hordes of those barbarians had 
passed from Central Asia across the Yot^ into Europe, where they 
effected a permanent settlement between the Danube and the Balkan 
mountains. These were the Volgarians or Bnlgars. Bnt the Tarks, 
who took possession of the dominions of the Eastern Khalifate and 
EsKtem Empire, came into Syria and Asia Minor across the Ozus 
and Jazartes. One of these Turks was Scljnk, the founder of the 
second of the great Turkish dynasties' of Persia, and ever since his 
days the Turks — first the Seljukides and then the Ottomans — have 
ruled in Western Asia, and the Indian Mongols traced their ancestry 
to the same imperial race. 

The usurpation of the Omm'iades and that of the Fatimites tore 
away from the Abbassides all the Western provinces of their empire. 
They were able to retain only their Asiatic possessions. Almanzor, 
the founder of Bagdad, Haronn-AI-Rnschid, and Al-Mamoun, are 
the three great names of the Eastern Khalifate. 

Tba Khalife Motsssem, third son of Haroan-AI-Raschid, and 
twenty-seventh Khalife, who died in 842, had remarked the decline 
of enthusiasm, the falling ofl in the courage and even of the bodily 
strength of his subjects, from the time that all noble objects had 
ceased to be presented to their ambition or their activity. As men- 
tioned above, Uotassem, in order to supply the want of the military 
element, sent to TurkestAu to purchase young slaves bred in the 
mountain region of the Caucasus, whom he trained to the profession 
of anns, and formed into a body-gnard, to which he entrusted the 
protection of his palace. These troops soon became numerous and 
formidable. Their strength and courage distinguished them among 
a people grown effeminate by luxurj- ; and that jcaloosj of disaffec- 
tion among his native Bnbjecta so nutura! to an Eastern monarch, 
might be an additional motive with the Khalife Motassem to form 
bodies of guards out of these Turkish marcenarius. But his policy 
vaa fatally erroneous. More rude and even more ferocious than tho 
Arabs, they despised the feebleness of the Khalifate, whilst they 
grasped at its riches. The rivalry which existed between them and 


22 TUKXIT OLt> AKD NXW. [j.d. 839—910. 

the Syri&vs eSectnally disgOBted the latter -with the military career, 
and the Turks were soon the only soldiers of the Khalifes. The 
slavery in which they had boen reared rendered them leas faithfn], 
without being more sabmissive or obedient. ITrom this time most of 
the revolutions of Syria were their work. They hurled from the 
throne, or they assassinated, those Khalifes who were not the obse- 
qnions tools of their insolence and rapacity. As early as 862 (248 of 
the hegira) it made a Kbalife, deposed him, iiomiiiat«d a snccessor to 
him, and deposed him in his tnm ; four enoceeding thus in the spaiie 
of eight years. The power of ihis miUtia became anch that, in 879, 
a Turkish chief, Ahmed, son of Tholon, rendered himself indepen- 
dent in Egypt, where three of his descendants reigned after liim. 
Thos, in about one hundred years after the introduction of the 
Turkish soldiers, the soyereigns of Bagdad had sunk almost into 
oblivion. At length, an imbecile Khalife, Al Bhadi, the twentieth 
of the Abbassides and thirty-ninth of the snccesHora of Mahomet, 
who died in 940, was the last of these that officiated in the mosque ; 
that commanded the forces in person ; that addressed the people f ronx 
the pulpit ; that enjoyed the pomp and splendour of royalty — the 
last who deserved the title of Commander of the Faithful.* Four 
years previons to his death the Turkish guards elected a chief of 
their own body, whom they called Emir al Omara (or Chief of 
Chiefs, Imperator Imperatorum), This officer, who superseded the 
functions of vizier, was henceforward the true Kovereign of the State. 
He alone disposed of the treasure, the troops, the otfices of power or 
dignity ; he kept the Khalife a prisoner in hie own palace, reducing 
him to that life of poverty, penitence, and prayer which the early 
Buccessors of Mahomet had imposed on themselves by choice. Nor 
did he even scruple to take his life if there was any caprice of the 
Chief or of the soldiers which the Commander of the Faithful found 
it impossible to g^at^^f. The Emir al Omara of Bagdad has some- 
tiroes been compared to the Maire du Palais, who was the virtual 
ruler of France under the kings of the first race. The origin of the 
power of the two officers was, however, very different, and its abuse 
was more violent and more cruel on the part of the Turk than on 
that of the Austrasian ; though the thraldom of the leintimat« 
sovereign to his minister presents some features of resemblance. The 
Turkish Emirs governed, in fact, in the name of the Khalifes ; but 
their dignity became the object of so much hankering ambition, of 
BO many calamities, that the inhabitants of Bagdad summoned the 
Boujides of Persia to their deliverance. The Turks were driven out, 
and the dignity of Emir al Omara passed to the Boujides, who 
kept it during a century: the Khalifes had only changed their 

In the early years of the following century other Turkish hordes 
made their appearance; some seized upon Bokhara at the expense of 
the Persian dynasty of the Samanides ; others possessed themselves 

* Abalfeda, p, 291. Gibbon, chap. 52. 

DoizedbvGoogle MO— 1071.] DBCiDSNOI 0? THE KHALITATB. 28 

of Persia and India, and founded the dynaatj of the Ohiznevidea, 
which lasted from 960 to 1189. 

Of the three great Tartar peoples, the Huns, the Mongols, and the 
Tnrks, who have spread their devaatatiooa and dominioD over the 
lai^^et and most papnloas portion of the civilized world, the last 
alone have retained ezisteace as an independent people. Their first 
appearance in Persian history in the early part of the eleventh cen- 
tury exhibits them, as one of the most nnmeraiis and formidable of 
the pastoral nations. When that mighty destroyer, Mahmud of 
Qhizni, had, by his twelve fanatical expeditions to Uindoetan, ex- 
haoBted the energies of his people, the reported bravery and numbers 
of the Tarka who roved over the wastes of Bokhara alarmed the 
caatioD of his declining years. Under the guise of friendship he 
asked a Turkish envoy what assistance his tribe conld aSord him in 
case of attack. " Send this," said the Turk, holding forth an arrow, 
"and fifty thousand horsemen will repair to your standard; add 
another from my qniver, and the number will be doubled ; if you 
beed further aid, despatch my bow through our tribes, and two 
hundred thousand mounted warriors will obey the summons." 
Uahmud listened to the answer with deep alarm, but the storm of 
invasion was averted until his death ; after which his son Massoud 
was ntteily defeated at Zendecan, in Khorassan, by Togrul Beg, the 
Turkish chief, and this decisive action shattered into fragments the 
coloasal empire of the Qbiznevides. The descendants of Bnyab, the 
BoDJides or Bowides as they are named, had put an end to the 
capricious and brutal tyranny then exereised over the Khalifes by the 
Turkish guards," and under the title of Kmir al Omara, which th^ 
retained during a century, ruled Persia until they themselves sank 
beneath the power of the &hizucvideB. The Turkish prince, as a 
consequence of hie victory, enjoyed the high consideration resulting 
from the custody of the Khalife, and the possession of Bagdad. 
Togml Beg, the grandson of Seljuk, Emir of TurkestSn, commenced 
the prosperity of the Seljukides, nho wereabout to absorb the other 
tribes, and dominate all the East. After having conquered the 
Ghiznevides and driven them into India, he entered Khorassan, 
which belonged to the Boujides, overthrew and took prisoner the 
chief of that family, who commanded the army of the Khalife. 
That victory opened to the grandson of Seljuk the way to Bagdad ; 
he entered therein without opposition, compelled the Abbasside prince 
to confer upon him the title of Sultan, and wrested him from the 
guardianship of the Boujides to impose his own. Besasiri, the head 
of the fallen family, revolted, and summoned to Bagdad the Fati- 
mito Khalife of Egypt, but he was overthrown and put to death. 
Togrul Beg received the title of Emir al Ooiara, and reigned from 
Bokhara to Syria, from the vicinity of the Indue to the Black 8ea, 
in the name of the monarch whom he had reinstiitcd ; and at his 
death, in his seventieth year, bequeathed the vast empire which he 

* frioe, ii. 156 ; Hilojlm, i. 167 ; D'Bcrbelot. 


24 TUBXE? OLD AND ITEW. [a.D. 107L 

had conquered to his nephew Alp Arslan (the rohtut lion). That 
great prince reined withont a rival among the Mahommedane, sa 
the Fatimito Kbalifee of Egypt, happy to maintain their indepen- 
dence, BOJght by obaequiona mieaiona the friendship of the warlike 
potentate whose doable sway, as ruler of the Easb and West, was 
denoted by the formidable aymbol of a scimitar girt on each thigh. 
From this epoch the Khalifes were mere nonentities ; they posaeased 
only the honorary pnntifical authority ; the trne mast«rB of the empire 
were the Seljukian saltans. B«cent converts to Islamism, they ex. 
hibited the ferocions ardour of the first disciples of Uahomet, and 
dreamed only of wars and conqnests. 

Alp Arslan had, in his victorions career, crossed the Euphrates, 
seized npon Csesaria and Cappadocia, aabjngated Armenia and 
Georgia, and advanoed into the heart of Phrygia. The Byzantine 
Emperor, Ceesar Bomanns Diogenes, encouraged by the success of 
three campaigns, in which he slanghtered or dispersed the numerous 
armies led against him by the feudatories or generals of Alp Arslan, 
advanced adventurously at the head of 100,000 men to the confines 
of Media. Alp Arslan, leading 40,000 cavalry, hastened to chastise 
the invader ; but a near view of the strength of his enemy suggested 
moderation. A^en his overtures of peace were met by an insulting 
demand that he should surrender his capital as the pledge of his 
sincerity, the Turkish Sultan arrayed his squadrons on the plain of 
Konogo, with his own hands equipped his charger, clothed himself 
iu his shroud, and having perfumed his body with mask according to 
the custom of Mahommedan burial, declared his determination if 
defeated to find a grave on the field of battle. The event was such 
as had beea usna) whenever infantry met on open ground the cavalry 
of the Asiatic plains. The rapid evolutions of the Turkish horse- 
men evaded the onset of the Greeks, whose dense columns were ex- 
posed, without hope of retaliation, to the carnage inflicted by the 
skilful archery of their enemies. Komanns, at the close of a long 
and hard-fought day, in which he had exhibited admirable valour 
and presence of mind, found himself left almost alone amidst hia 
enemies by the fall or flight of his troops, Ue was disarmed and led 
to the presence of Alp Arslan, who, in the first ungenerous exulta- 
tion of triumph, is related to have set his foot on the neck of the 
Emperor. This was but a momentary impulse ; he afterwards treated 
Bomanus with considerable kindness, released him on promise of a 
ransom of a million pieces of gold, and was preparing to assist him 
in the recovery of his throne, when he received information that the 
' unfortunate monarch had been pnt to death by bis subjects. 

The attention of the Seljnkian saltans was so much engrossed by 
the conquest of the r^one of the south, that Bokhara, their original 
country, had escaped from their dominion, and Alp Arslan was on 
his march to invade it with 200,000 men, when he fell by the hand 
of an assassin. A Karismian chief had opposed hia advance, and 
being made prisoner, was sentenced to a lingering death. On hearing 
that he was to be fastened to four stakes and left to perish, the des- 


*.». 1072— 109S.] DKCADSNCB OF THE KHALIFATH. 1t& 

perate victim, dra-ning' a dagger, raslied headlong towards tha 
throne ; and the Sultan, disdaining to let hie guards interfere, bent 
his bow, bat hia foot slipping, the arrow glanced harmlesaly, and he 
received in his breaat the dagger of the Kariamian, who was imme- 
diately cat to pieces. The monarch, mortally wonnded, had time to 
utter thia djing admonition : " In mj yontli," he aaid, " I was 
adriaed by a sage to hamble myself before God ; to diati'Dst my own 
Btrength ; and never to deapiae the moat contemptible foe. I hava 
neglected these leasona, and my neglect has been deservedly panished. 
Yesterday, as from an eminence, I beheld the numbers, the disci- 
pline, and the spirit of my armiea; the earth aeemed to tremble 
nnder my feet ; and I said in my heart, ' Snrely thon art the king of 
the world, the greateat and moat invincible of wairiora.' Theae 
armiee are no longer mine, and in the conBdence of my peraonal 
strength, I now fall by the hand of an asaaeain." On his tomb was 

£ laced an inscription conceived in a similar spirit : " O ! ye who 
ave seen the glory of Alp Arslan exalted to the skies, repair to 
Mam, and yon will behold it baried in the dast ! " 

The empire of the Seljukian Tnrka attained its' greatest aplen- 
donr and power in the reign of hia son and saccessor, Malek Shah 
(1072-1092). That empire then extended from the Caspian Sea to 
the Mediterranean : it comprehended the Khorassan, Persian Irak, 
the poseeaaions of the Khalifes, Syria and Palestine, wrested from 
the Fatimites, and the greatest part of Asia Minor ; it touched on 
the Bosphorus. Aided by his vizier, Kisamul-Mntk, tht* Sultan 
fostered letters and arts, and founded a great number of achoola. 
Hia alliance was aought by the Khan of the Oghuzes, who equally 
advanced the prosperity of Mussnlman civilization beyond the Oxns; 
the two chiefa were linked together by marri^ea and the two racea 

After that brilliant reign, the Empire of the Seljukian Tnrka fell 
to piecee as rapidly as it had riaen. The three sons of Malek Shah 
diaputed amongat themselves and divided his inheritance, and thus 
several independent sultanriea were formed, of which the principal 
were : that of Iran or Persia, that of Aleppo or Syria, and that of 
Asia Minor, besides a host of principalities in which the emira and 
the atabel-g (governors) ign<jred the authority of the sona of Seljnk, 
Thus it was a of Malek Shah, Soliman, who achieved the 
conquest of Asia Minor over the Greeks, leaving to the Emperor of 
Bytantium only Trebizonde and some other ports. Two Greek com- 
petitors for the Byzantine throne Bought the aasistance Of their 
common foe. Soliman formed an alliance with one of them, helped 
to set him on the throne of Constantinople, and then rewarded him- 
self by taking possession of the Greek provinces of Asia. By the 
choice of the Snlton, Nice, in Bithynia, was prepared for his palace 
»nd fortress. On the hard conditions of tribute and servitude, the 
Oreek Christians might retain the exercise of their religion ; but 
their chnrcbes were profaned, their prieatB insulted, and every means 
adopted to itwnp the profeaeion of Christianity with marks of igno. 


26 TDRKBT OLD i.KD KBW. [m. 107<— 109A 

miiiy. Soliman, by his Hahommedan zenl, earned the' title of Oaii, 
the Holy Champion. 

Attempting to free himself tnjm the BQzerainty of the Seljnkides, 
Soliman was conquered and slain (1085). His sons. David and 
Kilidje-Arslan, nltimatelj established thomselvea in Asia Minor, and 
thertd founded (1095) at Kooiah (Iconinm), in Cappadocia, an inde- 
pendent Btate, the Snltanry of Konm or of Iconinm, which became 
so celebrated in tbe historj of the Crusades. The Saltanrj of Syria 
was divided into two others : that of Aleppo and that of Damascus. 
In the sequel the Fatimites profited by all these troubles to renew 
their attacKs upon Palestine. 

Snch ^'as the situation of Western Asia when the struggle 
between the East and the West was recommenced by the Crusades. 
Bat it does not belong to onr subject to follow in detail the course of 
those famoQB wars. It will be snfficient to add that, after the annexa- 
tion of Asia Minor, the Turks directed their arms against tbe Holy 
Land, at that time in the hands of Saracen emirs, appointed by the 
Khalife of Egypt. The fierce Turks proved irresistible, and in 1076 
Jerusalem fell into their savage hands. Under the Khalifes, the 
Christians of Jernsalem had been allowed to meet for religions 
worship. Crowds of pilgrims, even from remote parte of Europe, 
had been accnstomed to visit the Holy Sepnlchre and other places 
sacred to Christians. Bat now they wore abandoned to the crnel 
treatment of a host of barbarian Turkomans. The Patriarch of 
Jernsalem was dragged by the hair along the pavement, and cast into 
a dungeon, to extort a ransom from his Christian flock. Outrages 
snch as these were of frequent occurrence, and provoked that spirit 
of religions fervour which hurst forth into the flame of those holy 
wars known as the Crnsades. 

Three years before the Crusaders reached Jerusalem, the Turks in 
that city were overthrown by the Saracens of Egypt (1096), and 
then the Khalife of Cairo resumed the sovereignty of the Holy 

2. Invasion of the Mongolt. 
At the commencement of the thirteenth century, Islamism was 
master, almost without division, of all Western Asia; but, seeing 
that the Fatimites were no longer looked upon save as conquered 
heretics and reduced to impotence, it was, without assault, delivered 
np to anarchy, divided into a mnltitnde of sects, shared by several 
hostile states. The Khalifate of Bagdad was nothing more than a 
name. The Saltanry of Iconinm, composed of innumerable small 
principalities, was abont to be carried away in the tirst tempest 
The Snltanry of Cairo had fallen into the hands of an energetic 
man, Malek-Adhel, who bad reunited under his domination the 
inheritances of the sons of Saladin, the valorons Soltan of Egypt 
and chivalrooB foe of Richard Cteur de Lion. But, after his deaui, 
his empire was divided amongst his sons* Malek-Kamel, who had 


«.», 120S— 126S.] INViSlON OF MONGOLS. 27 

Egypt in his poesesBioD, repnlsed a new cmBado— the fifth — led by 
Frunch and German nobles (1221) ; he had for BucceBsor Malek- 
Sahel, of whom we tihall epeak hereafter. Finally, he formed in 
TnrkeBtJii, the Khorassan, and Peraiftn Irak, a new empire, which 
datea from 1227, that of th& Karismians, who renewed too domina- 
tion of the Ghiznevidea and threatened with destrnction the Khali- 
fate of Bagdad. 

Soch was the aitnation of Western Asia, when it was destined to 
be overthrown by new invaders, in whose shadow were about to 
appear the reBtorera of Islamism — the Ottoman Turks. 

From the same localities whence had set ont, in the fonrth centniy, 
that Hnnnieh invasion which threw barbarian Enrope upon Roman 
Knrope, mshed forth in the thirteenth century a like invasion, that 
of the Mongols. Of the great Tartar familj, they had retained all 
their primitive barbarity, the ardonr for pillage, their savage thirst 
for blood and war. Scattered over the Steppes of Northern Asia, 
the Mongolian hordes had lived there lazily, some even tribntaries to 
the Chinese empire, until Zinghis-£ban, chief of one of them, 
nnited all of them under his aathority (1203), and resolved to lead 
them to the conquest of the world. After having subdued Tartary, 
the north of China and India, he directed his march towards the 
west, and encountered the empire of the Karismiana. That empire 
was overthrown. Zinghis died in 122?. Under his son, Octa'i- 
Khan, the Karismians, conquered and driven back by the Mongiils, 
threw themselves upon Svria, ravaged it, seized apon Jerusalem, and 
massacred all the inhabitants (1244). The Sultan of Cairo, Malek- 
el-Sahel, made an alliance with them. The Christians, uniting with 
the Sultan of Damascus, gave battle to the Kai-isniiaiis, and were 
completely defeated. The Christian colonies seemed lost, when the 
£arismians engaged in a struggle with the Sultan of Cairo, and 
were destroyed in two battles. Syria fell again nnder the domination 
of the Sultan of Egypt. 

It was under these circumstances that Louis IX., King of France, 
attempted to restore French power in the East by a new crasade. 
That cmsade of Saint Louis brought about a fresh revolution in the 
Snllanry of Cairo, the consequences of which have made themselves 
felt even down to our own times. 

The Sultan, Nedj-Eddjn, had formed a formidable force of cavalry, 
with slaves purchased in Circassia, and who were called Maineliikei. 
This militia, reaembling that which the Khalifes had already em- 
bodied, speedily succeeded in dominating its maetent. Nedj-hddjn 
having died during the battles fought with the Crusaders, the chief 
of the Mamelukes, Bibars, seized upon power, massacred the last 
Ayoubite (descendant of Ayonb), and thua founded a domination 
(12l>8) destined to last until the commencement of the nineteenth 



3. Sequel of the Mongol ConquetU — Dettrveiion of the Kkalifate of 
Bagdad — Summary of the Six Preceding Centuriet. 

Me&nwhile the Mongols continued their conqnests, and their 
empire, at the end of the thirteenth ceiitnry, extended from the 
eutern extremities of Asia to the shores of the Knphmtes and the 
Caspian. Under Galonk, ftrandson of Zinghis, thej passed into the 
vast steppes which stretch to the north of the Caspian, subdued the 
Kaptschak (between the Ocral, the Voljja, and the Don), effected 
the conquest of Russia, devastated Poland, Silesia, Moravia, and 
penetrated tm far as Hungary. They bnrned the towns, massacred 
the popalationn, and rained everything in their devastating march. 
They seemed to have assumed the task, not of making for themselves 
a great empire, but of annihilating all civilization, all settled insti* 
tntions, even the human race itself. Several millions of men perished 
in these gii^antic invasions. 

However, as the Mongols seemed chiefly enraged (^ninst the 
Mabommedan peoples — as they had passed near to the Holy Land 
without assailing it — as it waa known that there existed in the 
centre of Africa, eince the sixth century, certain Christian colonies, 
and, amongst others, those said to be governed by the fabulous 
Prester-John, with whom the Mongols had amicable relations — it 
was thought in Europe that it would be possible to convert those 
idolatrous conquerors to the Christian religion, and to turn their 
arms to the entire destruction of Islamism. This was the object o£ 
several embassies which were sent by the Popes to the Mongol 
Khans, and especially of that despatched by Ssint Louis in 1263, 
under the charge of the Franciscan Bubruquis, with several other 
monks. It was asserted that the great Khan Mangon, fourth suc- 
cessor of Zinghis, had just been convert«d to Christianity by the 
prayers and entreaties of the King of Armenia. Mangon accorded 
a friendly welcome to the envoys of the French king; but that 
embassy, say the learned authors of I'Art de Verijier let Dates, was a 
perpetual misunderstaoding, through the ambassadors speaking Latin, 
and the Tartars replying in their own language. 

At that epoch Mangon was occupied with destroying the sect of 
the Batkeniens or At»a-uiii4. This was a fanatical and mysterioua 
association, sprung out of Islamism, and which had taken birth a 
short time before the Crasades. Its prophet Hassan, alike an enemy 
of the Mussulmans and of the Christians, had assumed the mission 
of redressing all wrongs and every species of crime, by sending his 
followers to assassinate him whom he marked out to perish by their 
daggers. This association made the western princes tremble durinir 
two centuries. Its chief, known by Europeans under the name^S 
the Old Man of the Mountain, dwelt in the mountains of Persian 
Ii-ak; hie adherents, scattt>red throughout Western Asia, executed 
blindly his sanguinary commands, and immolated all those of whom 
the association had to complain. Three Khalifes were slain in this 



b, Google 

KH. 1253— 125S.] DSSTBUCriON OF THE KBALtFATB. 29 

maimer, as well as Beveral heroes of the Cmsadee; finally, they 
pooseseed, all over Syria, fortified posta, whence they pillaf^d the 
rosda and caravans. The Mongols tracked them to their retreats, 
and their last chief came to enrrender himeelf into the hands of 

The latter had required for that expedition the aid of the Kbalife 
of Bagdad ; he avenged himself for his refusal bji sending his 
brother Honlagon against the capital of Islamiam. Honlaeon took 
the cit^ by assault, sacked it during seven days, aod obtained from it 
a prodigious treasure. As for the Khalife, Mostasem, the fifty-sixth 
since Abon-Bekr, and the thirty- seventh Abbasside, he was pat to 
death with all his family (1253), and it was thus that the race and 
the empire of the Abhaasides terminated. 

At toe same time, another lieatenant of the Khan had advanced 
into Asia Minor, and had snbjected all as far as the Bosphoms. The 
Seljakides of Iconinm retained, nevertheless, during three genera- 
tions the vain title of Saltans, nnder the domination of the Mongols ; 
the last-, as we shall see, was overthrown in 1307. After Mangon- 
Ehan, the gigantic empire of the Mongols was divided : whilst one 
^nasty es^blished itself in China, another branch of the family of 
Zinghis reigned over Persia and Western Asia; but this latter 
empire obtained no consistency : all its strength was employed in 
disputing nnfortnnately enongh with the Saltans of E!gypt for the 
possession of Syria. Little remains to record of them, save that 
these Tartars reigned only over rnins ; they had remained at the 
end of a centnijus ignorant and as harharons as in the time of 
Zinghis-Khan. Their chiefs protected alternately Mahommedanistn, 
Christianity, and Judaism ; they wavered always between those 
rival religions, and adopted none of them definitively. Rather 
encamped than established in the provinces which thny had rendered 
almost deserts, they did not attempt to govern them. All their 
action was speedily concentrated on Persia, where they dwelt, and 

Jin the neighbonring provinces ; the furthest away from the centre 
their domination were abandoned to the ravages of wandering 
hordes ; on all sides the Governors became independent, old Mnssnl- 
man emirs attempted to form there regular states ; and it was thns 
that amidst that anarchy grew up imperceptibly the Ottoman power. 
Before entering into the history properly so-called of the Otto- 
mans, it is necessary to cast a retrospective glance over the six 
centuries which have been just cursorily traversed. At the outset, 
the first sentiment experienced is one of terror mingled with disgust 
at the course of those empires that are formed, that succeed and 
overthrow one another with such startling facility ; thoso wars, 
those battles, those massacres innumeiable ; that frightful waste of 
human life, in which mankind seems entirely the sport of the genius 
of evil; that violent confusion of events without profit, without 
sequence or result, might give rise to the belief that Tslomiem has 
only produced ruius and only reigned over corpses. But if to that 
religion of the sword, of war, and of cnnqnest, mnst be attributed 


so TUKEET OLD AND ITEW. [a.Ii. 832— 12S1. 

a large portion of those great calamities, it mofit not be forgotten 
tbat the countries which were the theatre of them are those in which 
TerolntioTiB were the moet freqaent, empires tile most ephemeral, 
Gonqnesta the most faoile ; the conntrieB in which^before the Omars, 
the Sftladins, the Zinghis- Khans — -the SeBostrisea, the Cjmses, and 
the Alexanders, made at a rash for themselves vast dominations and 
a sanguinary renown. It is the country in which the peoples 
allowed themselves recklessly to be subjugated, in which they 
changed masters like so many flocks of sheep, in which they 
stretched forwards the neck to the headsman alike without a regret 
and without a murmur. 

The cause of all this evQ therefore is less in the institutions than 
in the men. The Koran has not produced it ; it has only continued 
it; but it would be absolutely nnjust to forget that it has done other 
than evil, that the history of civiliEation owes to it one of its fairest 
{Mges, that Arab genius has opened new pnths to the human mind, 
and continned the intellectual work of the Q-reeke and Bomans. It 
has produced a vast and marvellons literature, works in mathematics 
and philosophy which have made their benevolent action felt over 
the whole of Europe, of precious inventions in the arts, of profitable 
induBtries, of edifices that are the placid, elegant, voluptuous trans- 
lation of the doctrines happily interpreted of Islamism; a special 
architecture that has emanated from the Koran, aa Qothic architecture 
has from the Gospel. 

After this rapid mention of empires spmng from Islamism, we 
proceed to narrate the history of tne last heir of those empires, of 
that one which, after having so long menaced Christian Europe, 
has lately been making vain efforts to regenerate itself by Western 

Tai OTTavAH Tcau to thi Enas of AiiuaATn I. (I281-1SS0). 
I. Origin of the OitomMHi. — Orthoguel. 
NoTHiNd could seem a more dead survival than the long snccession 
of Abbasuide Khalifes; but when their claims were passed on to the 
Ottoman Sultana, the successor of the Prophet became a terrible 

At the epoch when Zinghis, by overthrowing the Empire of the 
Karismians, opened Western Asia to the invasion of the peoples of 
the East, Soliman-Shah, son of Kaialp, chief of a tribe of Oghnz 
Turks scattered through the Khorassan, swept by tho tide of Mongol 
invasion, qnitted that land with 50,000 of his countrymen, and 
established himself in Armenia, in the environs of Grz-Ingbian, 


JUD. 1331—1288.] OBIOm OF THE OTIOMANS. 31 

npon tbe Euphrates. Some jew afterwards, regretting its native 
soil, the horde retraced its steps thither; hat in attempting to cross 
the Enphrates, near the stronghold of Djaber, its chief was drowned 
(1231). His tomb is still to he seen on the river's hank, and is 
known hj the name of Turk-Mexari (the Tark's tomb). The families 
that had been under his leadership dispersi'd ; one portion, <Aith his 
two eldest sons, returned into Kborassan ; the rest, with his two 
joanger sons, Dnndar and Orthognel (or Ertbogml), and who were 
to the nnmber of 400 families, wandered for some time in the valley 
of the Upper Araxes and npon the plains of Erzeronm, towards the 
eonrcea of the Euphrates, sojourning during snmmer upon the 
heights, and descending in winter to the plains, according to the 
custom of nomad races. Orthofrael soon advanced further to the 
West ; and whilst ionmeying with his tribe upon the frontiers of 
the Seljakians of Sonm, he came npon two armies contending for 
the mastery in the plainn Without Knowing whom the combatants 
were, he resolved to aid the weakest o^inst the strongest party, and 
his valonr decided the fortune of the day. The conquered were the 
Moi^ols, and the conqneror, Alaeddin, the Seljnkide Snltan, who, in 
recognition of the timely snccour he had received from the nomad 
chief, gave him a residence in his states, and assigned him for 
snmmer quarters the eastern slopes of the Toumanidsch mountains, 
of which Mount Olympns in BithTsta forms a part, and for winter 
qaarters the plains of Segud on the Sangarins. 

YbsboI of ihe Soltan, Orthognel served him in hie wars against the 
Greeks, who still occupied some cities -in that extreme region of the 
peninsula. After a battle in which his akindsahig (pioneers, scouts, or 
foT^OTB) placed in front of the army, had rendered signal service, he 
received in recompense a small territory iu the district of Bosaui, 
not far from Eskischehr, the ancient Doryletk At the same time the 
name of the district of Bt^ffini was changed, Alaeddin calling it 
Snltan-ceni {forehead of tie Svltan), in honour of the brave advanced 
guard. The name has long remained one of the seventeen sandjaka 
of the present provinces of Turkey in Asia ; the narrow canton which 
first bore it was the cradle of the Ottoman power. 

All nations, and especially those of the East, delight to surround 
their origin with marvellous circumstances. There is scarcely any 
founder of a dynasty but its grandeur was miracnlonsly announced 
to him. Thus we find in the Ottoman annals that Osman, or Otho- 
man, son of Orthoguel, whom the Saltans look upon as the founder 
of their dynas^, had, like the Patriarch Jacob, a dream, in which 
the Inilliant destinies of his race were revealed to him. Othoman, 
was enamoured of the beautiful Malkatoun (treasure of the ey**) 
daughter of a learned Arab sheik, Edebali. He asked her in marriage 
of her father. The sheik, fearing for the happiness of his daughter 
from the disdain of the family of Othoman, iax snperior to his 
obscurity, refused him Malkatoun. Other neighbouring princes, 
attracted by the girl's beauty, proposed for her, all of them in vain. 
Othoman battled during two years in a contest for her with hit 


32 TUBKBI OLD AND HBW. [l-D. 1231— 12S9. 

rivala. HU constancy in the meantime tonchod tho heart of Edebali. 
Patience, according to the Arabs, is the price that God sets on all 

One day, Othotnan, more dejected, bat more persevering than 
ordinaiy, had come to ask hospitality from Edebali for a night, 
hoping always to get a glance at least of Mallcatoan. He had a 
dream, in which he saw the crescent of the moon issning from the 
breast of Malkatoun, come to repose on his bosom ; then, an immense 
tree began to vegetate before him, which, increasing in strength and 
beanty, covered with its shade earth and sea, to the extremity of the 
horizon ot the three continent*, Enrope, Asia, and Africa. Fonr 
hnge mountain ranges — the Caacasns, the Atlas, the Tanms, the 
Htemns — supported like fonr pillars the overladen branches of the 
tree. From the sides of these moantains ran respectively fonr rivers 
— the Tigris, the Enphratos, the Nile, and the Dannbe. Their beds, 
in widening, watered countries verdant with pastures, yellow with 
harvests, dark with forests, and wafted vessels to the fonr seRs. 
Towers, fortified cities, domes, cupolas, minarets, obelisks, pyramida 
crowned with the symbol of the ci-eacent moon, arose along the verge 
of valleys amid rose groves and cypresses. Harmonious invitations 
to prayer, like to the melodies of the celestial bulbnls, were poured 
from uie summits of those graceful monamentB npon the air. All 
of a sudden, tha branches and leaves of the trees gleamed like lance 
points and sabre blades, and were tnmed by a pnff of wind towards 
Constantinople. Then that capital, situated between two seas, 
sparkled like the sapphire of a ring between two emeralds. It was 
the nuptial ring of the marriage of Othoman with the capital of 
the world. He was just abont to we^ it on his finger when he 

After having heard the recital of this wonderful dream, the sheik 
gave hia daughter to Othoman ; and the beaateoue Malkatoun became 
the mother of Orchan, his snccessor. Orthoguel lived to a veiy 
advanced Sige ; bnt his son took his place long before his death at the 
head of the Seljnkian armies. 

Before relating the exploits of Othoman and the further conquests 
of Islamism from the Byzantine Empire, let us casta glance over tihe 
caducity of that empire. 

Since Conatantine had changed the capital, the Roman Empire, 
too nnwieldy to be manned by a siogle hand, began speedily to fall 
into dissolution. Divided between the stms of Theodosins into two 
empires, the Byzantine Empire, to which its capital, Byzantinm, 
gave its name, preserved for some time, against the barbarians of the 
Eaot, something of that stiperstitions terror that Borne had retained 
against the barbarians of the West. Its limits, long reepected. ex- 
tended from the Tigris along to the Adriatic, and from the confinea 
of Scytbia, now Russia, along to Ethiopia, where lie concealed the 
fountains ot the N^ile. Amongst the numerous heterogeneous popnla. 
tions snbjected to the laws of this empire, the Greeks prodominated 
by numbers, by nobility of origin, by the Christian religion prim i- 



tivelj adopted, organized, propagated, interpreted in the East— ia 
fine, bj arte, by eloquence, by wealth, by policy. In transplanting 
the Empire of Borne to Byzantinnt, Conatantine made a change, not 
only of capital taxd religion, bat also of race. All was become Greet 
in Greece, and Asiatic in Aaia. The omperora and Romans of the 
Eaat bad retained of the Romans in Italy bat their pride and their 
despotism. The eajne vices flowed, bnt in another blood. Byzan- 
tium might have been taken for a Persian colony. The surnames 
of Caesar or Angaatas, retained to the poesessor, to the heirs or to the 
coUeagnes in the empire, affected in vain, with the Roman accepta- 
tions, a reeemblance which no longer exiated in the manners. 
Theological disputea apon the mysteries of religion were become the 
sole texts of conversation and discassion. The petty factions of the 
circus were sabstituted for the great factions of thefomni. Laaury, 
licentiouanesa of morals, effeminacy, the domination of eunuchs and 
women in the government, had from reign to reign emaacalated the 
national arm and character. The palacea of Constantinople anrpassed 
in magnificence those of Nero at Rome, and those of the kings at 
Persepotis. The pomp of pnblio ceremonies took the place of the 
pomp of triumphs. The very coatnme of the later emperors, described 
by St. Chrysostem, reminded less of the descendants of Bomulas than 
of the successors of Xerxes. 

"The Emperor," says St, Chiysoatom, " wears on his head either 
a diadem or a crown of gold, enriched with jewels of inestimable 
price. These ornaments, together with garments dyed in purple, are 
reserved exclusively for his sacred person. His robes of silk are 
ornamented with embroidery in gold, representing dr^^na. His 
throne is of massive gold. He appears in pablio, bat surroanded by 
his coaitiers, his guards, and attendants. Their luices, their bucklers, 
the coirasses, the bridles and hameaaes of their horses are of gold, 
at least to appearance. The lat^ plate of gold that shines in the 
centre of their shield ie encircled with smaller ones, which represent 
the form of the eye. The two moles harnessed to. the chariot of the 
Emperor are perfectly white and all covered with gold. The chariot 
of pnre and massive gold excites the admiration of the spectetora ; 
they contemplate the punile curtains, the whiteness of the cushions, 
the value of the diamonds and plates of gold that shed their most 
dazsling splendour when they sointillate from agitetion by the motion 
of the chariot. The portraite of the Emperor are painted white on 
a ground of azare. The monarch is represented seated npona throne, 
anayed in armour ; his horses and his guards are at his side, and his 
enemies vanquished in chains at his feet." 

The people had lost under this discipline all remembnmce of their 
antique liberty. Servility was become the glory of the snbjects, only 
tempered now and then 1:^ revolt and aaaasaination. - The tone of 
Asiatic slavery had passed into the public manners. The princes 
measured their elevation only by the abasement of their subjects. 
Soch a nation, enslaved to sJl the caprices of a master, of eonuchs, of 
^Tonrites, of wives op coopteeans, was equally incapable of respecting 



itself, and of defending itself Bgainst the iiuiolence of the barbarians 
■who bordered it. EunnchH — slaves bred in the most abject offices of 
the palace — received the command of atinieB and the titles of patrician, 
of consul, of father of the conntrj. They bad statues raised to them 
of marble and bronze in the Senate — that vain shadow of the Roman 
Senate preserred at Constantinople as a sort of mock palladinm of 

"One man," says the historian, indignant at these tnrpitadea, 
"anctions, cnts up, retails, vends the Soman provinces from the 
Euphrates along to Mount Hemus ; another obtains the proconsulate 
of Asia in exchange for a delicious country residence : a third bnys 
off entire Syria with the diamonds of his wife; a fonrth complains of 
having sacrificed all his patrimony to obtain the government of 
Bithyuia. The tariff of all the provinces to be sold to the highest 
bidder may be seen placarded upon the walls of the palace ; and aa 
the eunnch has been sold himself, he would like to sell entire humanity. 
Such are," adds the writer, " the fruits of the valour of the Bomans, 
of the defeat of Antiochns, and of the triumphs of Pompey." 

A government ao venal and so oormpt, encouraged, for the period of 
two centuries, the barbarians. The Huns ravaged Persia, Attila 
subjugated Sarmatia and Germany. His hordes advanced to the 
walls of Constantinople. The Emperors purchased their safety with 
gold instead of purchasing it with blood. They enrolled the Bul- 
garians, the Goths, the Turks, in the imperial gnard, to the end of 
CO- interesting the enemies of the Empire in defence of what remained 
of the Empire, by participation of its dignities and treaenres. The 
sea was not more secure to them than the land. Adventurers, 
Norman and Slavic, sometimes rivals, sometimes allies, of the savage 
tribes of the Lake of Ladoga, founded subsequently at Kief the 
Bnsaiau monarchy, descended the Borysthenes to the south, and 
made their entrance into the Black Sea. Novogorod and Moscow, 
those Samarcands of the north, sprang up from the pine forests ; the 
fleets of these Cossacks being formed of a cloud of canoes hollowed 
from the trunks of immense trees. These canoes, bordered with 
raised planks, but without decks, carried from forty to sixty warriors 
with the necessary arms and provisions for the expedition. Two 
thonsand of these canoes, coasting along the Black Sea, used to force 
sometimes the entrance of the Bosphoma, and come np to the very 
harbour of Constantinople to hurl menaces and impose ransoms upon 
the Emperors. The Greek fire — that last weapon of the Greeks, of 
which the secret is lost with them — used to bum in vain their fieets. 
They sprang up again with the ensuing spring like marine vegeta- 
tions. The Greeks purchased peace by tributes. " Let as be 
content," the Bnssian old men nsed to say to the young ones who 
complained of their consenting to the treaties and tributes of the 
Byzantines. " Is it not better to obtain, without fighting, the gold, 
the silver, the silk, the precious stones, of these people p Are we 
always sure of victorr ? Can we sign a pact with the billows and the 
winds of the Enxine ? " 


A.tK 12SS.] BEiax or othoman. 35 

It 18 not knowD what prophetic preBentimeiit annonnced already to 
the Greeks that these mysteriooB populations, concealed as yet behind 
the marshea of the Borysthenes, and that those fleets which seemed 
to descend from the Polar Circle, were the menacing nsnrpers of their 
Oriental patrimony. An ohscnre inscription graven on the pedestal 
of an ancient equestrian atatae at Byzantium, signified, it is said, that 
the Rassians would one day reign over the Greek Empire of Byzan- 
tinm, of which this bronze horseman took poseession long in advance. 

However, the barbarian and the Greek mntiers were in contact at 
Nicomedia. The Christian Emperors leagued secretly with the 
Unssnlman Sultan against the Crusaders come to avenge Christianity. 
The Cruaaders, impelled against nature, manners, climate, but by a 
pious folly, towards Palestine, bestrewed with their bones the lands 
and seas of the East. They conquered only the sepulchre of Christ. 
The tide of Islamism, a moment rolled back, returned overwhelmingly 
npon them. The Greek race, too old and too exhausted to bear a 
new and severe religion like Christianity, dissolved it into theological 
qnibbling which was obliged to borrow enbstanoe from idolatn-. 
Christianity, vitiated by the Greeka, flourished, on the contrary, in. 
the West, and was doomed to vivify the Empire of the snocessora of 

The faith of the East had. foond its prophet in Arabia. The 
Roman lace was exhausted at Constantinople ; the race of the 
conqnerora was yonng. It needed bnt a hero to condnct it from one 
bonk of the Boaphorus to the other in Europe. Othoman was about 
to appear. Let us resume the history of the patriarch of the 
Ottomana or Osmanli. 

2. Sagn of Othoman. 
OrthMrael lived to an advanced age ; bnt long before his death, 
his son Othoman fllled hia place in the command of the Seljukian 
armies. Scattered over the oonntry were many Greek fortresses, the 
ohiefa of which, entirely independent, kept np with their Mussulman 
neighbours relations aometimes friendly, sometimes hostile. One of 
these chiefs, Kiese Michal, lord of Chermenkia, swore strict amity 
with OtJioman ; later on he embraced Islamism, and his descendants, 
nnder the name of Michalogli, occnpied dnring several centuries an 
eminent position among the first families of the Empire. Othoman 
had also for ally the lord of Belokoma or Biledchik. It was in his 
stronghold that he deposited hia treasnres, when, annually, at the 
approach of summer, hia nomad troops regained the mountains ; on 
the contrary, he was in perpetual hostility with the chief of 
Aagelokoma, or Ainsegel, who harassed his people by raids on their 
Bocks whilst passing near his borders. Towards 1285 he resolved to 
avenge himself. With seventy followers he attempted to snrprise 
the fortress of Aina^l, which commanded the defile of Ermeni. A 
combat took place in that defile between Kontabieh and Bronssa, and 


36 TUKEET OLD AND MBW. [a.d. 12SS— 1307. 

Ottoman won his first victory ; bnt he did not succeed in making 
himaelf master of Ainesgel. A aecond battle gave him Karahissar, 
an important town situate on the Battia or Bsthyg. That same j'eai' 
Orthoguel died (1288), and Orchan was bora. The year following 
Gthoman received from the Seljnkide Snltan, in recompense for his 
services, as well as for his conqnests, the territory of Karahissar, 
with the title of Bey and its accompanying insignia — a banner, a 
drnm, and a horse-tail. 

However, the increasing prosperity of the new Bey gave umbrage 
to his neighbours ; his ally even, the lord of Belokoma, entered into 
a conspiracy formed against him. He invited him to a festival on 
the occasion of his marriafi^, with the intention of getting rid of him. 
Warned by his friend Kirae Michal, Othoman dissembled : he sent as 
nsnal his treasnres to be deposited in the stronghold of hia faithless 
ally ; bat he had them earned by forty of his adherents disgnised as 
old women. Having tbns seized npon the place, he mshed in front 
of the nnptial cortege, slew the Iraitor, carried off his bride, the 
lovely Nilonfer (lotos flower), and kept her as a wife for his son; then 
he attacked saddenlr the fortresses of Jarhissar and Ainegel, the 
possessors of which had oi^nized the plot, and became master of 
them after an obstinate resistance. 

At that period, Aladdin III., the last of the Seljnkides, after a 
reign which had reflected some Instre npon him, wae dethroned 
(1^7) by Ohazan, khan of the Mongols. Upon the mina of his 
empire arose nnmerons independent principalities, which took the 
names of their founders, and which played a great part in Ottoman 
history. Thna were formed the States of Karaman, in Cappadocia 
and part of Cilicia, with Iconinm as the capital ; of Kermian, in 
Phrygia J of ^ara«, in Mysia; of Sarou-Khan, ia Lydia; of Aadin, 
Ionia ; of Mentescbe, in Caria ; of Tekieh, in Lycia and Pamphylia ; 
of Hamid, in Pisidia and Lycaonia ; and of Kastainouni, in Paphla- 
gonia, &c. The possessors of these principalities all usurped sovereign 
rights, coined money, and caused their names to be pronounced in 
the public prayers. Othoman was not the least powerful amongst 
them : master of almost all Bithynia, he possessed, with Eskischehr, 
Karahissar, and the other strongholds he had conquered, a part of 
Phrygift, of Galatia, and the upper basin of the Sangariua. He fixed 
his residence at Jenishehr («ew iojcn), npon the northern frontier of 
his States, between Hicsea and Broussa, two cities already coveted 1^ 
the Ottomans. 

Everything prospered, besides, with the son of Orthoguel. Pro- 
tector of learned and of holy men, he had, from the time of his 
earliest conquests, founded communities, schools, attracted towards 
hira piouB and instructed men, stirred up amongst his followers 
religious zeal ; thus had he inspired his people with boldness and 
confidence. According to a belief accredited amongst the Mussul- 
mans, at the commencement of each centnir of the h^ra, there 
should appear a man destined to regenerate Islamism. In the eyes 
of hia companions, Othoman mnst be the gloiy of the eighth century, 


A.&. 1301— 1307.] sbig:! or OTHOtuv. 87 

which was &1x>st to oommence. His name even was oi liapp^ pre- 
sage. "Names oome from. Heaven," says the Koran; Othoman's 
si^iified "leg-lireaker;" and that image amongst Orientals attaohea 
itself to ideas uf strength and grandenr. That name, moreover, had 
not been borne with gloi^ bj any Mnssolman prince since the second 
Khalife, the collector of the Kor&n, the conqnerer of Persia and of a 
part of Asia. The fanatical soldiers of Othoman believed him, there- 
fore, destined to renew the grandenr of the Khalifes ; they thought 
it an hononr to bear his name, and he himself took the title of 
Padiachah or sovereign of the Otmanlii.* 

His first enterprise, as sovereign prince, was directed against the 
fortress of Kenprihissar, neighbonr of Jenishehr. On this occasion, 
his uncle Deindar, who must have been at that time npwards of 
ninety years of age, attempting to moderate his love of conquest, 
ventured to oppose the nndertaking as a source of needless difBcnlty 
and danger. Othoman, irritated at snch opposition, answered, we 
are told, the shafts of his nncle's words by an arrow from his bow, 
and the old man sank down a corpse at the feet of the nephew. 
This may be regarded as an early introduction to the subsequent 
system of fratricide among the Ottoman princes, and it is remark- 
able that theTnrkish historian, Edria, mho professes to relate nothing 
which can reflect disgrace upon the m.emory of Othoman, records 
this event without any eztennaiion or comment. Kenprihissar and 
various other fortresses were speedily captnred, and repeated advan- 
tages were obtained over the Greeks. Kext, an advance was made 
in the' direction of fiictea. A Greek army, commanded by the 
heteriarch or chief of the body gnard, was defeated in the environs 
of Nicomedia, and in that combat a nephew of Othoman permhed ; 
his tomb, which has been preserved, is to this day a place of pil- 
grimage. As the walla of Nicaa forbade all sni'prise, fnrther pro- 
gress against the city was arrested ; bnt a fort was erected on the 
■lope of the mountain, to keep the garrison in check. Six years 
later (1307), the governors of several Greek places united together 
to attack Othoman ; they were vanquished, and the Ottomans 
marched on as far as the shores of the Propontis (Sea of Marmora) ; 
all the borders of the Gulf of Hondania were devastated. 

At the same epoch the other Tnrkish princes of Asia Minor deso- 
lated the Archipelago, drenching with blood and enveloping in fire 
Chios, Samos, Lemnos, the Cjclades, Bhodes, Candia, Malta, and, 
thence, carrying terror everywhere about the Mediterranean. At 
the same time they tore from the Greeks upon the coasts of Asia 
Minor, the last places that remained te them : Ephesns, Tripolis 
upon the Meander, and Cenchrea yielded to that revival of the spirit 
of conquest of the MnssulmanB. The tribe of Othoman teok part 
in that general movement : all the strongholds in the vicinity of 
If icsa were subjected ; their defenders compelled, under pain of 


38 TFRSBT OLD i.KD ttlW. [i.e. ISSO— 13ST. 

death, (o embrace iBlamism, Kiese Michal voluntarily faring them 
the example. The Greek Emperor, terrified, had implored the aid 
of the khan of the MongolH and had sent him his daughter in mar- 
riage ; a Tartar horde invaded tberenpon the States of Othoman, hot 
it was repnked by hie son Orclian, to whom he had given charge of 
Karaliiasar. In recompense of that exploit, Orchan was entmsted 
■with a command to follow np the conqneats of his father. Very 
sooQ all was eabjected as far as the month of the Sangarins ; Nicsn 
and Nicomedia were invested, and two forte were built at the gates 
of BronsBa (Prasa). During ten years this latter city was kept 
nearly blockaded ; at length, in 132?, it was roeolved to assault it. 
Othoman, enfeebled by age, gave to his son the command of the 
enterprise. The fortress of Edrenos, situate on OlympiiB, aod which 
dominated the whole conntry, was first assailed, carried by main 
force and destroyed. Then, on the Osmanlis presenting themselves 
before Broussa, they met with no resistance : its governor obtained, 
at the price of 30,000 dncats, permission to retire with all his 
belongings, and the city opened its gates. Thns fell without striking 
a stroke the Btrongest place in Asia Minor, the ancient capital of the 
kingdom of Bithynia ; already taken in the middle of the tenth 
century by the Mussulmans, then again occupied by the Greeks, it 
escaped from them definitively to become the first capital of the 
Osmanlis. It is now considered as the third city of their Empire. 

When Othoman learned that important conquest, he wae at the 
point of death. He expressed a wish that his body might be trans- 
ferred to the new capital where bis son was about to reside. Austere 
and without ostentation, like the first soldiers of the Prophet he left 
neither gold, silver nor precious stones ; all bad been liberally dis- 
tributed amongst his companions. In his dwelling at Jenishehr no 
treasure whatsoever was found — only a cafetan embroidered with 
ooloured thread, a linen turban, a wooden spoon and a salt-cellar ; n 
few thorough-bred Arabian coursers, a few yoke of oxen for the 
plough, some flocks of sheep, and that comprised his whole estate. 
The breed of sheep has been pionsly perpetuated, and the sultans of 
the present time cause to be fed on the mountains round Bronssa 
and the grassy sides of Mount Olympus, sheep which, it is affirmed, 
are the descendants of those of the founder of the empire. There 
was to be seen also at Bronssa, a few years back, before the con- 
flagration that reduced his tomb to rains, the simple wooden chaplet 
of beads of the father of the Ottomans, and the drum, which he had 
received from the Seljukide sultan in token of investiture. The 
double-pointed sabre and the banner that at the same time were sent 
him by the Saltan, are still preserved in the Imperial Treasury at 

3. Seign of Orchan. 

At the period of Othoman's death, the Byzantine Empire had sns- 

tainod considerable losses in other parts of Asia Minor as well as in 


M.B. 1S37— 1330.] - SIIQM 0? OBOHAN. 33 

Bithynift and paH of Papblagonia, which he hftd Bnbdned. Ephesas, 
aa has been said, had fallen onder the power of the Turks ; and so 
«Jbo had Lydia, as far aa Smyrna ; Magnesia, as far as Pergamus ; 
ftnd Phrygia, both Qreater and Leaser. 

Othomau had deeignatod Orchan as hie saccessor, to the prejudice 
of Aladdin, his eldest son. The latter, far from revolting against 
the parental will, wonld not even accept the moiety of the flocks 
sad herds ; he consented, however, to share with his brother the 
duties and responsibilities of government nnder the title of Wezir 
or Vizier, an office which he discharged in a most efficient manner, 
BBsisting the growth of the empire by his internal regulations, while 
Orchan was adding to his tOTritories by foreign conquests. The 
title of Vitier signifies properly '' the carrier of a load," an expressive 
thrm reminding the all-powerfnl ministers of oriental princes of their 
obligations, and pointing out the sovereign authority to be only a 
bnrden. Aladdin was his brother's vizier in the fullest acceptation 
of the word ; he was the first legislator of the Ottomans, and hie 
memory is eqnally venerated amongst them as that of their first 

Pruia (Broossa) having been captared at the close of the pre- 
ceding reign, the seat of government was transferred to that city, 
and a series of saccesses ensued. 

Among the Mussulman nations, for which the KorSn is the 
Bnpreme or rather the only law, the part of human legislatiou is 
snfficiently restricted: it must only be the commentary of the divine 
law ; it can only bear upon details of forma ; bat those details are 
not wanting in ftravity, since they must be observed with the same 
feeling of respect as the things of religion. It is that which ex- 
plains the formal spirit of the Osmanlis, the importance which they 
attach to exterior usages and to costume. Those objects, elsewhere 
BO indifTerent, are regulated amongst them by lawa, and by laws 
based upon the Koian. Three points especially attracted Aladdin's 
attention : the coinage, the costnme, and the army. Othonian, after 
hie investiture, or at least after the extinction of the Seljukide 
8nltans, had enjoyed the sovereign rights of eikke and of ikoulbe 
(right of coining money and the privilege of being named in the 
pnblic prayers) ; but he had only availed himself of the latter, and 
the Seljukian coins were those only current in Asia Minor : new 
money was issned in the name of Urchaii.'*' As for costume, it was 
regalated in all its details, bnt especially the head- covering, which 
is, in the East, the distiQctive sign of peoples and castes. For the 
different classes of the nation, therefore, the form and colonr of the 
Larban. For the prince was reserved the cap of red felt wound 
round with white mnelin in puffed folds ; for the military head- 
dress, the soldiers and functionaries wore a cap of white felt of 

* It sliQalil b« ramukeJ that the mnneT bore onl; (be Dame tad not tfaa eSgj of ttie 
•nenign ; uij repreMDtation of man or beut being Tegarcled bj HnfiBulmane la an 
MoUby. The name and titles of tbe prince were alone tnced in el^snt cbaraclen 
■poa hu Mat and coiiu. 


40 TCRKET 0U> kSD VSW. [i.b. 1S3S-1886. 

elongated shape. HieBe regalationB were modified }ater on at dif- 
ferent times ; the white felt was reserved for penona of the saltan's 
snite ; the soldiers asBnined the red felt ; and th«ii it was ornamented 
with gold laoe and embroidery. 

The most important of the institutions of Orchan's reign was the 
creation of a standing army, and one which mainly contrihnted to 
the snpport of the Ottoman Empire; and it took place, it may be 
remarked, aboat a century before the time of Charles Til. of Prance, 
who is nsnally regarded by historians of the Middle Ages as the 
inventor of that poli<T. The Tnrkiah horsemen were now snbjected 
to stricter discipline than hitherto, and to this period may be referred 
the establishment of the tipakit or regular cavaliY. The akindseki*, 
light-armed horsemen, had formed the strength of Othoman's armies 
and were never regularly oi^anized ; they had been enliBted for eacTi 
expedition and diBbanded after the campaign. Bnt, by the exertionB 
of Aladdin, the most remarkable of the military arrangements now 
made was the formation of a regular body of infantry, oailed piadSt 
(foot soldiers), paid and kept up permanently, composed of the 
children of Christian parents who were forced to embrace Mahomet- 
anism, and of renegades who voluntarily embraced the religion of 
the Prophet, and abandoned at once their faith and .their country. 
This was the odious origin and nucleus of the Janissaries, a select 
corps which did not disappoint the expectation of its founder, and 
which, from a mere body-guard at first, becoming gradually aug- 
mented by Amurath I. and his successors during several centuries, 
long constituted the chief strength uf the Ottoman armies. 

Whilst Aladdin was strengthening the empire by his institutions, 
Orchan aggrandized it by fresh conquests. Hie companions in arma 
were Konour Alp, Adje-Hodja, Abdnrraman-Ohazi, Mursal the Black, 
AH the Black, and others whose names have remained dear to the 
Ottomans. They succeeded in driving the Greeks from the banks of 
the Sangarins and the shores of the Fropontia. All the strongholds 
with which those countries bristled were successively captured. At 
length, Nicomedis and N'icsea alone remained, invested on all sides. 
The first was taken in 1330, by Adje-Hodja. The Greek Emperor, 
Andronicus the Younger, alarmed at the progress of the Ottoman 
arms, passed over into Asia at the head of an army and made an 
effort to save the second. A battle was fought near Phtlocrene (now 
Tawechandschil), upon the shores of the Gulf of Kicomedia, and 
the Turks, victory, had only to present themselves at the gates ; the 
town capitulated. Kicomedia, which had fiourished so conspicuously 
in the time of Diocletian and Constantine, had long since lost its 
importance; at the present day, under the name of Ismid, it is 
nothing more than a mean township. Nicna (Isnik), in passing into 
the hands of the Turks, remained a considerable city; it was the 
second capital of Orchan and the rival of Broussa. The Church of 
Saint Synode, in which the famous creed of the Catholic faith had 
been drawn up, was converted into a mosqne, and near that mosque 
was founded Uie first medrets/, or upper school, and the first imarett 


«.B. 133S— 1330.] COMQUKSTS Or OBOBIK. 41 

or public kitchen for the poor; but Nicna waned rapidly, and now 
it IS a mere Yil]a«e. 

Hitherto the OttomanB had aggrandized themaelvea at the expense 
only of the Greeki. The captnre of Nice» was followed by a new 
line of conquests. Orchan now commenced an attack npon the emirs 
or chiefs who shared among themaelres the remnant of the Seljnkian 
dominions. In 13115 be had, for the first time, occasion to intervene 
in the affairs of one of the neighbonring Unssiilinan States. Adilan 
Bey, prince of Ehorasi,* had left two Bona ; the yonngest, who had 
be^ bronght np nnder the care of Orchan, proposed to aid him in 
overthrowing his brother, promising to give np, as a reward of snoh 
serrice, fonr of the principal towns of his States. Orchan consented 
thereto, and invaded Khorasi. The meniuied prince took refnge in 
the citadel of Pergamne, thonght to be impregnable. He entered 
npon negotiatdons, and appeared disposed to come to terms ; bnt, 
having made himself master of his brother's person, he csnsed 
him to be assassinated. Orchan marched immediately against Per- 
gamns. The inhabitants opened their gates and delivered np the 
fratricide. His life was spared, and an abode assigned him in Bronssa; 
and the principality of Khorasi was, without striking a blow, annexed 
to the Ottoman States. This conqnest was followed by other snccesses 
in the western r^ons of Karamania, or the ancient Phrygia ; and 
the long period of profonnd tranqnillity that followed, and touching 
which the Ottoman historians maintain a disdainful wlence, appears 
to have been not nnprofitably occupied by Orcfasn in adjusting the 
internal r^nlations of his increasing dominions, and in making picas 
foondationa Mosqaes, cloisters, schools, and imarets arose on all 
sides. Bronesa was favoured in this respect, not only by the care of 
the prince, but also by the liberality of his oomjwniona, whom war 
had enriched. The umbrageous slopes and the cool valleys of Olympns 
became peopled with dervishes and santens. 

Under those names are indicated all those Muasnlmans who devote 
themselves to an ascetic life, whether in community, like monks, or 
in solitude, like hermits. Their number became considerable under 
the first Ottoman priuces. Mahomet bad said, " There are no monks 
in Islam ; " words which seemed to interdictall imitation of Christian 
asceticism ; but the inclination of the Orientals for a contemplative 
life prevailed over the will of the Prophet; and another maxim: 
" Poverty is my glory," helped to legitimate that infraction of his 
law. Thirty-seven years after the death of Mahomet, Oweis, an 
Arab of Yemen, founded the first order of dervishes. At the pre- 
sent time as many as seventy may be reckoned in the different 
Mussulman countries. Under Othoman the order of naktchbendis 
arose, which is still one of the most famous. Under Orchan the 
laadit were institated, who have d^eneiated into jailers, Hadji- 

* ThcM iBtU Turkiih tMia, the DUDfi of which Till fraqaentif Tocnr In tlis eoaiM 
«f An li>stoi7, bad no imj dictinctlj atrked bonndkriaa. Tl^g Sharati occQpied the 
Mutbetn ik^ of tbs ToDnundBCh HonDtuiii and the b«iiD of the Cuciu, that ii to 
Mj, a pot portioD of IIjub. 


42 TDEKBT OLD 1.HD HBW. [i.D. 1833— ISStl, 

'Begtaech, the patroa of the Janissarios, was founder of the order of 
the begtaschis, an order — Bemi-religioiis, semi -military — to which the 
Janisearies themselveB were affiliated. 

The members of the greater part of these religiona orders li^e in 
community in cloisters. They are called dervisheg — a word that 
signifies " threshold of a door." The highest in dignity are called 
eheiki or elders. As for the santone or sakidt, those arc veritable 
hermits; hidden in their cells amongst the most secluded sites, they 
enjoy, for the most part, a great repntation for sanctity. Those among 
them of the most renown receive the namen of ahdals or hahas — 
fathers. " There ai-e always," say the Mussulmans, "forty ahdals 
upon earth " — that is to say, forty persons of an eminent sanctity, 
destined to occnpy a distingnished place in heaven ; but there are 
always more than forty hermits on whom popular opinion bestows 
that title ; they are often those who make themselves remarkable by 
the strangest eztTsvagances. Several of these saints were in high, 
favour with Orohan, who built cloisters for their disciples. The most 
&tmous among them were Qheilik-Baba, " father of the stags," so 
called because that, mounted on a stag, he had sought oat Orchan to 
predict to him his victories ; Dogli-Baba, the father potter, who fed 
himself solely on cards of milk; Abdal-Mourad and Abdal-Muaa, 
who both accompanied the son of Othoman to the conqnest of Bronssa 
— the first armed with a wooden sabre, with which he carried terror 
amongst the enemy's ranks ; the second, holding burning coals upon 
cotton. Abdal Mouiad's wooden sabre is still shown to pilgrims. 
Solyman the Qreat took a bit from it, which he had preserved in the 
treasury of the seraglio. 

Protector of science as well as of religion, Orchan attached to 
himself by his liberality the most famous among the learned men ; 
he placed them at the hesd of the uewly founded schools and ad- 
mitted them to his councils. Such were the Mollaht or legists David 
of Gesarea and Tadacheddin the Kurd, who fulfilled one after the 
other the functions of first Mouderrit or professor in the Upper 
School of Niciea ; and Sinan the Persian, who was called from his 
importance, Sinan Pa«ha.* Uoreover the city of Bronsea, long after 
it had ceased to be the residence of the Ottoman sovereigns, pre- 
served the privilege of attracting the learned, the ascetic, and men 
of letters. It was in those delightful envirouB that the first Turkish 
poetfl sought their inspiration, that the most famous legists pondered 
their works. Their tombs, mingled with those of the Sheiks and 
ahdals, have made the vicinity of Bronsea a district donbly sacred ; 
it is for the Ottomans, the land of saints and poets, the sanctuary of 
the arts and at the same time the rendesvons of the elect.t In the 

' Thii title of Fuha, nndsr which sre ded^ilted the Qoremora of pnmncea, marfca 
ao apeeial fanctjoo ; it U an honoru; qnnlification which, eapecjallj in tfae eulf tima 
of the Ottoman Empire, «u given to eter; conuderable penooige. Aladdin, UnhBn'a 
brother, and Solymui, hU nm, bora the title cf Pa«h» ; DDder Othoman, two leuned 
tnco bad alread} borne it. 

* It i> wcU'kJiown that nrj latelf Abd-el.Eader cboie Bronira tu tbe place o[ his 
retreat or of hii exile. 


iisLT coinxsTS or -ivtaca ink oreks. 43 

mosqnefi of tbe city -wsre erected ika m&asolenniB of the ax fiist 
BOTBreigiiB who were the founders of them ; around them are ranged 
those of their brothers, sons, wives, and danghterg, tnentj-eiz priDces 
of their blood, their moat illoBtrions vizierB und hejlerheye, and 
ftbont five hundred tombs of pachas, eheika, professors, rhetors, 
poets, physicians, and even celebrated mnaicians. Fnll of memorials 
of the first age of the Ottom&n dynasty, Broassa is not only one of • 
the most flourishing towns of the empire ; bnt it is above all, the 
holy city. 

4. Early contetU of the Turki and Greeks in Europe. 

Ueanwhile Orchan, though anzionsly occnpied with the internal 
prosperity of his Stat«B, did not neglect opportunities of extending 
abrt^ hie power and influence. Those twenty years nnmarked by 
any mililary entorprise, served to prepare the most important of all 
by its resnltB— the first estftblishment of the Ottomans in Europe, 

Towards the end of the thirteenth century, shortly after the 
restoration of the Oreek Empire by Uichael Paleologus, a largo 
Turkish horde, in.nnmber from 10,000 to 20,000, crossed the Bos- 
pboraa and made a settlement upon the European continent : these 
were the Turcomituas, subjects of the Seljukides. They had at first 
planted themselves on the coast of Bulgaria, in the Dobmdscha ; but 
they did not remain long there and emigrated to the Crimea. It has 
been s&id that, after the fall of the Seljukides, the Turks of the 
principalities of ATdin, Ehorasi, &c., began to rav^e the Archipelago 
and the coast« of Greece. Not long after we find the Tartars, who 
had eeponsed the quarrel of a Seljukian prince, advancing to the very 
walls of Constantinople. In 130? a band of Turks from Aidin (the 
ancient Ionia) assisted the Catalans in their hostilities against the 
Emperor; these, after having rava^d the Chersonesus, and rendered 
themselves more or less formidable during seven years, were at length 
^ther destroyed or compelled to return to Asia. The Ottomans, in 
turn, landed for the first time in Europe in 1321, bnt that was only 
a piratical expedition which ravaged the coasts of Thrace and Maoe- 
donia ; and it is only in the reign of Orchan that the first relations 
took place between the Ottomans and the Byzantines. Andronicns 
the Elder had succeeded, in 1282, to Michael Pslieologas. After 
having long struggled against the Ottomans in Asia, he was threatened 
by the revolt of his Kiandson, Andronicns the Yoanger, and sought 
aid from Orchan. That aid did not prevent him tnaa being beaten 
and constrained to share his crown with the rebel. The Byzantine 
Empire, fallen to the lowest degree of abasement, was cankered with 
the same vices, the same anarchy, the same corruption, the same 
theological dispnt«8, which had begun its rain. The few enlightened 
men it yet contained, among others Michael Paloeologus, knew that 
there was no other salvation for it save in the sincere and complete 
reunion with the Latin Chnrch, a anion that would interest all the 
West in their dangers and would revive the cmeadee. This they 


44 TDBIBT OLD AJID NBW. [i.d, 1880— 1S17. 

esBnjed hy sending to the conucil of Ljons, presided over I7 Pope 
Gregory X., an act of union signed by the Emperor and thirty-fiTO 
biehopB, but their efforts failed throtigh the fanaticism, blind hatred, 
and folly of the people and clei^. Never had nation better prepared 
and deserved its rnin. 

In this sitnation, Andronicns the Toanger become sole Emperor, 
no longer calcalated apon shielding himself from the invasions of the 
Turks, save by seeking their alliance ; he treated, therefore, in 1330 
with the princes of Aidin and of Saron-Khan; in 1333 with Orchan ; 
bnt these alliances proved altogether abortive. Orchan, dnring his 
peace with the Emperor, snddenly passed over to Constantinople in 
1337, with thirty-six ships, with a view to e&ect a permanent conqneet. 
A vigorous resistance was made by the Emperor and his great conxtier, 
John CaotacuEene, and the invader was repulsed with the loss of 
nearly all his armament. In 1340 a body of 8,000 Ottomans crossed 
the Hellespont, ravaged Thrace and Meesia, imd retnmed laden with 
booty. Andronicns the Yonnger died in 1341 ; and the discord that 
followed npon his death tended to deliver np the empire to the 
barbarians. Profiting liy the minority of John Palteologns, " the 
great courtier," Cantacuzene, who exercised the regency, assnined the 
pnrple and declared himself the colleague of the young Emperor. 
Seeking to lay the foundation of absolute sovereigntrf and nndivided 
power in the internal dissensions of the Empire, Cantacuzene, in order 
to cany on the civil war, summoned to his aid the Prince of Aidin, 
tJmor-B^, who was his firm friend. The paxtisans of Palteologns 
purchased the assistance of the Prince of &TCin-Khan, and 30,000 
Turks marched to ravage the empire in the names of the two Emperors, 
lu 1347 the Prince of Aidin, recalled to Asia by an attack of the 
Venetians,* abandoned his ally, Orchan then intervened. He de- 
manded of Cantacuzene his daughter's hand, which was immediately 
acoorded him. The nuptials were celebrated with great pomp at 
Selymhria, and, the year following, the aged husband went to visit 
his father-in-law at Scutai'i. Strengthened by this n^ alliance, 
Oantacuzeoe imposed upon his rival an apparent reconciliation, and 
returned to Constantinople. But shortly after, in spite of the alliance 
and the ties of relationsnip, a band of Ottomaus ravaged afresh the 
coasts of Thrace. TJmer-Bey died in defending his States, and Orchan 
found himself sole arbiter of the Greek Empire. Solicited by both 
parties, he profited by that fortunate position, which allowed him to 
petpetuate their discords that he might gather the fruit of them j 
witliont breaking with his father-in-law, he sent reinforcements to 
the Genoese, his enemies,t fought the Venetians, his allies, and gave 
hopes to John Palffiologns. 

* Tba principiJil} of AlJin oamiavbendeJ Iodu tod had Smyma and Spbema tor 
chief riti». The VenG^nnB, alreodj maaten of m uidj maritime pointi in tha Mcdi- 
lemnean, coTSted the posKseiDii of Smjnia and had united in. a kind of onmde with 
the Poi-e and the King of CjprnB. 

-I- Tha Qenom had remained, aince the I«tin Empire, maiten of Pan tad Qalata, 
and thej kept them until Ilia eaptnn of Conatantinople bj the Tnrka. 


iX)Din>ATioR or THs orroxiH jtuviss. 45 

Such was the at&te of things, when a coup:de-main caaaed the 
fortress of Tzjmpe, situate apon the European coast, at a league and 
& half from Gallipoli, to ndl into the power of the Ottomans. 
Solymtui Pacha, Orchan's son, waa encamped on the Asiatic shore 
of the Hellespant facing that city, not far from the mins of Cyzicns. 
Favonred by a stonnj night, he crossed the strait upon rafte with 
sixty of his companions, surprised the fortress, and captured it 
(1356). This gave the Tarks their first permanent footing in Europe; 
and it is remarkable that the record of this event is the first men- 
tion which the Ottoman historians make of the psasage of the Turks 
into Europe, disdaining, perhaps, to notice those earlier expeditions 
which left no lasting trace of victory behind them. Cantacuzene 

Erotested londly against this vioiatioit of engagements ; and during 
is negotiation for the raBtitntion of Tzynjpe, a violent earthquake 
desolated the coast of Thrace, and destroyed in part several towns. 
Gallipoli, the key of the Hellespont, and the great emporium of the 
trade of the E^t, the walls of which having been shattered by the 
convulsion had left it exposed to the attack of an invader, fell into 
the hands of the Ottomans. Whilst the inhabitants had fled in 
terror, the Turks entered by the breaches the scoarge had made, and 
in this manner was Qallipoli taken (1357), and thus was the fouuda- 
tion of the Ottoman Empire in Europe permanently laid. 

Besides that place, the posseesion of which safficed to assure them 
a free entrance into Europe, they made themselves masters of Bonlair, 
Ipsala, and Bodosto ; they were not more than thirty leagues from 
Constantinople. Thenceforth, there was no longer any question of 
restitution ; in vain Cantacazene offered 40,000 ducats ; Orchan 
delayed the negotiation interminably; then he appointed an inter- 
view at a certain place, to which the Greek Emperor alone repaired. 
Finallvi to eveiy complaint Orchan replied that it was not force of 
arms, out the divine will which had o^tened to tho Turks the walls 
of Gallipoli. That important acquisition was announced to all the 
MoBsulman princes of Asia by official letters, the original model of 
the emphatic circulars which have remained in use in the Ottoman 

From that time the Turks made annual inroads into the Greek 
territories, until they bad extended their dominions from the shores 
of the Propontis to tb% banks of the Danube. Solyman Pacha fixed 
his residence at Gallipoli, bat he did not long enjoy his triumph ; 
he died, in 1359, of a fall from his horse. His hodv was deposited 
in a mosque which he had caused to be built at Boulair; and of all 
the tombs mentioned as places of plgrimage, none is more revered 
than that of the founder of the Ottoman power in Europe ; none 
attracts a greater affluence of visitors. Orchan survived his son 
scarcely a year ; he died in the seventy-fifth year of his age and thiriiy- 
fifth of his reign (135ii). The annals of this prince are not stained 
with an account of the murder of his kinsmen, or of other sanguinary 
deeds ; meanwhilethe discipline and tactics of the army were materially 
improved, learning was encouraged, and as a lawgiver and author of 


46 xnEKET oui Aim niw. [^.d. aio— 1197. 

the constitntton, Orchon is naaallv r^arded as the Noma of the 
OttomanB. Hereditary claim to the throne was now firmlf estab- 
linhed; and by the policy of Orcban, who had founded a groat 
number of moaqnes, colleges, and hospitala the Ottoman pri&ce was 
nniverBally respected as the head of the Moslem faith. Born ander 
the t«nt of an obsciire chief of a horde, he died master of both 
shores of the Hellespont, and the Turks, who quitted with his father 
the steppes of Tartatj, now dominated Asia Minor and threatened 
the relics of the Byzantine Empire. 

5, — SUtory of Serviaf Bosnia, Albania, Sfc. 
The anthority of the Emperors no longer extended beyond the 
Strymon, in the west, or further than the chain of the Hsmaa, to 
the north. Besides the sonth, which still belonged to the French 
and the Venetians, the western and northern provinces, for a long 
period occapied by Slav or Tartar nations that had freqnently 
rendered themselves formidable to the Cssars of Byzantium, came 
to be, by the means of the discords which weakened John PalteologiiB 
and bis riv^l, torn away definitively from the Greek domination, and 
Servia, Botnia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Waltaehia formed distftict 
and independent States. 

1, The Serbs belong to that one of the four branches of the Slav 
race* commonly called lUyrian, and which at the present time 
peoples Bosnia, Servia, Croatia, Dalmatia, Slavonia, &.c. Towards 
the middle of the seventh centary they occupied the countiy of the 
ancient Triballi, in the Upper Msesia. Their conversion to Christian- 
ity dates from the reign of Horaclins, who sent priests to them; but 
it was not complete until that of the Emperor Basil, whose suzerainty 
they acknowledged by receiving a second baptism. Twice subjected 
by the Bulgarians, they re-entered with them under the domination 
of the Greeks in 1018, but ere long they emancipated themselves. 
In 1085, under Bodin and Youlkan, Servia and Bosnia rose in in- 
surrection and took the national title of Schoupant. Beli-Onrosch, 
son of Youlkan, entitled himself Grand Duke of Servia, and had 
for successor (1143) Stephen Nemania, his grandson, who caused 
himself to be recognized by the Qreek Emperors as the independent 
Prince of Servia, and was the founder of a dynasty which lasted 
three hundred years. Ifemania had three sons ; Stephen II., who 
succeeded him (1197) ; Volkan, Dake of Zenta and Choulm, that is 
to say, of a portion of Dalmatia and Herzegovina; lastly, Sava, 
' founder of the patriarchate of Servia. Stephen obtained nxim the 
Court of Bome the title of King. Emeric, King of Hungaria, took 

* The three otb«ra ait the Zechi or Tchaies, who inhabit Bohemia, Bumia, uid 
Polftud. The cooatij of wbich Non.Buar is tha chief town ii lo-oallad. It wm 
celebrated in aoUqnit; and in tbe Middle Agea by the Tsloar of its iohabituila, and b^ 
ill poirilioD hemmed in bttvcen Bonia, Serria, Albania and Uaeedonla. 


1.D, 0T1— 1374.] SBRTU, BOSNIA, ALBAHU, ETC. 47 

offence at it, drove him ont of Servia, and immediately took the title 
of King of BsAcie ; but the dynasty of Nemania was speedily re- 
established, and took fresh Instre under Stephen Onrosch III. 
Finally c&me the glorions reign of Stephen Donsohan (1333), who 
was very near replacing the Cheek by a Serb Empire, rendering 
abortive the Ottoman power, and thereby changing the destinies of 

A conqneror and a legislator, Stephen Donsohan was in some sort 
the Charlemagne of the Serbs. He possessed by himself, or by his 
vassals, almost the whole of what was actually Turkey in Enrope, 
that is to say, Servia, Bosnia, Bnlgaria, Macedonia, Dalmatia, Herze- 
ffovina, Albania, Etolia, &c. He caused himself to be crowned in 
1340, at Ustionp, Emperor of the Romaru and of the Triballi, and 
conceived the project of destroying the Empire of the East. After 
having for the first time besieged Constantinople and compelled the 
Emperor Andronicoe to sne for peace, he marched anew against 
that city at the head of 80,000 men, when he died on bis way 
thither (1356). 

He had for snccesaor Onrosch V., who did not inherit his sterling 
qnalitiee, and under the attacks of its vassals, who sought to render 
themselves independent, the Serb empire was dismembered. We shall 
see what it became during the reign of Amurath II., and how the 
Turks profited by the conqneste of the Serbs, who had cleared the 
way for them towards' Constantinople. 

2. Bosnia, as has been said, inhabited by a people of Slav race, bad 
followed the destinies of Servia until the period (1085) at which 
Voulkan made of it a State, sometimes independent, sometimes vassal 
to the King of Hungary. It was comprised m the Empire of Stephen 
Douschan, separated iteelf after his death, formed an independent 
kingdom in 1376, under the Ban Stephen Tvarko, and finally fell, as 
-will be seen, under the domination of the Turks. 

3. The Albanians were of a very anc'tent race. Feebly attached 
to the Greek Empire, they had reconquered, in the decadence of 
that Empire, their independence, when they were subjugated tempo- 
rarily by Stephen Douschan ; after his death they resumed their 
isolation, divided themselves into several small principalities which 
took part, in all the wars of the Serbs against the Turks. 

4. The Bulgarians, of Tartar origin, established themselves, 
towards the end of the seventh century, in Msesia, and were for 
three centuries the terror of the Byzantine Emperors. Subdued by 
John Zimisces (971), and converted to Christianity, they rendered 
themselves once more independent in 980, and formed a kingdom 
which was in continual war with the Serbs and Greeks. Basil II. 
annexed them afresh to his own empire. When Constantinople had 
fallen into the power of the Latins, the Bulgarians regained their 
independence, and waged a fierce warfare with the Frank Emperors. 
They fell subsequently under the domination of the Serb Kings, who 
accorded them nevertheless their national chiefs. On the death of 
Stephen Douschan, they again formed a separate State under the 


4S TUBEIT OLD IKD VSW. [i.D. 1290— 18B0. 

Prinoe or Krai Sisman, and followed tlie Serbs in ftU their wars 
against the Tnrka. 

5. It only remains to Bpeak of Wallachia. The origin of the 

Sople who call themBelveB £ou»tauu, and who are aoattered in the 
sllenio psninanla, Hungary, &c., haa already heen mentioned. 
These people, in the tenth century, became tribntaries to the Hun- 
garians, &c They regained their independence under Badonl, the 
Black (1290-l^li), bnt they soon fell back again nnder the Hun- 
garian domination. Their princes or Hoapodare had nnmeroDS 
hiendly relations with the Erals of Serria, and struggled with them 
against the Ottomans until the end of the fifteenth oentory. 

Thus it will be seen that of all these peoples the most important, 
without contradiction, is the Serb raoe ; in fact, it had absorbed so 
-large a portion of the Hellenic race that the population which at the 
present time bears the name of Greek ia only composed in reality of 
Hellenised Serbs. It had mixed itself np with the Albanians; it 
had given its language to the Bulgarians, who are now blended with 
it ; and it spread almost throughout the Helleuic peninsula. Bach 
a people appeared destined to achieve a great future, but the Slav 
race founded nothing during the Middle Ages, and the Illyrian 
branch, brave, poetic, light-hearted, unambitious, without thought 
for the future, has never lived save for the hour, preserving its 
primitive instincts, its vagabond habits, not cubing to assimilate 
itself with the remains of the ancient civilization ; in short, bein|f 
tainted with the defect which has rained all the Christian peoples 
of the East — its isolation from Latin unity. It will he shortly seen 
how this interesting people, to whom the heritage of Constantine 
seemed predestined, were about to leave it an easy prey to the 
victorious Osmanli. 


BuoM 01 AwnuTH I. asd Bajasci I. (1960-1403). 

1, Amuraih I, — Organization of the Janinariei. 
"HLov&kD or Amnratb, second son of Orchan, destined by his birtii to 
serve under hie brother, had been kept aloof from State affairs until 
the moment when the death of Solyman summoned him to share 
the sovereign power. He showed himself worthy to wield it, and 
his reign, of {nvjdigions activity, was only one long series of wars 
and conquests. 

The early part of Amurath's administration is rendered remark, 
able by the organization of the celebrated body of infantry called 
Janissaries. A great number of Christian captives having been 
taken by the Turks, Kara Halil Pacha, the prime vizier, reoom- 



monded tlie Sultan to appropriate a portion of them to the service 
of the Conrt and the army. An edict was accordingly iaaned, by 
which every fifth captive wae claimed for this pnrpose ; officers were 
BtRtioned at Gallipoli to select and seize the most robust and hand- 
some of the Christian youth ; and great numbers of these were 
Mcored, who were to be edncBrted in the Moslem faith, and trained 
as a regnlar militia to form the strength of the Ottoman armj. The 
corps tnns raised was next to be named and consecrated ; uid for 
this pnrpose it was sent to K&dji Bektash, a celebrated Dervish, iu 
the environs of Amasia, who, standing in front of the prostrate 
ranks, and stretching his sleeve over the head of the foremost soldier, 
pronounced his benediction ia the following manner: — "Let them 
be called Jengi eheri ;• may their cdnntenance ever be bright, their 
hand victorions, and their sword keen 1 May their spear ever hang 
over the heads of the enemy ! and whithersoever they go may they 
always retaro with a white face ! "+ Snch was the siognlar for- 
mation of a body of men of desperate character ; strangers, at first, 
to every tie except that of obedience to the Ottoman Prince, and 
contribntii^, by the introdnction of military subordination and 
veteran experience, to the constitution of a vigorous and irresistible 
army. The sleeve of the Dervish waa represented by a tassel hangii^ 
down from the back of the cap, in which respect only the dress of 
the new recmite differed from that of the other infantry ; and the 
name which they had received was speedily conveyed on the wings 
of victffry thronghont the wide regions of Asia and Enrope. The 
original nnmber of the corps appears to have been 1,000, which was 
angmented yearly, and sabseqaently fixed by Amnrath at 10,000. 
It afterwards rose under Mahomet II. to 12,000, under Solyman the 
Cheat to 20,000, and under Mahomet IV. to 40,000. When the 
extension of dominion had put an end to pei-sonal captivity, this 
body was supplied by a tax on every fifth male child levied on the 
Christian population of the Empire; and at loet the children of the 
Janissaries themselves were enlisted into the service, a regulation 
-which materially contributed to the relaxation of their discipline 
and their tumultuary spirit in lat«r times. Up to the reign of 
Mahomet IV., that is to say at the period when the decadence of 
that celebrated corps began, it was not otherwise recruited, so that 
the nnmber of Christian children has been estimated to have been 
not less than 5,000,000, who, in the space of three centuries, were 
thus converted by force and sacrificed to the barbarous policy of the 
Sultans. It was the most frightful tribute of human flesh that has 
ever been levied by a victorions religion over a vanquished faith. 
It ^ves the measure of the profound imbecility and subjection into 
which the Christian populations hsd fallen under the unmitigated 
despotism of the Moslem conquerors. It may be observed, that by 
this strange mode of recruiting, the Ottomans found at one and the 


50 TUREGT OLD AKD NETT. [i.D. 1S60. 

Bame time a metbod of carrjing off the most virile portion from 
the Christian popnlations, and of doubling the strength of their 
forces without patting arms into the hands of the conquered. This 
it is which explains how thej were able to set on foot armies of 
300,000 to 600,000 men, whilst at the present day, when the Janis- 
saries are no longer in existence, and when the rsyahs are unfitted 
to enter the ranks of the Turkish armies, they have found it so 
difficult to raise 300,000 men. It will be seen what oi^anization the 
Janissary militia received under Solyman the Great. 

As the new militia was raised and maintained by the Saltan, it 
took for its rallying sign the desh-pot (Kagan) which served to dis- 
tribute their food ; the fleah-pot was to the Janissary as sacred an 
object as his flag to the Christian soldier. Following out the same 
idea, the officers bore culinary titles ; the commander-in-chief was 
called tchorbadgi-hiieki, " first soup-makor ;" after him came the 
achtchi-bachi, " first cook," and the aakka-baehi, "first water carrier;" 
and instead of a tnft the soldier's cap was ornamented with a wooden 
spoon. These eccentric customs lasted as long as the Janissary 

The piadie (foot- soldiers) were retained, but remodelled. The 
conquered lands were given them, on condition of defending them 
and keeping the roads in good order : this was a territorial militia. 
All those who fought on foot besides those privileged corps, without 
pay or fiefs, were ranked under the name of aiabs (free) ; these were 
irregular infantry. A paid cavalry corps was alRo embodied, divided 
into four sorta : the gipahis or horsemen ; the silihdare (vassal horse- 
men) ; the ouloufedju (mercenaries) ; the ghourebat (strangers). 
These foar picked corps, which, under the name of eipakig, made 
themsolveH, in the wars of Europe, as famous as the Janinsaries, 
composed the Sultan's body-guard when he joined his army ; and to 
them was confided the sacred standard of the Prophet. An aaxiliary 
corps of cavalry waa also organized from the possessore of lands, in 
imitation of the piad6a ; tbey n-ere called iiwssellimang (exempt from 
tax). Finally, the aJcindtehts were retained as irregular cavalry ; 
they were, during several centuries, commanded by the Michaellogli, 
descendants of Kiese-Michael, who led the first skirmishers of Otho- 

Aladdin, Emir of Eaiamania, who had long been jealous of the 
conquests of Am.urath, encouraged by the death of the celebrated 
vizier, Chaireddin Facha, whose wisdom and valour had materially 
contributed to the success of the Ottomaji arms, commenced open 
hostilities. This prince was at the head of a branch of the ancient 
Seljukian empire, inferior in importance only to the Ottoman itself ; 
and he was aided in his enterprise by several other Moslem chiefs, 
who, like himself, were impatient of the advancing ajid encroaching 
power of their neighbour. Amnrath marched in person against the 
enemy, and, after a decisive victory on the plains of Iconium, fol< 
lowed by the recapture of the city of Angora, granted peace to 
AJadd'n. The Prince of Karamania then made an alliance with 



Amtmtli, and received from him his danghter in marriage. By (his 
signal success the Ottoman power nas established in Asia on a firmer 
footing than ever. 

After that rapid and brilliant expedition everything was prepared 
far a campaign in Enrope. Amniath gave the command in chief of 
the troops, with the title of beylerhey (prince of princes), to Lalas- 
chanin, one of the companions-in-arms of his father, and who had 
accompanied Solyman at the taking of Tzympe. The office of judge 
of the army, until then only temporary, was made permanenl:, and 
(Mnferred on Kara Halil-Djendereli, he to whom the institntion of the 
Janissaries was , owing, then upwards of seventy years old, and 
destined to play an important part in the events of the new reign. 
Besides those two veterans, the army connted amongst it« chiefs 
Ewrenos-Bey, a renegade, Hadji-nbek, and Timonr-Tasch, who, all 
three, had distinguished themselves by their successes. 

Aided by his lieutenants, Amnrath, early in 1361, advanced into 
Thrace. Cantacnzene had abdicated (1355) after the loss of Gallipoli, 
and John Palteologus reigned alone ; but, reduced to impotence, he 
did not attempt to oppose the Hlight«Bt resistance to that threatening 
invasion. After capturing Dimotika aud some secondary places, the 
Ottomans marched straight upon Adrianople. That city, built by 
Adrian at the confluence of three rivers, the Maritza, the Arda, and 
the Tonndja, had promptly become, thanks to its admirable position, 
rich, populous, and flourishing; it was, under the Byzantines, as 
under the Ottomans, the second city of the Empire. The Greek 
oonunander advanced to meet the Turkish army, was defeated and 
fled; the garrison, discouraged, surrendered almost without resist- 
iuioe (1361). Ewrenos and Lalaschanin were then ordered, the one 
to descend, the other to ascend the banks of the Maritza, and to sub- 
due the circumjacent towns : the first-named advanced as far as the 
month of the Vardar ; the second took Philippopolis and the two 
Sagras, strong towns at the foot of the Hnmns. Consequent upon 
these expeditions the law was established which fixed the share of 
boo^. By virtue of a precept of the KorAn, which allots a fifth part 
to the poor and to the Prophet, the exchequer levied previously a 
fifth upon the price of every prisoner . 

After the capture of Philippopolis, Amnrath made peace with the 
Greek Etnperor, and returned to Broussa; but whence he was soon 
recalled by an unexpected attack. The Christian princes on the 
other side of the Hnmns, who had been startled at the sight of the 
M THwtilmnTi B approaching their frontiers, had given the alarm to 
Ennipe. Pope Urban Y. preached a crusade against the Turks. 
Without awaiting aid from the West, Ourosch V., King or Krai of 
Servia, the voivodes of Bosnia and Wallachia, leagned together ; King 
Louis of Hungary joined them, and '20,000 Christians descended from 
the bonks of the Haritza to within two days' march of Adrianople. 
The Turks were not strong enough to risk an engagement with open 
force ; but, under cover of a dark night, Hadji-Ilbek, with a body of 
10,000 men, surprised the carelessly guarded camp ; the Christians, 

E 2 


S2 touegt old and nev. [a.i>. 1363—1370. 

i^karmed, heard with terror the war-cry of the MnsanlmanB, Allah ! 
Allah ! resounding. They fied in disorder, and perished, for the most 
part,in tbewatera of the Maritza (1363). The plain beats to this 
day the name of Sirh-Zinddugki (defeat of the Serhs). 

Amnrath employed the leianre which that victory left him to con- 
stmct monqnes, cloisters, achoolii, and baths at Biledschik, at Jenit> 
anhehr, and Bronssa. At this time also he conolnded the first treaty 
ever made hy the Ottamans with a ChriBtian power : he §^rant«d to 
the small repnblio of Bagnsa commercial priTileges in bis States. 
When it became necessary to sign the act, the barbarous sorereiaii 
dipped his five fingers in the ink and thna made his mark upon ^e 
parohment, to which ascribe added his name and titles. The toughra 
or seal of the Saltans still recalls hy its {orm that primitive impres* 

On his retnm to Europe in 1365 his presence was the signal for 
new conqneetfi, which gave for delimitation to his possessions the 
chain of the Heemns from the source of the Maritza as far as the sea. . 
Whilst his lieutenants captnred lalivnS (Selivno) and Jamboli, npon 
the Toundja, lohtimau and Samakov, in the Balkans, he himself 
seized upon Aidos and Karnabat, places which command two of the 

firincipaJ defiles of the Etemns. Visa, Kirk-Kilissia, Binar-Hiasar 
Castle of the Springs), Sizeboli, &c, fell successively into hia power. 
Five years 'nere employed in these expeditions. At the same time, 
from Dimotika, in which he had at first established himself, he 
hastened the erection of the seraglio of Adrianople, which became 
his chief residence. At the same period the ofBce of vizier, vacant 
for ten years past, was given to Khali l-Djendereli, who filled it during 
some eighteen years, imder the new name of Ghaireddin- Pacha. Thai 
dignity remained hereditary in his family until the epoch of the 
captnre of Constantinople. 

The following year was passed in chastising certain Byzantine 
towns, the govemora of which had disquieted the Ottoman territory, 
or in making conqueete at the expense of petty Serbian or Bulgarian 
princes- Next, he renewed his attacks against Palteologus and 
wrested from Ikim Tschatal-Boi^^, Indschigis, &c., upon the road 
from Adrianople to Constantinople. He accorded him a fresh truce, 
in order that he might turn his arms against the Slav or Wallechian 
princes established in ancient Macedonia, to the west of the Rhodope. 
That branch of the H»mns, which had until then served as a barrier 
to the incursions of the Ottomans, was overleaped ; to the aonth, all 
was conquered as far as the town of Seres, and the two Serb princes 
of the country, Drages and Bogdan, were made prisoners. Then, 
Amurath himself marched against the Krai of Servia, Lazarus Bnin- 
kovicb, illegitimate grandson of the great Donschan ; crossed the 
Balkans and vanquished him near Samakov, seized npon the im- 
portant town of Nissa, and compelled him to pay tribute and to 
furnish him auxiliary troops. The Krai of Bulgaria, Simans, who 
had taken part in thewar, nnderwent the same treatment, and was 
forced to send his daughter into the harem of Amnrath. 



2. Acquititiont in Ana Minor. — Feudal Organization of the Sipahig. 
Six years of peace having followed the captnre of Nissa, Amtirath 
emplojed tbem first with the marriage of hie eldest bod, Bajazet, to 
the daughter of the Emir of Eermian, which gave him Eoataieh and 
five other towoH of Phrygia ; next, in the aoquiBition by purchase of 
the six chief towns in the principality of Hamid, in ancient Pisidia : a 
compnlsory bargain with which the sovereign of that small territory 
was forced to comply in order to avoid a contest that had become too 
nneqnjJ. Finally, dnring that interval of rest, an important modi- 
ficfttion in the military organization was introduced. 

" There were erected," b&jb D'Ohsson, " fiefs in all the provinces 
of the empire, with the object of providing for their de&nce and 
for the reward of military services. The tipahi (horseman) invested 
with such a grant collected to his profit the product of pnblic imposts 
levied upon thelands of his fief, cultivated bypeasants, whether Maho- 
metans or Christians, over whom he exercised at the same time a 
Beignorial jurisdiction. The latter poBSeBsed the proprietorBhip ; but 
when they tmnsmitted it to individuals of their family, other than 
their sons, the heirs oonld not eutor into possession of it without 
having obtained the consent of the sipahi and paid him a fine. If the 
possessor left no heir, his land property was to be given by the lipaki 
te one of the neighbonra of the defunct. On his part, the npahi, 
obliged to reside in his fief, under pain of incurring disherieon, 
received in concession {ihtoA) the revenue of the land, that is to say 
a pait of the total of the tax dne from it, but in nowise the capital, - 
which remained in the hands of the State."* 

The fiefs thus coaetituted were divided into three classes, according 
to their extent : the timart, the ziatriets, and the beylike. Each fief 
was bound to furnish a horeemaji, armed with a cuirass, for every 
3,000 aspres ^ of his income. In the sixteenth century there were 
reckoned 50,000 &eia of the third class, 300 of the second, and 200 of 
the first. The timariote marched under the orders of the lal/ni ,- the 
latter obeyed the bejr« ; the beys were obliged to range themselves 
under the banner of the pacha of the province. The fiefs could only 
be conferred on the sons of the njja^M, and, on each vacancy, the can- 
didates were bound te prove their descent by the testimony of two 
Hums and two timariote. The advancement of the feudatories was 
regulated aecording to their services on the field of battle : he who 
brought in the head of an enemy received an increase of an aspre of 
revenue for each dozen of aspres that his fief yielded ; fifteen heads 
gave a right to a more cousiderable fief. That powerful organization 
subsisted until the reign of Solyman the Great, when the fiefs fur- 
nished not less than 200,000 horsemen.J 

* " Aiblaan CMoirtle de L'Knpirg Ottomui,'' torn. rii. 
t The Mpr* VII Uiea worth s little mare tti»B (h« pi 
BOW worth onir tha 120th of « piutrs. 

,„. p. 372. 
pUitre of tbe pntant day, i 

X Ubidiii, "LettrtamrlaTaTqtiie." 


5i TDBEET OLD AND UBW. [a.d. ISal— 1385. 

Amnrath, on reorganizing his powerful sqnadrons of gipahis, gave 
them a particular standard, the red banner ; the white had been the 
colour of the Ommiades ; the black that of the Abbassides ; the green 
that of the Fatimites ; the fellow, the bne of the enn, had been that 
of the Prophet ; the red, the colour of blood, became that of the 

3. New Conquest* in Europe and Asia. — Battle of leoniwm. 

In 1381 war was recommenced atrainat the Serbs. Timonr-Tasch 
become heylerbey after the death of Lalaachanin, having succeeded in 
driving them out of Macedonia, prossed forward as far as the frontiem 
of Albania and seized upon Monastir, Pirilpa, and Istip. Another 
army crossed the Hnmas, on the side of Samakov, and laid siege to 
Sophia, the ancient Sardica ; after a resistance of two j'ears, the 
governor was taken bj treason, and the city opened its gates. 
After Sophia, Monastir, aud Nissa, the Ottomans found themselves 
masters of military positions which dominated the Hellenic peninsula. 

Meanwhile, the Greek empire, reduced almost to the suburbs of 
Constantinople, aud placed m absolute dependence upon the Otto- 
mans, no longer existed save at their pleaBure. FalFBologns tried to 
Btir up the Western nations in hia favour ; he went himself to Rome, 
acknowledged the supremacy of the Pope, and subscribed to the re- 
onion of the two Churches. Urban Y. promised him as a recompense 
a fleet and an army, but those promises remained without fulfilment. 
The West stirred not a stop ; and the Greek Emperor, on returning 
from Home, found himself detained at Venice by his creditors, and 
one of his sons was compelled to dispose of his effects in order to re- 
lease him. This attempt served only to aggravate his position : trem- 
1>!ing at having irritatedbis formidable neighbour, he made a solemn 
declaration of snbmission, and sent Theodore, bis yonngest son, to 
serve in the Ottoman army. 

Shortly afterwards, Andronicus, son of Palteologus, and Sandschi. 
Bey, son of Amuratb, dared to conspire against their fathers. At 
the first rumour of the revolt, Amurath, who was in Asia, summoned 
the Emperor before him, and made him promise to pnt out his son's 
eyes ; then he passed into Europe, where his presence alone sufficed 
to scatter the rebels. The Greek prince was rendered blind ; Sand- 
echi-Bey was put to death ; all the nobles who had taken part in the 
conspiracy were, in Amurath's presence, flung from the walls of Dimo- 
tica into the river. Unterrified at the fate of his brother, another 
son of PaloBologus, Manuel, governor of Thessalonica, attempted to but. 
prise Seres. That fool>hardy enterprise miscarried ; Cbaireddin Pacha 
marched upon Thessalonica, and took it. Manuel had taken flight ; 
his father dared not receive him at Constantinople ; and aftorhavinf[ 
wandered up aud down the Archipelago, repulsed everywhere by the 
dread which his terrible enemy inspired, he was reduced to go and 


A.D. ISSS— 1387.] BATTLB OV t?OMIUH. 55 

implore his clemenof . Amnratb pardoned him, bat kept Thessa- 

Tbe Ottoman empire became more and more formidable to its neigh. 
bonra. Of the nnmerone principalities that were formed after the 
fall of the Seljnkiden, three alr^dj were absorbed ; Karasi hj con- 
quest, Sermian by marriage, Kamid by pnrchase. The princes of 
Karaman, who had been long the most powerful heira of the Snltans 
of Rotim, saw themselves dominated and menaced ; thns, in 1386, one 
of them, Aladdin, emboldened by Bome symptoms of internal troubles, 
and especially by the death of the wise Chaireddin Pacha, thought 
tho occasion favonrable to assume the offensive. He joined to his 
troope the Turkoman hordes scattered thronghout Asia Minor, and 
invaded the province of Hamid. Suddenly, he learned that Amnrath, 
whom he thought to take unawares, was collecting together in the 
plain of Eontaieh all his military forces ; that the beylerhm/ had 
arrived from Europe with an army in which were marching 2,000 
auxiliary Serbs and the inhabitants of all the countries recently 
conquered. Instantly he sent an ambassador to implore peace, but 
it was too late ; the young vizier, Ali Pacha, rejected all his proposals. 
The two armies encountered each other under the walls of Tconiom, 
the capita] of the princes of Karaman. It was there that Bajazet^ 
who was destined to succeed Amnrath, first bore arms and merited 
bv hia fiery valonr the surname of Ilderim (the Lightning). The. 
KaramanianB were vanquished ; the town, immediately besieged, 
coold not offer a long resistance ; Aladdin submitted. Thanks fo the 
intercession of hie wife, who was Amurath's daughter, he preserved 
his capital and States on condition of paying tribute. 

The Sultan nestfonnd himself upon Uie frontiers of the small 
principality of Tekiob, formed from the ancient Pamphylia and a 
part of Lycia. He was urged to make himself master of it- " The 
Lion makes not war upon files," was his disdainful reply. Then he 
added :^"Know yon not that the lord of Tekieh reigns only over 
Istinos and Attalia ? " The latter took the hint and offered him the 
rest of his domains in order to keep the two towns indicated. 

4. Battle of Kattova. — Death of Amurath. 
Scarcely was the war ended in Asia, are it broke out in Europe. 
Lazarus, Krai of Servia, and Sisman, Krai of the Bulgarians, leagued 
leather, attacked a body of 20,000 Turks who were pilla|ging Bosnia 
and destroyed it almost entirely (1387). The Vizir Ali Pacha ad- 
vanced immediately towards Bulgaria, and penetrated therein by the 
defile of Kadir-Derbeud r Pmvadi was taken by force; Shumla sur- 
rendered, Sisman, besieged in Nicopolis, was compelled to submit ; 
Amuratb, from consideraiton for his daughter, demanded only from 
him pavment of tribute in arrears and the giving up of Silistria. 
Ali Pacha then directed his march towards Servia. Scarcely had he 
Bet ont, than Sisman, instead of surrendering Silistria, increased its 


56 TnBKSI OLD AND NEW. [a.d. IS8B— 1389. 

fortifications. The vizir immediately retraced his stopa, and the irar 
recommeaced : it terminated by the almost entire snbmission of 

Oaring this interval, Amnrath marched in person (^inst the Serbs. 
La^ams had called to hia aid the princes of Bosnia, Wallachia, 
Albania, and Ueriiegovina ; he was joined even by contingents from 
Hungary and Poland. All these allied forces awaited the Turkish 
army in the plain of Kassova, the military importance of which has 
been already noted; it was there that was abont to be decided to whom 
shonld belong that Empire of the East which was no more than a name 
(1389). The Tnrks were so inferior in nnmbera that they hesitated 
to give battle. The vizir opened haphazard the KoHId to seek therein, 
according to Mnsanlman cnstom, a eign of the celestial will ; he fell 
upon that passage : "0 Prophet, snbdue the infidels and the hypo- 
crites, for often a weaker force overthrows a greater." Thereupon, 
he insisted upob f;>iving battle; the ardent Bajazet supported hia 
opinion ; but, as a violent wind was raising clouds of dust that blinded 
the Ottomans, night came on ere a decision was arrived at. Towards 
morning a slight rain fell, and battle was resolved upon. On the 
side of the Chriatians none doubted of victory, and when it was 
proposed to attack the enemy daring the night, Castriot the Albanian 
opposed it, because the darkness, he said, would hinder pursnit of the 
runaways. As soon as the rain had ceased, the two armies formed 
their battle array ; a few Jauissarios placed in front of the Otto- 
man army, handled awkwardly some large cannons, a recent invention 
derived from the West, and upon which they calculated little more 
than wherewith to frighten the enemy. The battle had already begun 
and the milie was raging furiously, especially on the left wing, when, 
rashing into the midst of the Saltan's guards, a noble Serb, Milosch 
Eabilovitch, cried out that he wished to conSde a secret to him. Upon 
a sign front Amurath, he was allowed to approach him, whereupon he 
stooped down as if he would kisshisfeet, and then plnnged his dagger 
into his stomach. Then, freeing himself violently from the attendant 
guards, he sprang forward and ran as far as the bank of the river 
Ibar. Overtaken at the moment he was about to plunge into the 
stream, he was cut to pieces. Sach is the narrative of the Ottoman 
historians; the following is the Servian tradition as related by the 
Byzantine historian Jean Ducas : " On the evening before the battle, 
the King Lazams whilst drinking with his nobles out of cups called 
Stravinas .- ' Empty this cup to my health,* said Lazarus to Milosch, 
* althoi^h yon are accused of betraying us.' * Thanks,' replied Milosch, 
■ ' the course of to-morrow will prove my fidelity.' The nert morning 
Milosch, mounted upon a powerful courser, rode into the enemy's 
camp, and requested as a deserter to kiss the feet of the Sultan, 
which was granted him. Then he stooped down . . •" &c. How- 
ever that might be, Amurath had time to give orders that assured 
(he victory; Lazarae, taken prisoner, was brought before him and 
beheaded, he himself expiring in the course of a few hours. A Turk- 
ish chapel marks the spot where he died ; three large stones, placed 


A.]k isst.] Pajazgt'b conqoibts. 57 

Rt fifty ells apart, mark, as it is asserted, tlie three bonnds made by 
the ftssasein in his attempt to escape. The name of Milosch Eabilo- 
Titcli has remained popnlar amongst the Serbs and is no less re- 
membered bj the Tnrks ; in the arsenal of the seraglio they hare 
preserved his armonr and the trappings of his horse ; finally, it is 
said, that after that event was introdnced the cnstom of holding by 
both anas eveir one who was presented to the Snttan. 

The battle of Eassora was the ruin of the Serbs. It decided the 
abasement or the subjection of all the Slav peoples, and was calcn- 
lated to give definitively to the Osmanlis the domination of the 
ooontry which had formed the Byzantine Empire. 

5. Bajazet I. {BajeHd Ilderim.). — Abatement of tke Greek Emperort. 
— Acquitiiivnt in Atia Minor. — Conquest of Wallaehia and 

Bajaset was proclaimed Saltan npon the battle-field of Ksssova. 
Hie first act was to order the deaUi of bis brother Taconb, whose 
valour and popnlarity gave him nmbiage. " Sedition," says the 
Korin, " is worse than mnrder." That maxim of the Prophet has 
served to justify the political atrocities which have inaagnrated the 
reigns of the majority of the Saltans. 

After having accorded magnificent fnnerals to his father and 
brother, Bajazet vigoron sly pushed on the war against Servia; whilst 
hia lieutenants penetrated into Bosnia and Bulgaria, he compelled 
Prince Stephen, son of Lazarus, to acknowledge himself bis tribu- 
tary, and to give him his sister in marriage. At the same time, he 
nude and unmade emperors, much more the master at Constantinople 
tban the phantom, sovereigns whom he allowed to reside there. An- 
dronicuB, son of the Emperor John Paleeologns, condemned by the 
order of Amurath to lose his sight, had not been wholly blinded ; 
from the depth of his dungeon he solicited Bajazet's protection, 
promising, if he gave him the empire, to pay an enormous tribute. 
The Saltan went to Constantinople with 6,000 horsemen and 4,000 
foot soldiers, seized the Emperor John and his son Manuel, and 
placed them in the hands of Asdronicus, advisint^ him to make away 
with them. The latter contented himself with incarcerating them ; 
but shortly afterwards the prisoners escaped, and went to seek 
succour from him who had overthrown them. They had no trouble 
in deciding him in their favour. The old Emperor promised to con- 
tinue the tribute and to contribute annually a body of 12,000 men 
to the Ottoman army. However, Andronicus was not sent back to 
prison, but received &om Bajazet, as his vassal, Setymbria, Heraclea, 
BodoBto, and Thessalonica. Manuel was crowned as co-regent with bis 
father. There only remained to the one and the other Constantinople 
and its suburbs. 

However, they had not reached the last degree of abasement. 
There was reserved for them a last, unique, and incredible humiliation. 


58 TUKKET OLD AND NEW. [a.D. 13M— 1804. 

Oae town only in Asia was still occupied hy the QreeVs — Pbiladel- 
pliia (now Alaschehr) apon the confines of the principality of 
Aidin, and of the Ottoman States ; Bajazet resolved to make himself 
master of it in order to devote the revenues to the conetraction 
of his mosque at Adrianople. The governor having refused to 
open the gates, Philadelphia was invested by an army, in the ranks 
of which fibred Byzantine troops, commanded by the Emperor 
himself and his son ; both themselves mounted to the assault of their 
own city, and took possession of it in the name of the Ottomans! 
Mannel remained at the Sultan's Court among his valets and guards. 

Master of Alaschehr, Bajazet appeared disposed to invade the 
principality of A'idin. The Turkish prince went to make his sub- 
mission, acknowledged himself as vassnl, renounced his sovereign 
rights, and delivered np his chief towns. The princes of Saron- 
Khan and Mentcsch4, who reigned iu Lydia and Caria, imitated his 
example, and speedily all three, renouncing the vain shadow of 
authority, fled into the principality of Kastemonni. Thus dis- 
appeared without resistance those three States to be trangformed 
into Ottoman provinces. At the same blow was confiscated what 
remained of the principalities of Tekieh and Kermian. The princes 
of Karaman and Ekstemonui alone remained standing. The first 
was attacked and Iconium invested. To avoid being entirely 
stripped, he abandoned the greater portion of his possessions. 

After these easy conquests Bajazet commenced his march towards 
Europe, and found himself at Bronssa, when he learned that the 
Emperor had caused two new towers to be bnilt at Constantinople at 
the Gilded Gate. He ordered him tJ3 raze those structures, if he 
did not wish to see his son Manuel's eyes put out. The Emperor 
obeyed. At the commencement of the year following (1391) ho 
died. On learning this, Mannel escaped furtively from Bronssa, 
where he was performing hia service at the door of the Sultan. 
Scarcely had he arrived in Constantinople when he received an 
order to install there a cadi to judge the affairs of the Moslims ; 
and upon his refusal the surrounding country was invaded by a 
Turkish army, which kept the city besieged. Manuel resisted 
during seven years, and was during the whole of that time a 
prisoner within the walls of his capital. 

Then Bajazet, already master of a portion of Bulgaria, crossed the 
Danube and attacked Wallachia. The duke, or voivode, Marcea, 
who had figured at the battle of Eassova, was defeated and con- 
strained to (kccept a treaty (1393), by which the Sultan compels 
" the principality, subjected to his invincible laws, to pay tribute, and 
consents that it may continue to govern itself by its own laws." 
The King of Hungary, Sigismond, who advanced pretensions to the 
suzerainty of the Danubian principalities, advanced into Bulgaria, 
but was compelled to retire precipitately. The year following, the 
vizir, AH Pacha, achieved the conquest of the province. Finally, 
the Prince of Bulgaria, long shnt up in Nicopolis, capitulated with 
his son, who embraced Islamism (1394). 



b, Google 


6. Sabmistion of Atia Mii.OT. — Battle of Nieopolis. — Con^ue»t of 
Wm wm reenmed in Aaia. Aladdin, Prince of Karaman, 
attempted a final effort. He threw himself suddenly npon the 
Ottoman provincee, penetrated as far as BroQssa, and seized npon the 
bejlerbej Timonr-Tasch. At these tidings Bajazet recraesed the 
■trait_ Id vain Aladdin again tried to ne^tiate. A great battle 
was fought in the plain of Aktachai, in Kermian ; the Prince of 
Karaman ires taken and put to death ; the whole conntry was con- 
qnered and incorporated in the empire (1392). It waa destined to 
reenme its independence, and for a long while jet embarrass the 
development of the empire of the Osmanlia. 

That conquest bronght abont the Bubmission of the laBt of the 
Turkish States, Kastemonni, which comprehended, as has been said, 
the ancient Paphlagonia, with a part of Pontus. Amiaus (now Sam- 
soun), Amasia, Sinope, ancient Milesian colonies, had been consider' 
able towns in the flourishing times of the Boman Empire, and had 
not jet lost their importance ; rich in mines, industrious and popu- 
lous, that country prospered under the government of the Isfendiars, 
who had there established their domination at the commencement 
of the fourteenth century. The last representative of that dynaatj, 
Bajazet the Perclns, had given an aajlum ta the dispoHHessed princes 
of Aidin, Mentesch^ and Saron-Khan ; this was the pretext for war. 
The attack was so sudden that the strongest places oSered little 
resistance. Bajazet Isfendiar shut himself np in Sinope, and treated 
with the conqueror, who left him that town and its territorj ; but, 
not thinking himself in safety, he fled, and went to seek a protector 
in Timonr, whose conquests were beginning to resound throughout 
the Kast. Leaving to his beylerbej the care of securing his domina- 
tion in those remote provinces, Bajazet returned to Europe to watch 
more closely over Constantinople, which his forces were then be. 
sieging. He snatched awaj Thessalonica from the Greeka, which he 
had restored to them, and defeated a Christian fleet despatched from 
Italy to succour the place. 

The Qreek Empire wan now at his mercj ; the least effort would 
deliver it np to him ; his domination extended in Enrope as far as the 
Danube, in Asia to the Taurus ; he appeared to have reached the 
apogee of his power. It was then that, dissatisfied with the title of 
Emir borne bj his predecessors, he sent an embassj to the Khalife 
of Egypt, that shadowy phantom which the Mamelukes presented 
to the Mnssnlmans as the descendant of the Abbaasides, asking his 
authorization to assume the title of Sultan .- he obtained it readilj. 

Never had Christianitj sustained each terrible losseS) nor seemed 
so near to entire deetmction; never was a crasade so necessarj. 
Eing Sigismond of Hungary, after having nselessly attempted 
to defend Bulgaria, seeing his frontiers menaced, mode an appeal 


60 TOESEY OLD AND NBW. |(ul>, 1S95— 189«. 

to Enrope, aod a band of knights from the West hastened to the 
banks of the Danube. The French gave the example; in 1395, 
the Count d'En, Constable of France, led forth some five to six 
bnndred knights with whom Sigismond entered Bnlgaria and retook 
several fortresses npon the Danube. In the following year arrived 
a small army of a thonsand lances, among which figured the Count 
de Nevers (John Sans-Feur'), son of the Dnke of Bai^nndy, the Sire 
de Bourbon, Henri and Philip de Bar, consiiis of the King of France, 
the Constable, the Admiral Jean de Tienne, the Marshal Bonoicant, 
Gnj de la Tremonille, the Sire de Coacy, and the flower of the French 
nobility. In crossing Qermany they brought with them the Tentonlc 
knights and their Grand Prior, a troop of Bavarian nobles commanded 
by the Elector Palatine, and fie yonng nobility of Styria under Her- 
mann, Count of Cilly. The Gnind Master of St. John of Jerusalem 
came from Ehodea with hia chevaliers ; and finally, the Voivode of 
"Wallachift refused tribute to the Turks, and made alliance with the 
King of Hungary. 

Towards Pentecost of the year 1396 about 60,000 Christians were 
assembled at Vienna; they divided themselves into two corps, and 
directed their march towards Bulgaria : the Hungarians went by 
way of Servia, which they ravaged ; their allies by Wallachia. 
Widdin and Orsova were taken, and they reunited their forces to 
attack Nicopolis. It was then that the Christiana encountered the 
army of Bajazet, 200,000 strong, and which was composed, -to the 
shame of the schismatics of the East, of as many Serbs, Greeks, and 
Bosnians as of Osmanlis. Here, as at Kassova, a foolish confidence, 
a blind presumption, preluded a disaster of the Christian army ; to 
those fatal tendencies was further added that fiery insubordination 
which canaed the loss of bo many battles to the French armies of the 
Middle Ages. When the approach of the Turks was announced, the 
greater part of the Crusaders refused to believe it ; then the French, 
in spite of the representations of the prudent De Coney, insisted upon 
being placed in tiie first line, and to begin the combat ; finally, on the 
eve of the battle, they massacred their prisoners, thus justifying 
beforehand the sanguinary repriaals which were destined to render 
that day one of sorrowful memory. On the 22nd September the 
vanguard of Bajozet began the action. Nothing could resist at first 
the furia Francese : t£e Aiabi were dispersed in an instant, the 
Janissaries broken ; the aipahia, behind whom they rallied to reform 
their ranks, left 5,000 of their number npon the field of battle, and 
were put to the rout. The French thought themselves the victors, and 
they pursued in a disorderly way the fugitives ; when, on reaching the 
heightH, they found themselves in presence of the veritable Turkish 
army : 40,000 men in good order awaited them. At the first moment, 
seized with a panic terror, some took to fl^ht; the greater part launched 
themselves in desperation npon those hi^e masses, resolved to' sell 
dearly their lives, and to save at least the honour of chivalry. At 
a thousand paces in the rear stood drawn up the Hungarian army ; 
at the moment it saw disorder spread amongst the French ranks the 


I.».13fl6— 1M7.] BATTLB OF NICOPOLrS. 61 

wLole of the right wing, oommanded by the traitor Lazkovitz, Voirode 
of Transylvania, fied ; Marcea, who formed the left wing with his 
Wallachians, immediately ordered a retreat. The centre remained, 
consisting of faithfnl Hnngarians, under the orders of King Sieis- 
mond, and some German aaxiliaries, in all 12,000 men ; they 
marched resolutely forwards. Notwithstanding the ineqnality of 
iramhera, the fight was renewed ; and the victory would nave 
periiapB remained with the Christians, had it not been for the savage 
fary of the Serbs, who served as auxiliaries in the Turkish army ; 
it was they who decided the fortunes of the day, more fatal for their 
country than the battle of Kassova I The King of Hungary and the 
principal Qerman obiefe extricated themselves from the milie, found 
two barks od the river's bank, and descended as far ae its month, 
where a Venetian fleet received them. All the remainder were slain 
or made prisoners after a terrible strnggle. Sixty thousand Turks 
had, it is said, perished. Bajazet, frenzied with rage, rode over in the 
eveciug the field of battle covered with the dead bodies of his soldiers ; 
never had a victory cost him so dearly, and be determined to take a 
fearful revenge for it. The next morning at daybreak he caused all 
the prisoners to be mustered ; they numbered 10,000, bound hand and 
foot, and half naked ; the massacre began. The Count de Nevers 
obtained his own life and that of twenty-fonr of bis companions, but 
he was compelled to be present at the slaughter of all the Christians ; 
at length, at four o'clock in the afternoon, yielding to the entreaties 
of his lieutenants, the Sultan consented to spare those who remained. 
Among the sarvivors was Schiltbeiger, a young Bavarian equerry, 
who, later, after ^'rty-f our years of captivity, returned to his native 
oonntry to give details of that terrible day. The kings of Hungary, 
France, and Cypma joined tr^^ether to pay the ransom of the unfor- 
tnnate captives : it amounted to 200,000 ducats. 

This brilliant success raising to its highest point the power of 
Bajazet, the moment seemed arrived for taking Constantinople, which 
continued to be blockaded by the Ottoman troo^ However, the 
Sultan feared lest that enterprise might drive the Greeks to despair 
and draw upon bim a league of the Christian princes ; he therefore 
contented himself with imposing a truce on Manuel, with the following 
conditions : an annual tribute of 30,000 li^ld crowns, the introduction 
of the public worship of Islam into Constantinople, the foundation of 
a moaqne, and the establishment of a cadi. 

That truce lasted but for a very short time : Bajazet made alliance 
with the Prince of Selymbria, John, nephew of Michael, and who 
had pretensionB to the throne; then he blockaded Constantinople 
agftin. Mannel implored aid of the King of France, who sent him a 
small body of troops commanded by the Marshal de Boacicant, one 
of the conquered at Nicopolis. The tatter, with four ships of war, 
forced the entrance of the Hellespont, defended by seventeen Tnrkish 

fdleyB,and entered into Constantinople with 600 men-at-arms uid 
.000 archers. That succour drove away the Ottomans at first, and 
allowed of their retaking several fortresses ; but shortly they returned 


62 TDRKIT OLD AND NSW. [l.I>. 13M— HOT. 

in greater numbers. Boncicant, despairing of sncceas, offered Uannel 
to conduct him into France, and advised him to share the throne 
with his nephew. In fact, Mannel left Constantinople to John, and 
withdrew to the Uorca. 

Bajazet lost no time in porsoing him thither : he invaded Then- 
saly, paaaed through Thennopylte, penetrated as far as Attica with- 
out meeting with any resistance ; all the towns opened their gates 
to him. As for Mannel, he had taken ehip to go and solicit the 
Bnccour of the West. It was onlj under the walls of Athens that 
the Ottomans bad to fight. There atill sahaisted the French estab- 
lishments of the preceding century, a principality tributary to the 
Kings of Sicily and Aragon. The town, defended with conrage, waa 
taken byassantt; Argos had the same fate; all the Peloponnesns was 
sacked, and colonies of Turkomans were bronght from the centre of 
Asia to replace the Hellenio populations transported into Anatolia 
(1397). At length Bajazet reappeared under the walls of Constanti- 
nople and summoned it to open its gates. The ByzuiUnes, who were 
Hupplied with provisions for a long siege, made this thoroughly 
Christian answer : — " Go and tell your master that, weak as we are, 
we know of no power to which we can have recourse, if not to God, 
who sustains the feeble and abases the strong. Let the Snltan do 
that which pleaseth him." The siege was abont to commence, when 
the invasion of Tamerlane saved Constantinople. 

7, GonquetU of Tamerlane. 
The Empire of the Zingiskbanides had entirely fallen into dissoln- 
tion within less than a century after the death of its founder. In 
one of the innumerablo little States that had been formed ont of 
its fn^^ente, was bom, in 1335, Timonr, commonly called Timonr- 
Lenk (Timonr the Lame), and by Europeans Tamerlane. Sovereign 
by his birth of a small canton of Transoxiana, he commenced at 
thirty his warrior life by rising in arms against the Snltan of Balkh, 
of whom he was the vassal or ally. The capital was taken and 
destroyei^ ; the prince, slain by bis emirs ; in him ended the fi^mily 
of Dsch^aCi, who descended nom one of the sons of Zinghis-Khan. 
Timonr seized apon his States. Fifteen years passed ^wav in 
obBcni-e struggles against the Dgetes, aemi-barbarons tribes of Turk' 
estSn, and against the Shah of Karisme, whose capital waa destroyed 
and the empire conquered in 1!!?9. From that time, Timour, master 
of the country beyond the Oxns, conceived vast projects of conquest, 
and began to accomplish them with an astonishing rapidity. The 
KhorasBsn was subjugated in three years. Of the two families who 
shared Persia, one, the Kozaffer, became vassal of the victor; the 
other, the Ilkhans, wae compelled to flee. Soon, in consequence of a 


in. 138S— 1398.} TOsgUEBTS or TiMOCB. 63 

reroU, which was punished by maasacreB, the whole of Persia be- 
came reanited nnder the domination of Timour; j'et it required 
five years of wars and torrents of blood before be conld consolidate 
his conquest. The Princes of Geor^ and of Kirvan had hastened 
to mate sabmission ; the Prince of Diarbekir, who dared resist, was 
punished 1^ the devastation of bis States and the capture of his 
fortresses. The Khan of Kaptschak, or of Great Tartary, waa 
defeated in a g^at battle ; bis possessions aggrandized the new em- 
pire ; in a second campaign, Timour pnrsned bim beyond the Cau- 
cssns and devastated Bnssia as far as Moscow. In 1393, he seized 
npon Bagdad, upon all Mesopotamia and Armenia; at length, five 
years afterwards, be made an expedition into India, took Delhi, with 
the principal towns, and penetrated as far as the Gauges, collecting 
an immense booty. 

All these conqaests were marked by frightful cruelties : in Persia, 
70,000 inhabitants of Ispahan were massacred in one day; in the 
Kborassan, 2,000 men were bnried alive and covered over with lime 
to form the courses of a tower, a monument of vengeance reserved 
for rebeb ; epon the banks of the Ganges more than 100,000 captives 
wero slaughtered in cold blood. Timonr, however, was not solely a 
savage slaughterer, be did not confine himself merely to destroying, 
and he ought to be distinguished from amongst all those man-slayers 
who have scourged the world, and whose names posterity so stupidly 
glorifies. Zinghis-Khan and his sons had not had any well-estab- 
lished religion : alike the enemies of Mnssnlmans and Christians, 
they had even seemed to lean by preference towards the religion of 
Enrope. Under their snccessors, the Mongols were converted to 
Islamism, bat they embraced the doctrines of the Sbiites, and, in 
the time of Timour, they were in all the fervour of proselytism. 
The latter developed that religious tpirit, and showed himself a 
aealouB Mnsanlman. He employed the spoils of India to construct 
ftt Samarcand a magnificent mosque ; he made Kescb, bis native 
conntry, "the dome of sciences and civilisation; " everywhere upon 
bis way he visited, endowed or embellished the tombs of the Saints, 
the monnments of Islamism, and marched onwards accompanied by 
a train of learned men. The Shiite doctrine, more liberal, more 

Eliant than tihe blind faith of the Sunnites, left greater latitude to 
Oman l^slatiou ; Timonr waa a legislator, and, as such, he showed 
a remarkable talent for government. His Toufoukat, or code of 
laws, presents a great number of wise precepts concerning finance, 
justice, hierarobical administration, orptnization of the army. 'In. 
his immense armies, composed of a hundred different barbarous 
peoples, he maintained a wonderful discipline ; and it was amongst 
the Tartars of Timour that the first example of wearing a uniform 
ia fonnd. He knew, moreover, how to inspire bis soldiers with a 
bonndless enthnsiasm and devotion; and they were often seen to 
sacrifice to bis wish even their booty. Special agents tiHversed his 
vast States, like the mitn of Charlemagne, and rendered him an 
exact account of their observations ; others visited foreign countries, 


64 TURKKY OLD INB UBW. [a,ii. IS93— 1400. 

SJid the infonnaiton thej reported was cairefnUy registered. Head 
of a anmeroas family, Timonr wae aided by it both in bia conqneats 
and tbe administratioii of his empire : his sons and grandBons oom- 
manded his armies, or govemed the provioceB ; he made them con- 
clude marriages ivith reigning families ; and all the States of Central 
Asia fonnd theraselveB bonnd to him by ILnka of relationship. He 
■was, however, badly seconded by his own kin, and that was the cause 
of the rain of his dynasty. This conqneror, so ferocious towards his 
enemies, manifested a singnlar gentleness for his children: he par- 
doned all tlteir revolts, he redeemed all their faults ; but, after his 
death, his immense empire fell into anarchy and was dismenLbered. 

8. War between Kmowr attd Bajaset. — Battle of Angora. — Death of 

The Turkish Princes, dispossessed by Bajazet, had gone, as has 
been said, to seek an asylom with Timonr; a little lat«r, two enemies 
of the conqnering Tartar sought refnge in the States of Bajazet ; 
these were Ahmed- Djelair, Prince of Bagdad, of the dynasty of 
Ilkhan, and the Prince of Diarbekir, Kara-Ynsof, of the Tarkoman 
dynasty of the " Black Sheep." Finally, in the last conqnests of the 
Ottomans was fonnd comprised the territory of Erz-Inghian npon 
the £uphmtes, which belonged to a faithful vassal of Timonr. An 
embassy was sent to Bajazet to demand in menacing terms redress 
for that wrong; bat the Saltan, far from satisfying the requirement 
of his terrible neighbour, ordered instantly, in the first outburst of 
his wrath, the massacre of the ambassadors ; then growing calmer, 
he dismissed them with an insulting letter. Timoar immediately 
entered upon a campaign, and on the 22nd of Angost, 1400, he in- 
vaded the Ottoman territory, directing his march towards Sivas. 
That city, one of the richest and most popalons of Asia, had given 
itself np to Bajaxet in order to escape from the domination of Kara- 
Toulonk, a Turkoman Prince of the dynasty of the " White Sheep," 
the ally and vassal of Timour. Defended by Erthogrol, son of the 
Sultan, it offered at first an obstinate resistuice ; then, after a siege 
of eight«en days, it suxrendered. Timour put to death Erthogrnl 
with a portion of the garrison tuid the principal Mussulman inhabit 
tants ; as for the Christian population, which comprised more than 
the half of the city, ho caosed the whole of them to perish onder the 
most ezoruciating tortures. 

Bajazet received the news of this disaster at the moment when he 
was about to attack Constantinople. He hastened immediately to 
the snooour of his Auatic States. Already Timour had commenced a 
retreat : he had a greater injury to avenge upon the Sultan of Egypt, 
who had pnt his ambassadors to death. Syria was devastated with 
BO much the more fury, that the Shiites there met at every step the 
monuments of the opposite sect. After two victories obtained, one 


A.B. 1401— 1102.] WAS BSTWBBM TtlfODE AKD BAJAZBT. 65 

under the walls of Aleppo, tKe other before DamascoB, those two 
capitals were taken : at Aleppo there waa a wholeeale massacre ; 
DamascoB, after having paid a lanaom of a million ducats, was, at a 
word of displeasure from the conqueror, delirered up to the fury of 
the soldiers, and completely burnt (1401). Master of Syria, Timour 
returned to Bagdad, where, in his absence, Ahmed-Dielair had re- 
entered and had re-establi^ed his authority, with the consent of 
the citj : this fault was pnnished by the extermination of all its in- 

During this sanguinary career Timour had sent to Bajazet a fresh 
embassy, charged with a conciliatory message ; the latter only replied 
thereto by renewed insults, and the war recommenced. It was near 
Angora that the two armies found themselves in presence of each 
other (30th June, 1402). They amounted together to nearly a million 
of men : all the nations scattered between the Danube and the Indns 
wore there represented. It was the most formidable struggle that 
either of the two empires, that either of the two monarcha had 
hitherto bad to saataiu. But the dispositions of the two armies were 
not the same : whilst the Tartars were animated \iy a ferocious en- 
thusiasm, and the most entire confidence in their dtiefs, the avarice 
and rigour of Bajazet had rendered the Ottomans disafiected ; the 
troops from Asia Minor had been tampered with by the agents of 
Timour, and were ready to betray the Saltan ; finally, the hanghti- 
neaa and the obstinacy of which the latter had given proof during the 
negotiations made the soldiers doubt the justice of his cause, a fatal 
disposition in minds so deeply imbued with fatalism. At the very 
outset of the combat the troops of Aldin, MenteschS, Kermian, and 
8aron-fD)aD passed over to the enemy. However, the struggle lasted 
the whole day ; the Servian ausiliaries, who formed the left wing, 
and the 10,000 Janissaries placed in the centre, sustained with an 
unshakable courage the assaults of the enemy. At last, with night a 
rout began ; Bajazet, hurried away by the fugitives, was pursued and 
made prisoner, together with him bis son Mousa, his faithful hOTler- 
bey, the chief of the harem, the commander of the eanuchs, and the 
principal emirs. 

All the European historians have related, on the faith of a Byzaq- 
tine chronicler, how Timour humbled the pride of his prisoner, how 
he dragged him' in the train of his army, shut up in an iron cage. 
Not the slightest trace of this fable is to be found in Eastern writers ; 
it appears, on the contrary, that Bajazet was treated with great con- 
sidamtion, the dignity of a prince, though fallen, being carefully 
conceded to him ; Timour even conversing familiarly with him and 
giving bim some hope of liberty. But after the failure of an attempt, 
on the part of himself or his &iends, to effect his escape, the Imperial 
captive was subjected to a more severe kind of treatment, being 
closely watched during the day, and even seonred with chains at 
night. When tbe army was on the march, Bajazet appears to have 
been carried in a kind of latticed or grilled litter, suspended between 
two hones, such as waa used in the East in conveying the harem 


G6 TGRKET OLD AND NEW. [^Ih 13S9— 140S. 

from place to place. Hence arose the nell-known but questionable 
Btoiy of tbe iron cstge. The Turkish word kafe, which signifies a 
litter of the description above mentioned, does ^so denote a ca^, 
and this was probably the oiagin of the mistake that has prevailed 
respecting the mode of Bajazet's confinement. But the fiery Sultan 
could not long resist the despair of his defeat and the wearinesa 
of his captivity : he died in the camp of Timour on hia return 
towards the East, at Akshehr, 9th March, 1403. 

The reign of Bajazet the Lightning, so remarkable by the Ottoman 
conquests and by the disaster which interrupted them, is not less so by 
the weakening of the religious spirit and the moral decadence of the 
conquerors. The first chiefs of tJie Ottomans had had the simplicity, 
the ferocious zeal, the fanatical austerity of the first Buccessore of 
the Prophet ; but Bajazet, although, indeed, following the example 
of his fathers, be protected the learned, built mosques and cloisters, 
yet had no scruple about violating the precepts of the Eor&n and 
of giving an example of intemperance and debauchery. His vizier, 
still more corrupt than himself, favoured the old vices of the East, 
and introduced every kind of disorder into the seraglio of the 
Sultan by creating the corps of ichoglam or pages, which was ro- 
oruited like that of the Janissaries. Corruption spread on all sides— 
in the army, in the tribunals; and the venality of the judges be. 
came so scandalons that Bajazet ordered in one day eighty prevari. 
eating judges to be put to death. We will not dwell upon the 
cruelties that sully the conqueets of the Osmaulis; they are the shame 
of their annals, as they are of the history of every other people of 
the East, and the lugubrious and disgusting recital of massacres, 
tortures, and barbarities of every kind is not yet ended. 


I. Interregnum. — War between the Sotis of Bajazet (1403-1413). 
Thb disaeter of Ajigora plunged the Ottoman Empire into anarchy, 
and for a while it was thought bad entailed its ruin. All the recently 
conquered States— Bulgaria, Servia, Wallachia, the Morea, Ac, 
resumed their independence j Constantinople breathed again, and in 
Asia Minor were seen to reappear the rival dynasties of Kastemouni, 
Sarou-Khan, Aidin, and of Karaman, which the Osmanlis had had 
so much trouble to destroy. Four sons of the Snltan had escaped 
from the field of battle : Soljman, the eldest, followed by the vizier, 
All Pacha, the aga of the Janissaries, and the valiant Ewrenos-Bey, 
fled precipitately to Bronssa, and thence into Europe. Mahomet, the 



second son, who was destinod to restore to the empire its unity and 
grandeur, shut himself np in Amasia, and defended hlmeelf obsti- 
nately against the enterprisea of the Tartars and the malevolence of 
hifi neighbonre. Mousa, the third son, hid himself in Karanuuia ; 
the fonrth, Mnstapha, disappeared, at least for some years, for he will 
be seen to reappear on the historic stage. The Tartar troops spread 
themselves all over Asia Minor. Mirza Mahomet, Timoor's grand- 
son, being lannched in porsnit of Soljman, followed at his heels with 
4,UO0 horsemen to BroDsaa, traversing seventy-five leagnes in five 
days : he seized upon the treasure and the harem of Bajazet, and 
save Qp the city to pillage and flames. Other bands destroyed 
Kiceea, placed nnder contribution the less important towns, and 
sacked all the country districts. 

Meanwhile, Timonr, with the bulk of the army, repaired to 
Koataieh, where he temporarily fixed his resideoce. His first care 
was to reconstitate the Turkish principalities and dynasties destroyed 
by Bajazet. At the same time he placed himself in aommtinicatioa 
with the three Ottoman princes, encoDraged their pretensions, left 
Solyman master of tb.e European provinces, welcomed the envoy of 
Monsa, and invited Mahomet to visit him. This skilful line of con- 
duct threatened with entire dissolution the empire so patiently con- 
■tructed by the first Osmanlis : Asia Minor was about to find itself 
parcelled out afresh as at the commencement of the fourteenth 
century ; but Timour did not remain there long enough to consum- 
mate his work. After having helped to ruin Smyrna, where the 
knigths of Rhodes defended themselves with a bootless heroism, after 
having, during nearly a year, devastod and ensanguined the coasts 
of the Archipelago and the Mediterranean, the destroyer withdrew, 
reckoning upon thegerms of discord that he left bobindhim to hinder 
(he Ottoman Empire from again raising its head. He confided to the 
Prince of Kermian the body of Bajazet and the care of bis son 
Monsa, who had shared his captivity; then he directed his march 
towards the East with the design of conqueriug China, but death 
surprised him (1405). 

As soon as Timour had departed the struggle commenced between 
the sons of Bajazet. Manuel Palseologns, to whom the battle of 
Angora had restored the throne o^ Constantinople, took a great part 
in it; he made alliance alternately with the three brothers, and 
obtained from Solyman the restitution of Thessalonica, certain places 
on the Strymon, and on the littoral of the Black Sea. This was a 
sort of resarroction for the Byzantine Empire, which was destined 
yet to have another half century of dnration. Meanwhile, Monsa 
appeared at Bronsaa, accompanied by the bejlerbey, Timour-Tascb, 
and there established his authority, bat could not maintain himself 
therein against his brother Mahomet. After having successively 
implored the support of Solyman, of the Prince of Kastemonnl, of 
the Lords of AidJn, of Mentesche and of Kermian, fonr times de- 
feated, be disappeared from the political theatre, and lived for a 
while in obscarity under the protection of the Emir of Kermian. 

F 2 



There remained Mabomet and Solyman, ■who each took the title of 
Snltan,* the one in Enrope, the other in Asia; their rivalry was 
destined to be longer and more desperate. Pjoaneid, Solyman'a 
Lientenant, seized upon, in his name, the principolitf^ of Aidin ; then 
he rendered himself independent therein, and Btrengthened bimsetf 
hy alhance with the Princes of Kermian and E^raman. Summoned 
to Asia by this treason, Solyman seized npon Broassa, and tbns 
placed himself in hostility at once 'with his brother and with the 
leaded princes. He had at first some snccesses; his enemies sepa- 
rated ; Djonne'id made a prompt submission ; at the same time his 
army seized npon Angora. Bat Solyman, a Tolnptnons and effemi- 
nate prince, had to cope with an active and indeuitigahle rival : his 
good fortune was not of long dnration. 

After having allied himself with the Turkish, princes of Asia 
Uinor (1406), Mahomet sent into Enrope his brother Monsa, whom 
the Emir of Kermian bad delivered np to him, and secnred him the 
alliance of the Princes of Servia and Wallacbia, who again took np 
arms. Solyman, tbns attacked in his own States, was constrained to 
abandon Asia. Meanwhile, Monsa was conquered through the treason 
of the Krai of Servia, and sought refuge in Wallacbia; bnt, whilst 
Solyman gave bimBclf np in the seraglio of Adrianople to his aensnal 
proclivities, Monsa appeu«d suddenly at the gates of that city (1410). 
.That pressing danger conld not tear Solyman from bis inaction : he 
caused the beard of the aga of the Janissarios to be shaved off when 
he came to annonnce the arrival of the enemy. His emirs, indig- 
nant, abandoned him ; constrained to flee, he was slain on the road to 
Constantinople by the peasants. 

Monaa, who succeeded him, was active, sober, conrageous, but of a 
tyrannical cruelty ; he soon rendered himself odious to sll his fol- 
lowers. However, he commenced war against the Greek Emperor, 
seized npon Tbessalonica and the towns on the Strymon, then he 
went to beside Constantinople. Manuel having implored the aid of 
Mahomet, the latter hastened to render it ; but he could not over- 
come his brother, and returned hastily into Asia, where seven^ 
revolts bad broken out. Two years after he returned with more 
considerable foreee. The increasing tyranny of Mousa bad created 
fresh discontents ; the defection became general : left with 10,000 
Janissaries whom he bad attached to himseU by dint of gold, he was 
abandoned by them at the moment of giving battle ; he took to 
flight, and the horsemen charged with the pursuit of him found in a 
marsh his mutilated body. 

2. Reign of Mahomet I. (1413-1421). 

Mahomet saw himself at length sole master of the empire, but of 

in empire diminished and abased: he fonnd bis territories reduced, 


A.B. 1413—1416.] BEtON OF U&HOUBT I. &d 

his ferces exhausted, the acqniBitipna of two leigriB lost, the nations of 
which his father and grandfather had been sovereigns reEtscended to 
the rank of allies or rivalB. To all this mast be added the prestige 
of the Ottoman name gravely compromised, the confidence of the 
soldiers of Islam, nntil then invincible, shaken ; ill-boding germs of 
discord and of rebellion in men's minds by twelve years of anaroby 
snd civil war. Uahomet therefore had much to do to restore the 
empire to its former grandenr : it was a taak that demanded a rare 
combination of pradenoe and firmness, and which he was competent 
to accomplish. Loyal towards his alliep, moderate towards hie 
enemies, eqnitable and clement in his relations with his anbjecta, he 
established order and peace interiorly, whilst abroad he preserved a 
defensive attitude which his snccesses cansed to be respected. At 
length, in a jndicions reign of some eight years, he succeeded in 
effacing the traces of disorder which had vei; nearly annihilated the 
Ottoman Empire. 

As soon as he wss delivered from his brother, the Greek Emperor, 
the Princes of Wallachia, Servia, Bulgaria, Epims and Achaia 
addressed to him their felicitations. He gave a favourable reception 
to their envoys, and on dismissing them said :— " Tell yonr masters 
that I send peace to all, and that I accept it from all ; and may Ood 

Eanieb the violators of it ! " Faithful to his word, he restored to the 
mperor the places which Monsa had recently wrested from him ; 
he renewed with the Venetians the commercial treaty made 'with hia 
brother; and he released the Princes of Wallachia and Servia from 
all tribat«, Ac, Meanwhile, a twofold danger reqnired his presence 
in Asia — the Prince of Kaiaman had marched to the attack of 
Bronssa, and Djonneid, the former Lieutenant of Solyman, had 
■gain seized npon Ephesus, Smyrna, and Fergamus to construct out 
of them an independent principality. Hahomet first confronted 
Djonneid, who sued for pardon, obtained it, and was made, some 
few years afterwards. Governor of Nicopolis. He marched next 
against the Prince of Karaman, defeated him on several occasions 
and forced him to sue for peace (1415). During this expedition the 
Saltan reduced to submission the Prince of Eastemouni ; he obtained 
from him oae of bis sons to serve in the Ottoman army, and made 
him cede the greatest portion of his State. 

On his return to Europe he despatched an expedition against the 
I>ake of Naxos, Lord of the Cyclades, who was molesting tha 
Turkish vessels in the Archipelago. This duke was a noble Vene- 
tian, Pietro Zeno, who summoned his countrymen to his aid, and 
thfuce sprang the first hostilities between Venice and the Ottomans. 
On the 29th May, 1416, a Venetian sqnadron appeared under the 
walls of Gallipoli ; it displayed in vain a white flag in token that it 
desired to negotiate. The Tarks, unable to believe in an embassy 
accompanied by so large a fleet, opened fire npon it, but lost twenty, 
■even vessels bnmt or captured. That war, however, cansed by a 
misunderstanding, was promptly terminated ; a treaty was concluded 
on the IHh Jnly of that same year, and the solemn ratification of it 


70 TanSBT old and HBW. [i.d. 1417—1419. 

woB made the rear following at Venice, by a Tor^ish ambaesador, 
the first who had appeared in Chrietendom. B; this treaty the 
Ottomans boand themselves not to sail oat of the Strait of Qalltpoli 
in armed vensels. 

Tho following years were occQpied with peaceful concerns or with 
hostilities of small importance. The Saltan intervened in the oSairs 
of Wallachia, and compelled the Yo'ivode to pay tribute ; then he 
invaded Bosnia and Croatia; hut hia troops were defeated by Nichola.s 
Peterfy, vice-palatine of Uangary, and by King Sigismond (1419). 
In Asia he contracted relations with the princos who were dispnting 
for the remnants of the Empire of Timoar, and promised them his 
alliance whilst he awail«d the opportnjiity to profit by their dis- 

In the midst of this reviving prosperity an extraordinary sedition 
broke out — a sedition at once democratic and religions, which at- 
tacked not only the personal authority of the Snltan, bat even the 
principles of Islamism and Mussulman society. In the environs of 
Smyrna a sect appeared, the adherents of which preached absolute 
equality, poverty, community of goods; and seemed moreover to 
adore the same G-od as the Christiass, and to welcome them as 
brothers. On all sides the rajahs, the poor, the oppressed, embraced 
the new doctrine, and especially a great number of dervishes. The 
veritable promoter of these strange dogmas was Bedreddin de Siman, 
a learned jurisconsult and distinguished theologian, who, after having 
been jadge of the army under Mousa, was occupied with judicial 
functions at Niceea. He did not, however, place himself openly at 
the head of the insurrection ; his instruments were a Turk of obscure 
birth, Berebloudje-MuBtapba, who assumed the title of Dede-Saltan 
{father and lord), and gave himself out as, or fancied himself, a 
prophet. AsBOciated with him was an apostate Jew, named Torlak- 
Kemali, who, followed by a band of 3,000 dervishes, went about the 
country preaching the doctrine of equality. 

The headquarters of these sectaries were at Mount Stylarios, 
opposite Scio, the native place and abode of Dede-Snltan. There, 
having mustered to the number of 10,000 strong, they exterminated 
the first body of troops sent to disperse them, and defeated the 
governor of the province, who had placed himself at the head of 
another expedition. It became necessary to send a considerable army 
against them, under command of the youthful Amnrath, son of the 
Sultan, and Bajezid Pacha, his best general. After a sanguinary 
battle, Dede-Snltan was taken, with those of his adherents who had 
survived. All were pat to the sword; men, women, and children 
refusing, under the extremity of torture, to abjure their doctrine. 
Epbesus was drenched in blood. The Jew Torlak and his dervishes 
were afterwards pursued and defeated near Magnesia; that chief, with 
his principaJ disciple, was hanged, and the others dispersed. Finally, 
the army returned to Europe, where the chief focus of the insur- 
rection had next declared i-self, Bedreddin having appeared in the 
mountains of the Ufecnus, and had rapidly raised thei-e a considerable 


A B. 1419-1421.] DUTH OF HAHOHBT I, 7t 

force. Defeated near Seres, he was hanged, iiotwithstaiiding the 
repntation ha pOBsessed as a learned man, aad the high dignity with 
which he had been iaveBted. Thns ended the revolt of the derviBhea, 
a unique episode in the Ottoman annals, nniqae even ia the historj 
of Islantism, and which has been bat very imperfectly noticed in 
Enropean history ; for it cannot be doubted that it involved an 
attempt of the Christian races to regain their independence. 

This revolt was scarcely cmshed ere it prodaced another of a 
natare wholly different. A pretender to the throne appeared, giving 
himself o&t to be Mastapha, the fourth son of Bajazot, who had dis- 
appeared after the battle of Angora. The Ottoman historians affirm 
that this was an impostor. Supported by Marcea, Voirode of Wal- 
lachia, and by Djonneld, for the third time a rebel, he invaded 
Theasalj. Conquered near Thessalonica, he sought an asylum in 
that city. The Emperor Manuel, who was the friend and ally of 
Mahomet, detained him pi-isouer with his partisans, and received for 
that service an annual pension of 900,000 asprea. 

In the spring of the following year (1421) Mahomet, after a 
journey of some months in Asia, halted at Gallipoli, and died there 
of apoplexy. He left three eons, Amurath his heir, who was then 
in Amasia, and two yonng princes, whom he had contmended to the 
care of his friend Manuel. His courtiers kept his death se' ret nntil 
Amurath could be apprised of it; but a report of his malady having 
^read abroad, the troops mutinied, demanding to see the Snltan. 
The order was given them to recroas the Strait and march to Bronssa. 
The Jasimaries thereupon refused obedience. With a view to 
appease tJiem, the body of the deceased Saltan was placed apon a 
throne behind the windows of a darkened kiosk, whilst a page con- 
cealed behind the corpse, with his arms passed through the sleeves of 
its pelisse, saluted the soldiers with his hands, who defiled without 
suspecting the trick. They then set ont immediately, and learned, 
on arriving at Broussa. the death of their master and the presence 
of his SQCcessor. 

3. Amitratk II. (1421-1450).— Ctini War.—Siegi of Constantinople.— 
Suhmitgion of the Turkish States of Ana Minor. 
The reign of Amurath II. opened with civil war. The Emperor 
Hannel demanded of the new Snltan that the young Ottoman princes, 
whose education had been confided to him by Mahomet, should be sent 
to his Court. He received for answer that it was contrary to the 
law of Islam that the Saltan's brothers should be brought up amongst 
the Oiaovrg. Whereupon Manuel released Mnstapha from prison, 
had him brought ia Constantinople, and signed a treaty with him, 
by which the pretender engaged to reetore to the Qre^s Gallipoli, 
Thessaly, and the northern shore of the Black Sea as far as Wal- 
lachia. A few days afterwards Mastapha presented himself before 
Gallipoli at tbe head of a Greek army. The city opened its gates ; 


/2 TCEKEY OLD llfD NBW, [tD. 1421— 1422. 

from thence, and accompanied by Djonne'id, whom he had named hin 
vizier, he marched to Adrianople, where the sons of Kwrenos and 
several bejB came to join him, aa well as a host of irregular soldiers, 
oat of which he formed an army. Amnrath, however, had hastened 
to despatch Bajezid Pacha into Enrope, who mnstered all the troops 
of Bonmelia,* and with them confronted the rebels. Bnt Mnstapha, 
at the moment the battle was abont to commence, advanced alone, 
harangued the soldiers of the Sultan, and at his voice all passed over 
to his side. Bajezid was taken and massacred. 

Mnstaphaalreadj believed himself mssterof Europe. Aaenmingthe 
offensive, he passed the Strait, and took up a position threatening the 
camp of Amnrath. There he lost several days in hesitation, which 
brought abont his min. AU his cavalry was composed of " akind* 
schis " {scoiite). Amnrath, to sedace them, employed their former 
comiiiander,Michalog1i, kept in prison since the fall of Moasa. He was 
set free and brought into tbe camp. As soon as he appeared his old 
soldiers hastened to rejoin him. At the same time Amorath'a vizier 
had an nnderstanding with Djon&e'id, who secretly (quitted the camp 
of Mnstapha. As soon as his absence was perceived, all the rest, 
seized with a panic terror, dispersed, Unstapha himself fleeing pre- 
cipitately to Lampsacos, snd thence to OallipcH. Amnrath followed 
him closely ; he passed the Strait by the aid of some Genoese vessels, 
and cast anchor near the latter city. A combat ensued, and Uns* 
tapha, defeated, fled towards Adrianople ; halting there only to carry 
off the jewels from the treasury, and then continued his flight in the 
direction of Wallachia. He had scarcely accomplished a day's march 
when his followers seized upon him, and brought him back to Adria- 
nople, where Amnrath had jnst arrived. The pretender was hanged 
upon one of the t«wers of Uiat city. 

The Qreek Emperor, on learning this sudden catastrophe, essayed 
to disarm the resentment of Amnrath ; but the time for that had 
passed. The Sultan refused to listen to his ambassadore, and sent 
them back with the announcement that he would quickly follow them. 
In fact, 20,000 Ottomans soon appeared under the walls of Constan- 
tinople (1422). They burned the villE^es and harvests, destroyed 
the vines and olive trees, and massacred tbe inhabitants. Then t^ey 
dug a trench round the city, which closed every issue to the besi^ed 
on the land side. The promise of a general pilla^ dr^w into the 
Ottoman camp a host of soldiers and adventnrere of every kind. 
Five hundred dervishes repaired thither, led by the Grand Sheik 
of BrouBsa, Seid Bochari, who wan called Emir. Sultan ; they 
claimed, as their share of the booty, the nuns of the convents in 
Oonatantinopie. After consulting the books of the divinere, the 
Sheikannouncedthat, on Monday, August the24>th, an hour after noon, 
he would mount his horse, brandish his sabre, shout thrice his war-cry, 
and then the walls of the city would tumble down. When the day 
came he gave the signal for the assault, which was terrible. The 

* Roumelia EigniHrB tfas country of th« Bomuu, it being lbs name giran bj die 
Oltonuui* to (tieir po«wB«ion» in Enroptk 


A.l>. 1423— 1421] AHUKiTH's EUCCBflSES. 73 

fight iftged fnrionsly along the entire extent of the ramparta from the 
Golden Gate to the "Wooden Gate. Women, children, and old men 
alike laboured at the defence ; still the struggle lasted until ennaet with 
the same doRperation, when suddenly the Tnrka bamed their siege 
machinefl and retired. The Greeku attributed their deliverance to 
the Virgin Mary; and Gmir-Soltan himself afOrmed, it was said, that 
when the melie was at its height of fury the Holy Virgin had 
appeared on the walls clad in a violet vestment, the dazzling bright- 
ness of which attracted the gaze of all, and that that anpematnral 
intervention had changed the conree of destiny. 

The raising of the siege may be explained otherwise than by a 
miiacle. Amnrath learned that a fresh revolt had broken ont in 
Asia ; that his yonngest brother, also named Mnstapha, supported by 
the Prince of Karam&n, and solicited by the Greek Emperor, had 
token ap arms, and had seized upon Nictea. Ho instantly despatched 
troops into Asia. At their approach the accomplices of Hnstapha 
took bim prisoner, and delivered him up to the Snltan, who caused 
him to be strangled. 

Freed from this danger, Amnrath did not resume his projects 
against Constantinople, preferring to secnre his domination in Asia. 
He first directed an expedition against the Prince of Sastfimonni, 
irhich obtained renewed snbmission from him, the cession of the 
mines of the country, and the hand of his daughter (1423). Then, 
the year following, the irrepressible Djonneid, with nnmerons bands 
of adventurers, having taken posseBsion of the principality of Aldin, 
Amnrath sent an army to chastise him for his many rebellions. 
Djonneid being nnahle to resist the forces directed against him, his 
brother and son were taken prisoners ; whilst he himself, reduced to 
abnt himself np in the fortress of Hypaela, was there blockaded 

l^landandseaby theaidof Genoese ships. He surrendered, stipula- 
ting that his life should be spared ; out Hamsa Bey, brother of 
Bajezid, caused him to be strangled in hia priaon with all hia family. 

Basuming possession of the A'tdin conntiy, Amnrath next seized 
upon the territories of Mentesche, to the prejudice of the nephewa 
of the last prince, who were kept in prison. At the same juncture, 
the Princes of Tekieh and Karaman having attacked Attalift, both 
perished under its walls. The territoriea of Tekieh were reunited to 
the Ottoman possessions; that of Karaman, diminished by one-half, 
was left to one of the sons of the deceased prince. Thus, of the 
Turkish States retrieved by Timour, there only remained Karaman, 
very much diminished, Kastemonni, reduced to impotence, and Ker- 
mian. Shortly after the aged Prince of Kermian went to visit Am- 
nrath in his European provinces ; he was received with magnificence, 
and, in retnm, he bequeathed his States to the Sultan, dying in the 
following year. Finally, npon the Eastern frontier on the side of 
Diarbekir, certain tribes of Turkomans being in commotion, Amnrath 
stationed there, as governor of Amasia, Turked Pacha, one of his beys, 
who made himself, master, by treason of the most tnrbnient of the 
chiefs, and l^ their death secor^ the tranqaillity of the frontiers. 


Henceforward, the Ottomanii, having no longer any rivals o 
of Asia, devoted all their efforts on the aide of Europe. 

4. Ware in Albania, Wallaakia, and Seroia.—Suwjade Coroinut. — 
Defeat of the Ottomans. 

Amnmtb intervened at first in a war between ths Serbs and the 
Hungarians, and he tbos came to acqaire a. first station on tbe Dannbe, 
Caenmbatz, at the entrance of the defile of Orsova and Knischevatz, 
the central BOB ition of Servia (1428). Next, he dealt soch blowa 
against the Greeks as wore calcnlated to bring abont definitively their 
rain. The Ottomans had. already made divers efforts to get posses- 
sion of Thessalonioa. John Palfeologns, the new Emperor of Con- 
stantinople, finding himself incapable of defending that important 
city, had ceded it to the Venetians. Amnrath, irritated, broke with 
those mlers of the Mediterranean and attacked Thessalonica (1430). 
The inhabitants were disposed to surrender, bnt they were restrained 
by the Venetian garrison, who made a furious defence. After a 
siege of fifteen days, the city was carried by assault, and sacked, the 
churches pillaged, and all the population massacred or reduced to 
slavery. The Venetians again made an nnsnccessful attempt against 
Oallipoli, bnt they treated, and peace was ostablished. 

The Sultan tnen turned his arms against Albania, Servia, and 
Wallachia, desirous of becoming master of all the detached provinces 
of the Qreek Empire, before he attacked Constantinople. Thai in- 
evitably led to the Turks being brought in contact with Hungary, 
and a memorable straggle was about to be engaged in. 

Albania was divided into two principal dominations : the south, as 
well as .^tolia and Acamania, belouged to the heirs of a Florentine 
adventurer, one Carlo Tocci, who had made himself master of them 
in the preceding century, and those heirs now dixpnted the possession. 
So soon aa the Olttimans entered their territory, Jan ina and the 
principal strongholds submitted, on condition that the inhabitants 
should preserve their laws and religion. Tbe north was subjeot to 
John Castriot, the descendant or heir of the Balsas ; he was forced 
to deliver up his four sons to the Sultan, who, at hia death, took 
possession of the country, and even sent some bands as far as into 

At the same period Walla chia changed masters. Mad Drakul, or 
the Devil, overthrew and put to death Dan, his kinsman ; he defeated 
the Turkish troops sent against him, but he only preserved hia throne 
on condition of paying tribute and supplying troops to the Sultan 

In Servia reigned Georges Brankowioh, a descendant of Lazarus, 
He was attacked in his turn by the Turks, obliged to submit and to 
give his daughter in marriage to Amnrath. From thence, dr^ging 
after him the auxiliary corps of Brankowich and Drakul, the Saltan 
entered Transylvania, ravaged the country, and carried away 70,000 


A.1l,iat—144t.] OnOHAH BBTE&BB9. 75 

priaqners (1436). The Krai of Servia having pat Semendria, on the 
DaDnbe, in a state of defence, Anmratti demanded from him the keys 
of that place.and, on his refasal, besieged it, took it, and ptit ont the 
eyes of the Krai's son, vrho defended it. Albert, then King of Una- 
pary, went to the aBBistance of the Serbs, but at sight of the 
Turks his soldiers fled (1439). An Ottoman army besieged Belgrade 
in rain dnring six months ; then it penetrated again into TransylTania 
and went to besiege Hermanstadt. 

Ladislas, King of Poland, had sncoeeded to Albert on the throne of 
Hungary ; the Voivode of Transylvania waa John Corvinns Hunyade, 
whose task it was to arrest the conqnering march of the Turks daring 
twenfrf years. That hero, of Roumanian race, had raised himself 
by hia merits to the command of the Hungarian armies. It was to 
him that Ladislas owed the throne of Hungary, and through gfratitude 
had made him Yofvode of Transylvania. Hunyade hasteaed to the 
defence of Hermanstadt, defeated the Turks, killed 20,000, and drove 
the remainder beyond the Dannbe. He sent to the Krai of Servia a 
carriage laden with booty, amongst which were the heads of the con- 
quered Turkish geneiaJs, inviting the Krai to join him. A fresh army 
of 80,000 Turks appearing to arrest his progress, he boldly ventured, 
with only 20,000 men, to give them battle at Vas^, and achieved a 
victory fully as complete as the first (1442). 

The campaign of 1443 was still more disastrous to the Ottomans, 
and raised the reputation of Hunyade to the highest pitch ; it was 
called by the Hungarians his " long campaign." Setting ont from 
Ofen, the 22nd July, at the bead of an army of all nations, he passed 
the Danube at Semendria, trHTersed Servia, ravaging it as far as 
fiissa, and there fought a great battle, in which the Tnrka left 2,000 
dead and 4,000 prisonera. Then he seized upon Sophia, ventured, 
despite the rigour of winter, to cross the Hemus, forced the defile of 
the Soulu-Derbend or " Gate of Trajan," notwithstanding the efforts 
-of the Turks, and, on Christmas Day, entered upon Bulgarian terri- 
tory, where the inhabitants received him as a liberator. Finally, he 
obtained at Talovaz, at the foot of Mount Konoricza, a great victory, 
and retook the way to Ofen laden with an immense booty, and 
drawing after him a long train of captives, amongst whom was the 
beylerbey of Boumelia. 

Amarath was constrained to humble himself. He restored Wal- 
lacbia to Drakul, surrendered to Brankowich Semendria and his 
other strongholds,' and then sued for peace at the hands of Hunyade. 
A truce of ten years was concluded (July, 1444), which placed Servia 
and WaUflchia under the suzerainty of Hungary. 

To BO many reverses was now added the death of Aladdin, the 
Snltan's eldest son. Disgusted with power, Amurath could not bear 
up against this last blow. Entrusting authority to his son Mahomet, 
then fourteen years old, he sought retirement amongst the dervishes 
of Magnesia, in the government of Saru-Khan, with the intention of 
ending bis days in peace. 



5, Satile of Varna. — Scanderbeg. — Battle of Kastova. 

Scarcely had be reached hie retreat ere he was drawn from it by 
an anforeseen event — peace woe already broken. The TnrkiHh nego- 
tiators of it had scarcely retired when the Cardinal Cesarini, the 
papal legate, Bununoned King Lodielas to tear up the treaty to which 
Its had Bwom upon the EvangelietB ; the faith that he had pledged to 
the infidels being, he said, nnll and void in law. To this summonB 
were added letters from the Qreek Emperor and Cardinal Condol- 
mieri, commandant of the pontifical fleet, who insisted that the 
absence of the Saltan sbonld be taken advantage of : a great croEade, 
they affirmed, bad been resolved apon to drive the Tnrks into Asia. 
The army of these Crasaders was merely composed of German and 
Italian adventarers, of whom Cardinal Cesarini hod taken command, 
and the Hungarian forces did not exceed at most 10,000 men. With 
these feeble resonrces they proposed to destroy the Ottoman power. 
Perjury was never more barefaced. It was expected that the Turka 
woold have evacuated the Servian strongholds; then, on the first 
September, 1444, war was declared, and the march of the Crusaders, 
in conjunction with Draknl uid the Wallachians, was directed along 
the Danube. Bolgaria was devastated, and Yama beeiegeiL Sud- 
denly news came that Amniath had retnmed; the GeDoesa,'won over 
by the Sultan's gold, had transported his troops from Asia to Europe, 
and sailing through the fleet of the Cmsadere, he had encamped four 
miles distant from the Christian army with 40,000 men. Despite 
inferiority of numbers it was determined to give >i'Tn battle. On 
the lOth of November the two armies found themselves in presence 
of each other. Amumtb, posted in the centre with his Janissaries, 
caused to be carried before him at the point of a lance the original 
of the broken treaty. At the first shook, Hunyade drove in the left • 
wing of the Turkish army; the Wallachians scattered the other 
wing, and penetrated the Sultan's camp. Already Amurath was 
inclined to flee; one of his beys seized his horse's bridle and im- 
plored him to stand firm. At that moment King Ladislas rtuhed 
upon the Janissaries, pierced through their ranks until he reached the 
Sultan, whom he struck' with his fist, and, at the same instant, his 
horse fell witb him. A Janissary cut oS his head, and placing it on 
the point of a pike, shouted, " Oiaours, behold your king ! " At this 
spectacle the Hungarians broke their ranks, and their remnants 
sought shelter behind the entrenchments, whilst John of Hunyade 
and the Wollacbians took flight. Nezt day the Turks carried the 
Christian camp by assault, the defenders of which were massacred, 
and amongst the number was the legate Cesarini. 

The victory of Varna permitted Amurath to resume the projects 
of the Ottomans against we renuants of the Byzantine empire. 

The Emperor Manuel had divided those remnants between hia 
seven sons : the eldest, John, possessed only Constantinople and its 


t.v. IMS— 1448.] SCIKDIRBSQ. 77 

euTinma; two others — Constantine, irlio woe the last Emperor of 
Bjsantinm, and Thoma.B — poBsesaed the lilorea, Thebes, and a P^u^ 
of Thessaly. Foreseeing the attack which threatened them, Con- 
stantine aiid Thomas canaed the ancient fortifications of the Isthmns 
of Corinth to be restored. Bat aft«r having' imposed his alliance on 
the Dnke of Athens (one N»^ a Florentine), Amarath advanced to 
the wall of the iathmoB, beeiegod it with cannon, and oarried it by 
assault. That obetacle once overthrown, Corinth was taken and 
bamt, and the Feloponneens sacked withont mercy. The two 
Palsologi obtained peaoe on condition of paying tribute. 

That facile expedition terminated, Amnrath tnmed his efforts 
uainst Albania, which had grown restless. There had arisen a new 
Hnnyade, who was destined to become no less celebrated than the 
Hnngarian hero. Geoi^ Castriot was the yonngest of the sons of 
John Caetriot, despot of Northern Albania, or more strictly of the 
canton of Uirdita. It has been Eilready said that Castriot had been 
compelled to pay tribute and give hia fonr sons as hostages. The 
three eldest died poisoned, it is stated ; the fonrth, George, obtained 
the Snltan's favour ; and when Mirdita, after John's death, had been 
annexed to the Ottoman Empire, he obtained the command of 5,000 
men in the army of Amarath, in which, on account of his impotnons 
valonr, he was known ^ the name of " Iskender Bey " {Lord Alex- 
ander), a name which £aropeans have transfoi-med into Scanderheg. 
The favours of the Saltan did not make him forget his religion and 
conntry, and in 1443, after the first battle of the " long campaign," 
he resolved to abandon the infidels. He presented himself before a 
secretary of the Sultan, forced him, with his dagger at his breast, to 
sign an order addressed to the commandant of Cro'ia, to give ap that 
place into his hands; he then killed the secret^r and fled into 
Albania. Collecting together a band of 600 partisans in the en- 
virons, he effect«d an entrance into Croia, opened the gates, and 
massacred the Turkish garrison. This was the signal for a general 
insarrection. The Ottomans scattered through the villages were put 
to death, the garrisons of the towns compelled to surrender, and in 
thirty days Seanderbeg found himself master of Albania ; all the 
Christian princes and nobles of the country acknowledging him as 
their chief, and each fumishiug him with his contingent. From 
1443 to 1447 three armies were sent against him and snccessively 
defeated ; a fonrth began its march, stronger than those preceding ; 
it was also beaten, and the Ottoman general taken with his principul 
officers. Amnrath then resolved to assume the direction himself of 
a decisive expedition, for which preparations were made in the 
following year (1448) ; bat at that epoch the war recommenced 
with Hongary. 

Hnnyade, with an army of 24,000 men, invaded Servia, ravaged 
the country, and directed his march towards the plain of Kassova in 
order to descend into Macedonia. Amarath mustered all his forces, 
and with more than 150,000 men awaited his coming on that famous 
plain where the destinies of the Hellenic peninsula are decided. It 


78 TURKBt OLD AND NEW. (a.i>, 1140— I4G1. 

waB agreed that Hanyade shotild be joined by Soanderbeg and an. 
Albanian army, bat instead of waiting for tbem, be determined at 
once to fight. Thereapon a terrible and nneqnal straggle took place, 
which lasted three dajs. Betrayed by the WallachiaoB, and taken 
in the rear by a portion of the Tnrkieh army, the Hnn^riana do- 
fended themselves dnring the entire day ; bnt when night came, 
Hanyade, despairing of socoesB, £ed, and his soldiers dispersed. 
There alone remained on the fidd of battle the German auxiliaries 
with the artillery ; that haadful of men recommenced the fighting on 
the niiirrow nntil they were annihilated. 

In the following spring, Amnrath entered Albania with his immense 
army of Eassova. He took Sfetigrad and Dibra ; bnt he lost before 
those two mean strongholds 20,000 men, and was oompelled to pnt off 
the siege of Croia nntil the year following (1460). The place made 
an heroic resistance ; at the same time Soanderbeg, with 8,000 men, 
kept himself within a mile of the besiegers, and harassed them by 
incessant attacks. The Snltan tried to corrupt the commandant of 
the garrison ; he attempted to negotiate with Scanderb^; both alike 
repnlsed his overtures. At length the siege waa raised. Amsrath 
had scarcely returned to Adrianople ere he died of apoplexy (9th 
February, 1451). 

6. Eeign of Mahomet II. — Siege and Capture of Constantinople. 

The successor of Amurath II., scarcely in his twenty-second year, 
was consumed and carried away by a restless ambition. Prom tha 
moment at which he hod seen power escape from his hands, on hia 
father reassnming the authority with which he had briefly invested 
him, he hod champed the bit at Magnesia. When, therefore, news of 
his father's death reached him in his banishment, he sprang into the 
saddle, shouting, " Who loves me follows me ! " and in two days he 
reached Gallipoli. He was the stamp of man to hurl the already 
crumbling Empire of Byzantium in the dust. 

Mahomet received at first the ambassadors of the Emperor, the 
representatives of that Constantine Dragozes, the defender of the 
Moreo, who, in the year preceding, bad succeeded to his father under 
the protection of Amurath, He testified te him his pacific intentions, 
and even engird to pay a pension of ^00,000 ospres for the main- 
tenance of Solymon's grandson, who was kept captive at Constan- 
tinople. He then renewed the treaties existing witJi all his Christian 
allies, concluded with the envoys of Hanyade a truce of three years, 
and ciussed over inte Asia to make war upon the Prince of Karaman. 
Whilst he was occupied in that direction, Constantino, who had not 
received the promised pension, had the imprudence to claim it, 
adding that, if it were not paid, he would set his prisoner at liberty. 
Irritated at that menace, Mahomet thenceforward thought only of 
making an end of Constantinople. He returned to Europe, and, to 
starve out the city and cnt it off from the Bla«k Sea, he ordered to 


xD.i4fi2.] siEaK O' cosflTi»rnNOri.B. 79 

be built npon the European shore of the Boepboms, in the narroweet 
part', iacmg the fortress constmcted b^ Mahomet I. in Asia, a formid- 
able Btron^old, to which ho gave the significant name of BoghaEkesen 
{evt-throaf), now called the " Castle of Enrope." Three thonaand 
workmen, protected by an army, were employed in its conatmction, 
which was finished in three months, under the eyes and direction of 
the Snltan. Every ship passing within reach of the battery of this 
castle was compelled to pay tribute, and a Venetian vessel which 
refused was fir^ npon and sent to the bottom (Angast, llo2). 

The Emperor, terrified at these tidings of the Sultan's preparations, 
sent an humble embassy to Uahomet, offering to pay him tribute, and 
entreating him to spare the country round about, upon which Constan- 
tinople depended for its supplies of food. The only answer the 
Sultan gave was to order his sipahis to feed their horses upon the 
crops of the Greeks; and some few days after a quarrel arose between 
the soldiers and the peasantry, which proved the commencement of 
the war. The Emperor sent a last message to Mahomet: — "Since 
neither oaths, nor treaties, nor sabmissions can secure peace, proceed 
with hostilities." And he ordered the gates of the city to be shut, 
and thoufcht only of taking the best means for its defence. 

The situation of the m^iiificeiit city of Constantinople, so long 
the favourite abode of the Emperors of Rome, was at the period of 
the foundation of the Ottoman Empire, when the powers of artillery 
were onlypartiaUy developed, such as rendered it all but impregnable. 
Seated on a promontory, it was accessible on one side only by land, 
and everywhere surrounded by lofty massive walls. If completely 
garrisoned and provisioned it was capable indeed of holding out 
against the most overwhelming force for a great length of time. 
Bajazet had long determined on the reduction of this cdl-important 
capital ; but it did not fall to his lot to achieve it. 

Mahomet, on his part, returned to Adrianople, in order to make 
preparations for the siege. His ardour and restlessness were so great 
that he was unable to sleep, and his days were wholly occupied in 
discussing with his lieutenants the means of taking the city. During 
the erection of the castle on the Bosphorus, an Hungarian iron- 
founder, named Orban, constructed the most enormous cannon of 
which history makes mention. This gigantic machine projected 
granite balls twelve palms in circumference, and weighing twelve 
quint^s. It required ?00 men to move and serve it. A trial of it 
was made at Adrianople, The smoke from its charge of powder 
covered the entire city ; the report was beard at many leagues off, 
and the ball, at the distance of a mile, embedded itself a fathom deep 
in the ground. Other pieces of smaller calibre were afterwards cast, 
and troops were mustered from every point of the Empire. A fleet 
of 400 sail was equipped and placed under the ordeni of the Bulgarian 
renegade BaltaoghlL 

Meanwhile the greatest confusion prevailed in Constantinople. 
On an estimate being taken of the entire military force it was found 
that oidy 4,973 men were efficient. To these were added 2,000 


80 TDREET OLD ^ND NBW. [i.D. 14G2— lUS. 

foreigners and 500 O^noeee, who arrived in two galleys, oamniaiided 
by John Longna Jnatiniani. Aa there were do ahipa, the Ghristiaa 
Tessela which arrived from the Archipelago were retained for the 
defence of the city; but there were only fonrteen of these in port. 
The walls, unrepaired for centaries, having cnunbled into mina, 
were hastily renovated. The Emperor aeat all over Europe to solicit 
reinforcements ; and, in the hope of interesting the West in hia canse, 
he announced his firm reaolntion of terminating the schism existing 
between the two Chnrches. " Bat," saja ^neaa Sylvias, " Chriat- 
iani^ was a headwithont a body, a repnblic without magistrates; 
. the Pope nothing more than a dazzling phantom." Instead of sending 
an army to " the last heir of the last spark of the Boman name," a 
papallegate was despatched to accomplish the reunion of the Charcheii. 
A solemn assembly took place in the chnrch of St. Sophia on the 12th 
December, 1452. The legate celebrated mass, the Emperor and all the 
Conrt being present. Bnt the monks, the clergy, and all the people 
revolted against that act, which they looked upon as sacril^Q. At 
the head of the most fiery among the orthodox stood the Qreek 
Patriarch Gennadins and the Grand Admiral Notaras, who declared 
that they wonld rather see in Constantinople " the Sultan's tnrban 
than the cardinal's hat." All the energy of that degraded people 
seemed reserved for those miserable discords. No efficaciona sacconr 
came from the West. The princes of the Morea and the isles of 
Greece kept themselves aloof, and the Genoese of Galata enteredinto 
a treaty of nentrality with the Saltan. It is trne that, in spite of this 
treaty, they assisted thebesiegedinvarioaa ways, which made MAhomet 
swearthat "he woald crash the serpentafter be bad slain the dragon." 
The defence was despaired of on all hands. All were convinced that 
the fatal honr had come. Among other sinister predictions there 
were foand, it is said, in the convent of Monnt Athos, two prophetic 
tablets attributed to Leo fh^ IFise, containing a list of emperora and 
patriarcbs; the names of the existing emperor and patriarch being 
wanting. It was related also that an old woman had told John of 
Hnnyade, after the defeat of Kassova, that ibe reverses of the Christ- 
ians wonld end when Constantinople sbonld have been destroyed by 
the Tnrks. All these predictions passing from month to moath had 
the effect of depressing men's minds. 

Snch was the state of the city when, in the month of April, 1453, 
200,000 Osmanlis invested it on the land side. It was the twelftJi 
time that it had been besieged by the Massalmans ; firmly convinced, 
as tbey had ever been, that the city was destined to belong to them 
— for Hahomet had promised it to them, sheikhs and dervishes in 
nnmbers traversed the tanks of the Ottoman army, and animated it 
by their predictions. The most famons among them, the Grand 
Sheikh Akjemseddin, discovered the bier of t^e standard-bearer 
Eyonb, killed daring the third siege. A tomb had been erected to 
hia memoir, over which, later on, a mosqne had been bailt. This 
incident, wnioh appeared minicalons, contribated powerfnlly to exalt 
the fanaticism of the besiegers. The great cannon arrived, drawn 



hj fifty pair of oxen, unpported in aqnilibrinm. by 400 men, and pre- 
ceded by 250 CBr}>ent«r3 and pioneers. It was pointed ftt first agaiast 
the Caligaria Crate (now called E(/ri Kapoucii) ; afterwards it was 
moTed to the St. Bomain Gate, which still retains the name of the 
*' Qate of the Cannon " (_Top Kapouci). On either side of it were 
planted two pieces which discharged balls weighing six qttintalB. 
Fonrteen other batteries shook the rest of the n&lis. The monster 
gan, however, did not render all the service expected from it. It 
took two honrs to load, and aa euormone quantity of oil to lubricate 
it after each dischai^, to prevent it bnrsting. It could only be fired 
eight times in the coDrse of a day. At the end of a few days it 
barst, and killed its inventor. 

However, animated by the example of the Emperor, who fonght in 
person on the ramparts, and by the indefatigable activity of Jnstini- 
ani, the defenders of the city performed prodigies : the; filled up 
every night the breaches made dnring the day, raised new ramparts, 
and dag deeper ditohes. The Turks made little progress; they were 
not yet skilled in the handlii^ of artillery. It was the renegades 
who taught them how to promptly open a breach by aiming alter- 
nately to the right and left, and then in the centre of the wall-space 
already shaken. They had coasfcnicted a wooden tower covereH with 
a triple caaing of skins, and provided with draw-bridges to approach 
the battlements on a level, bnt this hage machine was bnrnt. 

At the end of April five ships, one Greek and four Genoese, ap- 
pearing in sight of the harbonr, the entire Ottoman Fleet sailed ont 
to meet them, and a sea-fight took place near the shore. Notwith- 
etanding the disproportion of their force, the Christians threw them- 
selves resolately into the midst of the Turks. From their lofty decks 
they rained upon the low vessels of their foes snch a hail of projec- 
tiles and torrents of Greek fire that the Tnrkish Fleet was thrown 
into disorder, several vessels fonled one another and sank to the 
bottom. Mahomet, who witnessed this disgracefnl defeat from the 
shore, wished in his fnrions rage to have urged his steed into the sea, 
in order to chastise the nnskilfulness of his sailors. At length he 
saw the five ships sail right throngh his whole fleet and enter the 
harbonr, the chains across which were fastened behind them. He 
avenged this afFront npon his admiral. He caused him to be loaded 
with chains, inflicted a hundred blows of the baatinado with hia own 
hand, and then deprived him of his possessions and sent him into 

This check made the Turks aware that ttxej could make no pro- 
gress so long as the city shonid be at liberty seaward, the Greek 
ships beinff masters of the Golden Horn, and even of the Propontis 
(S«i of HarmoTa). It was then that Mahomet, despairing of forcing 
an entrance to the harbonr, conceived the singular project of con- 
veying his vessels therein by land. The Turkish Fleet closed the 
Bosphorons at Beschiktasch, A road was made for it behind the 
hills of Pera, to a distance of two leagues, by St. Dimitri and Elial. 
skoei. This road was covered with planks plentifully greased, and, 



tlaritiff & smgle night seTentf galleje, of two, three, and five benoheB 
of rowers, were draped by thoastindB of men and horses across the 
hills and valleys in the Golden Horn, in front of the gat^ now called 
Balat and Haiwan. On each galley the captain " stood at the fore^ 
Uie pilot abaft ; the sailB were loosed to the wind, the trampeta 
Bonnded, the drums beat, and at daybreak the besieged beheld with 
as mnch sarprise as terror more then seventy vessels cast anchor in 
the centre of their harbour." They made, it appears, no attempt to 
hinder or trouble the strange numoeuvre of the Turla. 

As soon as night came Justinian! attempted to bnm the TurHsh 
Fleet; but he was betrayed by the Qeno^e of Galata, who, during 
the entire siege, played a double part : the vessel on board of which 
he was sank to tJie bottom ; his companions were taken or drowned, 
he alone saving himself with mnch difficulty. The Turks then con- 
structed a pontoon in the harbour, from which they cannonaded the 
walls.* The Oreeks attempted to set fire to this pontoon and the 
enemy's vessels, but that enterprise failed like the preceding ; forty 
picked Qenoese to whom it was intrusted were put to death next 
morning in sifit^t of tho besieged ; whilst the latter, by way of 
reprisals, placed upon their battlements the heads of 200 Turkish 

Pressed by land and .sea, the city was in a desperate strait. Ite 
slender gamaon was weakened, decimated by sii weeks of previous 
struggle, and, further, it was forced to divide iteelf to offer resistance 

not offer a long resistance. Mahomet sent a mess^;^ to tho besi^;ed, 
promising, if the city capitulated, life and liberty to the inhabitante, 
to the IGmperor peacoful possession of the Morea. Constantino pre- 
ferred rather to bnn himself beneath the ruins of his capital. 

On the 24th of May the Sultan annoanced a general assault for the 
2dth. The Ottoman camp immediately presented the aspect of 
a fttte ; the soldiers of the fleet, who had been thrown into prison 
after their defeat, were set at liberty ; the Janissaries were promised 
the pillage of the ci^, HmarM and eandjaka to those first to scale the 
ramparts ; the dervishes visited the tents to reawaken the fanatical 
ardour of the Moslems. When evening came the whole of the fleet 
and camp were illuminated ; Constantinople saw itself surrounded 
by a belt of fire ; on all sides the noisy clamours of the foe were 
haard, and the c^ a thousand times repeated ; — " God is great, and 
Mahomet is His Prophet I " From the heart of the mourning oity 
the only reply to that crywere groans and prayers: " Kyrie eleiion! 
Ixtrd, have mercy upon us ! " 

However, the last days were employed in repairing the breaches, in 
reconstructing the, in digging dit«hes behind those which 
bad disappeared. In the night between the 28th and 2dth the 
Emperor took the sacrament in great pomp at St. Sophia, and then 

" Von HammeT," voL ii. p. 109. 


».[>. U63.] CAPTCRB 

went to bis post at the gat« of St. Som&in, attended by his stafF. At 
daybreak the attack began. The Snltan, in order to tire ont his 
adversaries, sent forward at first his worst troops ; their bodies soon 
choked the ditches. Towards ten o'clock the beeief^ed still imstained 
the stm^le withont disadTantage, when Jnstiniani, wonnded in the 
hand, retired in spite of the aupplicationB of the Emperor, and his 
retreat cansed disconragemeDt among those around him. Howerer, 
the example of Constantine reanimated them, and the fighting was 
renewed ; when suddenly a cry of alarm arose : — " The Tnrks are in 
the city 1 The city is taien ! " The Wooden, or Cirons Grate, walled 
np for two centuries past on acconnt of an ancient prophecy, had 
been reopened the prerions evening for the purpose of a sortie, and 
by that fifty Tarks had gained an entrance and took the defenders of 
the breach in the rear. All were dispersed immediatelj, and every 
one fled towards the harbour. The Emperor ran to the Caligaria 
Gate, and reached it at the moment when the assailants broke their 
way throngh it ; the onfortnnate Constantine rushed in desperation 
among their ranks and fell beneath the sabre of a Janissary. 

Meanwhile crowds rushed precipitately towards the harbour, 
seeking refnge in the Greek and Genoese vessels. Some succeeded 
in thus saving themselves, bnt the guards shut the gates towards the 
sea and threw away the keys. The torrent of fugitives then flowed 
buck towards the centre of the oity, and the greater number hastened 
to shut themselves up in St. Sophia and the other churches. The 
Tnrks soon followed them, and broke open the doors with axes. Then 
conimenced scenes of pillage, profanations and excesses of every kind. 
There was, however, very little bloodshed, except during the first 
flush of victory. Men, women, and children were tied together in 
couples, and driven towards the ships. The pillagers then spread 
themselves throngh the streets, entered the houses and palaces, 
carrying off enormous booty. The Sultan had said to his soldiers on 
the previous evening : — " The city and its public edifices belong to 
me; but I give up to you the captives and the booty — the precions 
metals and the brantifal women ; be rich and happy." 

Thus fell Constantinople, after eleven centuries of existence. Its 
&U, after the Entpire of the East had been divided into a multitude 
of hostile States, was inevitable; that it bad not taken place sooner 
was probably owing to the respect with which it still inspired the 
barbwians, who threatened for ages that last remmint of the Soman 
Empire. In reality that event only put an end to a name, to a title 
of Empire; it even renewed the existence of the city of Constantine, 
It was, however, through its consequences an entire revelation. It 
swept away the last obstacle in the path of Islam, inimical to that 
faith establishing itself in Christendom. It gave definitively the 
triumph to the East in its straggle against the West; it seemed to 
menace Europe with the fate trom which it had escaped eighteen 
hundred years back by the victories of Salamis and Marathon; it 
gave np the Mediterranean, that sea of civilization, to Oriental bar- 
Europe was struck with consternation at it; she felt her- 


84 TJBKitT OLD AKD NSW. [i.I>. 1163. 

■elf sallied by a ^reat di^race, and at the same time menaced with 
a great danger. Slie dreaded the intmsion of a people foreign to 
her religion, to her mannerB, to her mind ; who, nntil that dark daj, 
had been only encamped upon her soil, but who now appeared to be 
definitively settled upon it. What woald have been bar alarm if she 
conld have foreseen the interminable embarrassments which that 
barbaric dominatioii should one day raise np in her bosom, and the 
infinite dangers with which even now (1880) it tbreatons the 




Pun *BB Cimni 01 CoraunnropLB to inw Fbmi or OAUOwm (14B8-1899). 

Bnow or HtHomr II. non thi Cirruu oi CotmumsoTM (1153-1481). 
1. Condition of the Greeks after the Conquest. 
MiHOHST Ohtui, wbo had well earoed that title, entered Constaoii- 
nopl« towards noon by the breach of the St. Romain Gate. Snr- 
lonnded by bis body gaardH and viziera, he went direct to St, 
Sophia, on the ancient and magnificent architecture of which be 
long gazed with admiration. Seeing a soldier break o£E some 
mosaics from the walls, he stretched him at bis feet by a blow of hia 
sabre. By bis orders, a mnezzin, from the snmmit of the blood- 
stained steps of the sanctnary, snnuiioiied the Unssnlmans to 
prayer; and thns was iiiangiuat«d the reign of Islam in big new 

The victorions Saltan then caused a search to be made for the 
Emperor's body, which was recc^nised from amongst a heap of slain 
by his pnrple buskins ornamented with eagles of gold. Althongh 
Constantine Palsolagns bad fallen while bravely fighting in defence 
of his crown and capital, bis bead was exposed npoa ^e sqnare of 
the AnguBteon, at the foot of the equestrian statue of Justinian; and 
thence it was sent into the proviuces. About 2,000 of the inhabi* 
tants were put to the swoM ; many thousands more were sold into 
slavery, or soogbt a refnge in other lands; and tbo vacancy 
thos created was supplied by a Tnrkish population The former 
metropolis of the Christian world thus assnmed the aspect of an 
Eastern city, and the desire of Snitan Bajazet I. was at length ac- 
complished — to obtain possession of Constantinople, and " to convert 
the great workshop of unbelief into the seat of the true faith." 

On quitting St. Sophia the Snitan had eut«red the Blaquernes 
palace, the latter residence of the Emperors, and, whilst traversing 
its deserted balls, he recited, in a sorrowful voice, that distich of a 
Persian poem : — " Tbe spider establishes itself as custoiiian in the 
palace of emperors, and tbe owl makes its imperial halls echo with 
her Ingnbrioas hooting." Kext day he celebrated bis triumph by 
orgies, followed by sanguinary executions. The Grand Dake Notaras, 


86 TUBKET OLD AND NEW. [i.11. 1463. 

honoured at first witb marked favour, v&B pat to death with all his 
family ; bis crimu being the refusal to deliver up his youngest son 
to the harem of the Snltan. A great number of distinguished 
Greeks, whom Muhomet had pardoned on the evening previous, were 
also given over to the exec ntioner— the Yenetian bayle, an envoy 
from the king of Aragon, being inclnded in the massacre. 

At length, at the end of three days, those scenes of violence and 
disorder ceased ; the fleet and army withdrew laden with an immense 
booty ; the Snltan thought about rebuilding, repeopling, and reor> 
^sizing that which he had devoted to destruction. The captnre of 
Constantinople had spread consternation amongst the ancient portions 
of the Byzantine Empire. "All Greece felt itself struck by that 
disaster. In the Morea and in the isles men fled without knowing 
whither to go. The sea was covered with vessels and barks 
bearing away the families and the wealth of the Greeks. The 
monntains, the monasteries, the islands occupied by the Genoese and 
the Venetians, served for refage." "It was," says the chroniclers, "a 
dispersion like that of the Hebrews after the capture of Jemsalem."* 

Mahomet, however, in consolidating his new em.pire, was guided 
^ politic and enlightened counsels. To entice back the fugitive 
Constantinopolitans the free exercise of their religion, the preserva- 
tion of their possessions and the customs of their ancestors were 
proclaimed by a firman. The Greek clergy and learned men were 
treated with indulgence ; the patriarchate was permitted to subsist ; 
and Gennadius, the head of the party which had opposed a union 
with the Latin Church, having been elected to that dignity by an 
assembly of the chief citizens, was confirmed in it by the approbation 
of the Saltan. He himself assisted at the ceremony, and conferred 
on the newly-elect^ functionary a pastoral staff, studded with diac 
monds, emblems of the double anthority, civil and religions, which 
he was called np to ezeroise over his countrymen. The renewal of 
the patriarchate gave rise to that remarkable population of Greek 
nobles called Phanariots, who attained a considerable share of wealth 
and independence. In spite, however, of these measures, a void was 
still left within the walls of Gonstantinople, which Mahomet was 
employed several years in filling. As his conquests proceeded, he 
drafted to the metropolis families from Servia and the Morea; the 
Genoese colonies on the Black Sea, as well as Trebizonde, Sinope, 
and other places, were with the same view deprived of a considerable 
portion of their inhabitants, and even Adrianople was compelled to 
contribute its reluctant quota of citizens to the new seat of Turkish 

Although the Greeks preserved their churches, with the exception 
of St. Sophia, the free exercise of their religion, the right of admin- 
istering tJiemselves, and thns formed a lai^ community entirely 
distinct from the conquering nation, they were sahjectcd to a double 
capitation tax, whether for their persons or their lands, and which was 

* VUlemain, "Eoaj apon Ibe Cooditioa of tha Qiseki tttei the Haasnlmui Cou- 



b, Google 


called the Kharadj. At the head of the nation or Greek comtnnnity 
waa the patriarch, aasieted by a Rjnod. This patriarch had the r&nk 
of vizier, and he had a ^ard of JaniBsariee. All civil and correctional 
canaea of the Greek rayahs in the diocese of Constantinople, marriage 
contracta, legaoiee, willB, divorces, thefte, and other ofiences were 
onder the jarisdiction of his tribunal. That tribaaal, composed of 
the principal dignitaries of the clergr, conld pronounce the pnnish- 
ment of imprisonment, the bastinado, the galleys, &c. All the military 
antboritiee were bonnd to carry into execution, the sentences of tho 
patriarchs concerning Greek Christians in the same way as those of 
the bishops in their respective dioceses. 

The synod formed the great council of the nation ; it took cognis- 
ance of appeals from the sentences passed by the bishops in their 
dioceses, administered the revennes of the Church and of the nation, 
&c. The patriarch and the members of the synod were exempt from 
the Kkaradj. 

Every bishop exercised in his diocese the same attributes and 
enjoyed the same privileges as the patriarch at Constantinople ; they 
were also exenipt from tne Kharadj. Finally the papas, or inferior 
members of the clergy, exercised over their flocks a civil jurisdiction 
analogoos to that of tne bishop. 

The lands of the great Greek families were confiscated and trans- 
formed into timare; bnt those of the rayahs remained in their 
possession, and, apart from the nnmerons extortions to which the 
conqnerors subjected them, they were liable also to the impost of 
the Kharadj. Each commnne was governed by its prinuiU, magis- 
trates elected, whose principal function was to apportion the Kharadj 
amongst all the inhabitants, as well as the other taxes. 

2. The Conqvegt of Servia. 

After having secnred the existence and the condition of the con- 
quered, Uahomet caused to be transferred fom Sinope, Tiebizonde, 
and a dozen other towns, Mussulman families to repeople the capital ; 
he ordered the fortifications of Galata to be rased, at the same time 
leaving to the Genoese their commercial privileges ; he collected a 
vast number of workmen to rebuild uie rained walls ; then he 
returned to Adrianople. 

" The conquest of Constantinople, " says a Turkish historian, " was 
the key which opened the lock of many difficult things." In fact, it 
will be seen that all the conquests marked ont under the preceding 
reigns were accomplished with an astonishing facility under Mahomet; 
that Greece, Wallachia, Servia, Bosnia, Albania, the Crimea, and the 
principal islands of the Archipelago were completely subjected, and 
that the Turkish Empire attained very nearly its definitive limits in 
Europe. This rapid development of the Ottoman power was the 
work of less than thirty yests. It was certainly by the highest 
methods of statesmanship aiid military organization that a small tribe 


S8 TURRET OLP AKD MIW. [1.11. 1164— 14!iB. 

of Tarkomana extended their dominion from tbe Dftnnbe to the 
Enphrates, from the Caspian Sea to the Indian Ocean. 

The retniTL of the Snltan from Adrianople was marked hy the 
paniehinent of his Vizier, Khalil Pacha, the great grandson of Khalil 
Djendereli, Vizier of Amnrath I. Convicted of connivance with the 
Greeks daring the siege of Constantinople, he was flnng into prison, 
and afterwards put to death. The poet of Vizier remained vacant for 
more than a year, a solitary fact in the seqael of Ottoman history ; 
it was conferred the year following npon Mahmoad Pacha, the son of 
a Greek father and of a Serb mother, and it was the first indtaace of 
those Hellenes becoming Mnasnlmans, who have, alniost without 
interruption, governed the Empire of the Osmanlis. 

Mahomet received the felicitations and the tribntea of the Asiatio 
Princes, of the Genoese of the Archipelago, of the Greeks of Trebi- 
zonde, and of the Republic of Biagasa. Then he carried his arms 
against the most powerful of the dismembered States of the East 
— Servia (1454); he seized npon Ob trow itz, miscarried before the 
fortress of Semendria, and left an armyof 30,000 men to occupy the 
country. The Krai Georges, assisted by Hunyade, defeated that army 
and obtained a trtice by means of a tributo of 30,000 ducats. The 
year following the war recomm.enced, and the Turks took possession 
of Novoberda- 

Atlength, in Jnne, 14^6, an armyof more than 150,000 men, com- 
manded by the Snltan, traversed Servia and laid siege to Belgrade. 
Three hnndred pieces of artillery, many of which were of monstrona 
calibre, thundered agalnat the ramparts; a flotilla of 200 small vessels 
intercepted the navigation of the Danube, above and below the city. 
Unmindful that his father had failed before Belgrade after a six 
months' siege, Mahomet vannted that he would reduce that place in 
fifteen days ; but acrusade was preparing in Hnngary by the preaching 
of the Franciscan John Capistrano, of Bonmanian race. Hnnyade, 
with an army, threw himself into the place ; he destroyed the Turkish 
flotilla, and snecessfully repulsed the assaults. At last a vigorons 
sortie, commanded by Capistrano, threw the Ottoman camp into 
disorder, and determined the raising of the sie^ ; the Sniten with- 
drew, himself wounded, and taking alongwith him a hnndred carta 
filled with wounded, leaving under the walls of Belgrade 24>,000 dead 
and all hia artillery. The two saviours of the city did not long 
survive their trinmph. Hnnyade anccumbed at the end of fifteen 
days; Capistrano three months after. 

In spite of this great sncoess, Servia remained occupied in part by 
the Ottomans; the snoconr brought 1^ the Hungarians was repug- 
nant to her, on acconnt of the hatred she bore the people of the Latin 
Church. Meanwhile, Prince Geoi^ died ; hia youngest son Laeams 
seized upon his power, but kept it only two months. He left two 
brother*, both blind, and a sister, the widow of Amnrath, who 
disputed the heritage for three months, and then took refuge with the 
Sultan. Whereupon the Grand Vizier, Mahmond Pacha, invaded 
Servia, seized upon the strongholdn on the Danube, carried his devas- 


1.II.14S0— 1460.] COMQCBBT OF THE JfOREA. 89 

tfttioD ail far as Hnngaiy, returned to beeiego Semendria, and took it 
on the 8th November, 1459. In two years the conqneBt of Serrift 
was completed, and that country, which had had so glorioos an exiat- 
encet 'which seemed called to anch high destinies, yraa rednced to a 
proTinoe of the Ottoman Empire. 

8. Subjection of tke Morea. — War againtt Scanderheg. — Conquestt in 

At the same period the snbjectiion of Greece was consummated. 
Demetrius and Thomas Palffiologns, brothers of the last Oreek 
Emperor, dispnted for posaeesion of the Morea, and each bad to 
straggle against his own subjects and the attacks of the Albanians. 
They were only maintained in the country by the protection of the 
Saltan, to whom they paid tribute. 

Mahomet, early in 1458, himself sailed into the Peloponneans, at 
the head of an armament ; he seized upon Corinth ; intimidated, by 
his cmelties, the other cities, which sarrendered without resistance ; 
dispossessed TLomas, and left nearly the rest of the Murea to bis 
brother on condition of an euormons tribute. He had scarcely re- 
tired, when Tfaomaa took up arms at once against the Tarks and 
against his brother; and that unfortunate conntry was delivered up 
by all parties to the most frightful devastation. Demetrius ended 
ly throwing' himself into the arms of the Turks; he even accom- 
panied the Snltan, who in person returned to terminate that terrible 
war. Mahomet caased to be pitilessly massacred the inhabitants of 
«Tery city that attempted to resist hini, inflicting upon the chief 
men of such places the most rofiued torments ; and when he at 
length retired he left nothing behind him but mins. Modon, Pylos, 
and a few strongholds which belonged to the TenetianR, alone 
escaped the Turkish barbarities. Thomas fled into Italy j Demetrius 
was banished to Enos; finally, the last Duke of Athens, Franco 
Accajuoli, harin^ been strangled, the Tnrka ruled undividedly all 
the Greek peninsula (1460). Dnring this time, an Ottoman fleet of 
184 sail traversed the Archipelago. It put to mnsom Lesbos and 
ChioB, occupied "by the Genoese, and subjected Imbros, Thasos, 
Samotbrace, Ac. 

Ajiother war in Europe occupied the Ottoman armies — the war in 
Albania, the success of which waa destined to be neither so prompt 
nor BO easy. Since the accession of Mahomet II. Scanderheg had 
Bustained, with an indefatigable perseverance, the continual attacks 
of the Ottomans. In spite of the treason of two of his companions 
he defeated successively three armies. That long series of exploits 
won for him the admiration even of his enemies. Mahomet, on his 
retom from the Peloponnesus, preferred peace, and left him in 
faranqnil possession of Epims and Albania (1460). 

The Sultan nest turned his eyea on the side of Asia- Upon the 
coart of the Black Sea still subsisted three independent States 


90 TCHKET OLD AND KEW, [i.D. H61. 

wedged in among the Ottoman poRBeBBions : the Greek Empire of 
Trebizonde, fonnded hy the Comnenes after the capture of Constan. 
tiBople bj the Ijatine ; the colony of Amastris (Aniasirah), the depdt 
of all the Genoese commerce in these regions ; finally, between those 
two cities, aad Dpon the road which led to either, Sinope, where an 
Isfendiar stOl reigned. When, at the coramencement of 1461, the 
Ottoman army set out on iU march, no one knew against which <if 
these places the expedition wae directed. One of the judges of the 
army tkaving ventured to ask the Saltan, the latter angrily replied, 

" If I thought that a hair of my beard knew my designs, I would 
pluck it out and cast it into the fire." The Genoese were the first 
attacked ; Amaatris opened its gates ; two-thirds of its inhabitants 
were transferred to Constan tinojue. Nezt, the Prince of Sinope was 
summoned to deliver up his city, and the Grand Yizier, with a Qeet 
of 150 sail, blockaded the port. Isfeudiar yielded, and received in 
iademuification domains in Bitbynia. Lastly, Mahomet, after an 
expedition into Armenia against a Tn|^oman prince, who had been 
allied with the Emperors of Trebizonde, presented himself before 
that city. No resistance was attempted ; the Comnenes were em- 

Dot zed by GoOglc 


faftrked for Cosstantiiiople, and on his retara thither the Sultan 
ordered their execution. The yonngeat alone was spared, becanee he 
had embraced lelamiBm ; the Princess Anne, daughter of the last 
Emperor, became a slave in the harem; and the Empress Helena, 
after having witnessed the massacre of her children, buried them 
with her own h&nds, in spite of the prohibition of the Saltan, and 
axpired from grief and miseiy. 

4. Conqueat of Wallackia.—Omeltiet of Wind the Demi. 
These expeditions were followed by a war in Wallachia. That 
country had been for some thirty years under the sway of the most 
sanguinary tyrant of whom history makes mention. This was 
BUdus, or Wlad, called by his subjects Dtaknl {the Devil) ; by the 
Hungarians, WlsJd the Executioner ; by the Turks, Wlad the Empaler. 
The atrocities related of him surpass all that imagination can cOn- 
ceive of the most horrible : executions in mass — KK) yoong TransyU 
vanians who had come into Wallachia to preach a crusade, 600 mer- 
chants who had returned rich from Bohemia, 500 nobles and magis- 
Izates who had oomplained of the cruelties oE Wlad were burnt or 
empaled at the same time. Next all the beggars of the country were 
summoned to a great feast and burnt alive whilst at table; women 
mutilated and children compelled to eat the flesh of their mothers. 
His &voarite amusement was to dine with his court in the centre of 
a circle of empaled victime. He caused the feet of his Turkish 

K'souers to be scorched, and the muscles laid bare rubbed with salt. 
e number of his yictims was estimated to exceed 80,000. Mahomet 
made preparations to attack this ferocious beast, not on account of 
his crimes, bnt to bring Wallachia under Ottoman domination. Dis* 
turhances in Germany, then torn W domestic wars, as well as the 
contest between the Emperor and Matthias, fevonred the progress 
of Mahomet IL, who often stroked his beard and vowed to take 
▼engeanoe for his defeat at Belgrade. After oonrertii^ Servia into 
a Tarkisbproyince he next turned his views towards Bosnia. Stophen 
Thomas, of Bosnia, was already a tributary of the Porto; but, 
disgusted with Turkish tyranny, ho had appealed to an Hungarian 
Diet held at Segedin in 14S8, which agreed to protoct him, and in- 
Tested his son with a portion of Servia that still remained nnoon- 
. quered. For the next three or four years Mahomet left Bosnia 
without much molestation, and in 1462 occupied himself in reducing 
Wallachia. The Voivodea or Hoapodars of Wallachia had been 
vassals of Poland, but after the fall of Constantinople became, like 
other neighbouring princes, tributary to the Porte. Here had 
reigned since 1456 the cold-blooded tyrant BUdns, or Wlad, already 
mentioned. On the entrance of Mahomet into Wallachia Wlad 
hastened to make his Bubmission, and obtained from the Sultan a 
treaty, which is still regarded at the present day as the charter of 
the righto of Wallachia with respect to the Ottoman Empire. This 


92 " TTRKKT OLD ASB NKW. " [lp. I1S2. 

treaty, which conlirmod that of 1393, connladed between Bajazet and 
the YoiTode Marcea, declared that the Sultan enfraged for himself 
ftnd his successors to protect Wallachia, and dofead it against all 
eaemies, without exacting anything else than the suzerainty of that 
principality ; that he should not interfere in any way with the 
internal administration; that the nation shonld continue to enjoy 
the exercise of its own laws ; that the Dnko or Voi'vode should be 
elected by the bishops and the boyards; that it should preserve the 
right of peace or war, of life and death OTer its snbjectB ; that it 
ehonld never be subjected by its acts to any responsibility towards 
the Porte ; that the Wallachians shonld be exempt from the kkaradj 
when they should find themselves upon the soil of the Empire; that 
the Turks should not establish themselves in Wallaohiai that the 
tribute shonld be 10,000 ducats* 

Scarcely had the treaty been signed between the Sultau and Wlad, 
than the latter sigiied another with Matthias Corvinua, King of 
Hungary, and bound himself to attack the Ottomans. Mahomet 
tried to get rid of his enemy by stratagem, and despatched Hamsa, 
Paoha of Widdin, with his secretary, to draw him into a conference. 
Wlad divined its object, and seizing the two envoys, had them em- 
paled with all their followers, " the Focba on a stake higher than 
the others as a mark of honour." Then he entered Bulgaria, de- 
stroyed or mafflaored all along his ronte, and carried away 25,000 
captives. The Snltau sent other ambassadors to him ; Wlad admitted 
them to his presence; but as they refused to take off their tnrbana 
to saJote him, he caused them to be nailed to their beads. On 
hearing this Mahomet, Vrought to a pitch of fuTy, ordered his army 
to march by land, whilst he himself with 175 vessels reascended the 
Danube, took Kilia and Braila, and then pursued his enemy, who 
devastated all before him as he retreated. The Sultan's forces 
numbered, it is said, 150,000 men. Wlad had no more than 10,000 
soldiers ; bat he not the less surprised one night the Ottoman camp, 
made a great carnage, and was very nearly taking or slaying the 
Saltan himself. Some days after Mahomet directed his march npon 
Bucharest; but when he reached the plain of Prmlatn, at some dis. 
taiice from that town, he stood horror-stricken : for half a league in 
length and a quarter in breadth arose a most frightful forest — 
20,000 Turks and Bulgariaun, men, women, and children, were em- 
paled ! The body of Hamsa Pacha was seen in the midst of all thene 
victims. After having contemplated for a while this terrible spec- . 
tacle, Mahomet exclaimed, almost with admiration, — " How can I 
despoil of his States a man who does such things to save them P " 
He himself, it may be added, mercilessly caused his prisoners to be 
decapitated, beaten to death, mutilated, and sawn in two. This 
abominable war desolated the whole country during several months. 
At length Wlad fled into Hungary, where Matthias Corvinns flnng 
him into prison. The Sultan established his brother Badul in hiG 

■ Vull»t, "La RoamSDis," be., torn. L p. 223. 


*.B. 1462—1164.] SUBJECTION OF BOSNIA. 93 

Btead, who had been broaght up in hia seraglio, but be rednced him 
to tbe rank and condition of a Pacha, and Wallaobia thns fonnd 
itself definitively rennited to the Ottoman Empire. Fifteen years 
after Wlad reappeared, aeain terrified tbe coontry by bis cmeltiea, 
and at last came to bis end by aatsaBsination. 

5. Cojtquett of Bosnia. — War with the Venetians and in Albania. 

The year 1463 saw commence simnltaneoaBly three irarB : against 
Bosnia, against the Princes of Karaman, gainst the Venetians ; tbe 
two last embraced Asia, Barope, and the islea, and lasted to the last 
years of Kahomet'a reign ; as to the war with Bosnia, it was promptly 

After tbe death of Stephen Donsoban, who had annexed Bosnia to 
the Serb Empire, Tvartko (Stephen), Ban of Bosnia (1376), took the 
title of King' ; bat he aqd bis sncoessors had to straggle continaally 
against the Hungarians and Tnrks, and became alternately triba- 
tariee to one and the other. King Ste;phen having refased to pay 
tribnte, Mahomet entered npon a campaign at tbe nead of an army 
of 150,000 men, seized npon the Castle of Babicza, repated as being 
the strongest place in Bosnia, and received the sabmission of the 
greater nnmber of the towns. He thns separated its popalation : the 
u>wer classes were left in tbe country ; those of the middle class were 
given as slaves to the troope ; tbe wealthy wero sent to Constanti- 
nople. The King and bis son bad shut themselves np in the Castle 
of Kliacza, npon the Sanna ; besieged by tbe Grand Vizier, Mabmond, 
they Bnrrendered, after obtaining a treaty which gnaranteed their 
lives. Tho Saltan, dissatisfied with that treaty, caused to be issued 
by the Sheik Ali-Bistami, as famous by bis science as by his 
fanaticism, a fetwa, which declared tbe treaty null; the Bosnian 
Prince was executed with all his family by the buid of tbe same 
learned barbarian who bad pronounced tbe sentence. 

These movements of the Turks were a principal reason with Kin g 
Matthias Corvinns for conclnding with Frederick III., in 1463, the 
peace already mentioned. In September of that year, having assem- 
bled bis vassals at Peterwardein, Matthias crossed the Save into 
Bosnia, drove the Turks before him, and, after a siege of three months, 
recovered the important Fortress of Jaicza. At Christmas, having 
been forced to retire through a want of provisions, he entered Bnda 
in trinmph, followed by a long train of Osmanli prisoners in purple 
dresses. In the following year, however, Joicza, after a memorable 
defence, and in spite of the attempts of Matthias to relieve it, was 
captured by Mahomet after great loss. Bosnia was then reduced to 
the condition of a province of the Ottoman Empire : 30,000 of its 
inhabitants were incorporated with the Janissaries, and the majority 
of the remainder constrained to embrace lalamiam. 

The war against the Venetians broke out on account of a slave 
havmg taken refage at Coron,and whom they refused to give up be- 


94 TUBKIT OLD AND KEW. [i.d. 11S3— 1170. 

oanBe he had hecome a Christiaii. The OttoDums devastated the 
territory of Lepanto ; bat a Venetian fleet having dieembarked soma 
troops m the Morea, all Greece revolted. Argos vae taken, the ram- 

Sirt of the isthmus repaired and pnt into a state of defence, and 
orinth besieged ; but, on learning the arrival of 80,000 Tnrks, the 
defenders of the isthmus dispereed : the Ottomans entered freely into 
the Morea, retook Argos, and ravaged the Venetian territoiy ; 500 

irisoners were sent to the Snltan, who had them all sawn in two. 
'he year following (1464), the Venetian admiral attempted to make 
himself master of Lesbos ; bnt he conld only transfer a part of tbe 
Christian popniation to Negrapont. His saocessor, more fortunate, 
seized npon Imbros, Thasos, Samothrace, and fonnd himself for an 
instant master of Athens; baton land the Venetians experienced 
only reverses; three saccessive defeats decimated their army. 

Pope Pins II., however, strove to reawaken the ze^ of tho 
Crasades ; he desired even to pot himself at the head of the 
Christian army, when his death broke off the enterprise. The sole 
result of his efforts was a fresh rising in Albania. Scanderbeg, 
released by the Pope from tlie troaty to which he had sworn, took ap 
arms again, and defeated, blow after blow, five Massnlman amies. 
After haying tried to negotiate anew, after having attempted to 
compass the assassination of this formidable enemy, Uahomet went 
himself with 100,000 men to besiege Croia ; he failed, and the army 
which he left before that place was, after his dopartare, destroyed l^ 
Scanderbeg in two battles. The Ottomans confined themselves to 
raining Tchorli, founded by the Christian hero, and forti^ng Etbas* 
Ban. Snch was the state of things when the Dragon of Albania died 
at Alessio (14r67), from the effects of a fever, after being for five-and- 
twenty years the terror of the Moslems. When Mahomet, some 
years afterwards, obtained possession of Alessio, he cansed Scander- 
beg's tomb to be opened, and his remains to be exhibited to tho 
wondering Osmanli. Pieces of. hie bones were eooght for with 
avidity, to be converted into talismans, which were deemed capable 
of inspiring the wearers with some portion of the valonr of that nn> 
conqaered hero, 

Aiter a year of trace, hostilities recommenced between the Tarks 
and the Venetians. The latter seized npon the Isle of Lemnos, took 
EnoB in Earope, and Phoctea in Asia ; bnt thoBO slight Baocesaes were 
prom^Iy effaced by the loss of Negropont, the ancient Eaboea. 
That island was the centre of the Venetian posseesions of the Archi- 
pelago ; Mahomet attacked it with a fleet of 300 sail, and an army 
of ?0,000 men who crossed the Enripna on a bridge of gall^s. A. 
Venetian fleet, stationed at the month of that stream was present, 
withoat stirring, at the passage of the Tarkish troops, daring tbe 
siege, which continaed seventeen days, and which cost the Saltan 
50,000 men ; lastly, daring the captare of the town, the defenders of 
which were delivered over to the most atrocious tortures (1470). 

At the same time an important war broke oat in Asia. 



6, G)nqveet of Karaviama. 

The Princes of Karamtui, for a hundred and fifty years, did not 
ceaae to make war against the Saltans bo soon as tll^ saw them 
oconpied in Europe ; Mahomet seized the opportnnity of making an 
end of that small State, the distant sitnation of which constituted 
its sole Btrea^h. Ibrahim, Prince of Karaman, at his death, bad 
left his throne, not to bis legitimate sons, bnt to Ishak, whom be bad 
bad hj a slave. Mahomet took the former nnder bis protection, 
defeated Ishak, and set op one of the sons of Ibrahsm as Facba of 
Konieh ; then, Ishak baring again taken np arms, he Tonqnisbed 
bim anew, rennited all S^ramania to bis empire, and gave the 
government of it to bis eon Mnstapba. In the seqnel of this war, 
the Grand Vizier Uahmond, who displeased the Saltan by bis 
moderation, was disgraced. 

The conquest, however, was far from being definitire ; risings 
took place in favour of the fallen family. Three viziera who suc- 
ceeded to Mahmoud were snccessively sent into the country, seized 
upon some few places, bat could not wholly snbdue it. Further, the 
E^nunanian princes found a protector in Onzonn-Hassan, the most 
powerful of the Tnrkoman princes, who invaded the Ottoman 
provinceB. He was the grandson of that Eara-Toulouk, of the 
dynasty of the Black Sf'sep, who was an ally of Timonr, and ag- 
grandized himself nnder the protection of the conquering Tartar. 
He bad, in 1466, pnt an end to the rival monarchy of the Black 
i9Aeep,wbicb was the ally of the Snltan, conqnered Khorassan, which 
a descendant of Timour possessed, and extended his domination from 
the OxQS as far as the Euphrates. He believed himself to be in a 
condition to make head against the Ottoman power. After the fall 
of the dynasty of the Black Skeep be had sent to the Sultan the 
head of the conquered prince ; then he had given an asylum to the 
laat Isfendiar and to the dispossessed Princes of Karaman ; lastly, 
he had addressed to Mahomet an insulting letter, in which he called 
him simply Mahomet-Bey. He assumed the offensive, appeared 
before l\)kat, carried the town by assault, delivered it up to the 
hoiTOTB of pillage, and caused all the inhabitants to perish. In that 
peril Mahomet restored the dignity of vizier to the conqueror of 
Servia and Bosnia ; then be made preparations for a great expedition, 
find 0Tde9«d his son Mustapha, Governor of Karaman, tofgo in setutib 
of the enemy. The latter came up with him at Koraili, on tbs 
£rontierE of Hamid, and in&icted upon bim a sanguinary defeat. 

Then (U72) the Sultsn advanced with an army of 100,000 men. 
OuEOun-Haaean awaited him a short distance beyond Sivas ; he at 
firat pnt to the rout the Ottoman vanguard ; bnt a few days after 
he was conquered at Outlonkbeli, near I<<rz-IngbiaD, not far teom the 
Euphrates; sevenJ thonsands of Turkomans were made prisoners, 


OS TOBKSI OLD AND KBW. [ld. Ij70— 14T3. 

then masBacrad in detail. The Saltan retnmed into Enrope, and 
left to his lieatenants the care of fiiuBhing the war in Cilicia. 

Scarce]; had he retarued to Conatentinople when he deposed 
Mahmoad Facha, and caused him to bo pat to death. Mahomet had 
no liking for that descendant of a conquered race, converted even 
from childliood and by force to lalamism, who contribated by his 
talents and comage to the aggrandizement of the Empire of the 
Osmanlis. The homane and generona dispoaitioD of the Vizier con- 
trasted with the craelty and vices of the Suttan. He had not for> 
fpven him the treaty formerly accorded the King of Bosnia ; his 
moderation in that transaction and dnring the war of Karamania had 
hoen the canse of his first disgrace ; this time the Saltan made a 
crime of the too pradent connsel he had given him in his march 
against Oasonn-Eassan. Lastly, Prince Mustapha havin? died in 
Cilicia, he reproached him with having rejoiced at it, anS ordered 
him to be executed. " I arrived at the Porte," said Mahmond in hia 
will, "with my sabre, my horse, and five hundred aspres; all the rest 
is the property of the Padischah." Conqneror of Servia, of Bosnia 
and Negropont, protector of learned men, founder of useful edifices, 
benefector of the poor, his death incensed the people, and his memory 
was venerated as that of a martyr. 

Meanwhile the war against the Venetians continued. Onzoan-Has- 
sanand the Earamanian princes sent toasksucconr from the West. 
All the enemies of the Ottomans leagued t<^ther. A Venetian and 
pontifical fleet brought cannons and reinforcements to the Karaman- 
lans, attacked Attalia, ran along the coast and made war as the Turks 
did, ravaged the country, and seizing upon the inhabitants to sell 
them as ^aves. Selefkeh was reconquered, as well as some fortresses ; 
bnt speedily the Ott^imans regained the upper hand. Eeduk- Ahmed, 
who become Vizier in place of Mahmoud, and was also of Christian 
origin, achieved the entire submission of the province ; and Prince 
Djem succeeded his brother Mustapha iii the quality of governor. 

7. War Mt Moldavia. — Conquett of the Crimea. 

The warlike ardour of the Ottomans did not confine itself to ihe 
expeditions just related ; Servia and Bosnia opening to them the 
Balkans and the bnsin of the Danube, they rushed towards the West, 
not in regular armies, bnt in savs^ bands, that sought only the pillage 
and massacre of Christians. They invaded thus, during those four 
years (1470 to 1473), Croatia, Camiola, Carinthia, and Styria. Ger- 
many began to tremble ; but the peril that menaced Europe failed to 
unite the Christian kings in a common defence, and the Ottomans 
were able, without hindrance, to continue their conquests or their 

The possession of Wallachia had only given to the Turkish Empire 
a portion of ancient Dacia; Moldavia, inhabited in the same way br 
Boumanian peoples, was independent, or, to speak more correctly, 


i.B.1475— Ure.] CONQOBST OF THB OEUIBA, 9? 

the mserunt^ of it was diapnted by Hungary md Polaud. At ttiat 
time reigned m Moldavia Stephen iV., the priDce who, by hie victoriee 
and hJB taJonta, has embellished the histoTy of that conntry with its 
noblest pages. He had already defeated sQcceesively the Htrngarians, 
the Poles, and the Tartars, when Mahomet sought to compel him to 
pay tribato. He refused, and an Ottoman army of more than 100,000 
men invaded the countty, but was put to a thorough rout by 40,000 
Holdavians near BAoovitza, upon the Berlata (1475). Pollowing the 
example of his neighbour, Wlad the Devil- — for these Christian 
princes were as ferooions as the Turks — Stephen caused his priaoners 
to be empaled. Mahomet became infuriated at the news of thia 
defeat ; bat, the better to assure his vengeance, be determined to 
attack Moldavia on two sides, and make the Tartars of the Eaptschak 
or the Crimea march against her. 

The Crimea had been included in the ureat Empire of Zinghia 
Khan, and after the partition of that Empire, in the Khanate of the 
Kapttchak, which comprehended all the country north of the Caspian 
and of the Black Sea, with Bruseia. The invasion of Tamerlane having 
overthrown the Kaptschak, the race of Zinghis entirely perished, witS 
the exception of a prince, Devlet Sherai, who was the founder of the 
TtTiflTia of the Crimea. But that conntry already belonged only nomin- 
lUly to the Tartars. A small Christian republic had comprehended the 
importance of that peninsula, which commanded the Black^ea and the 
Boflphoms- Already mistress of Fera,andof twenty other maritime 
points in the Mediterranean, it had seized upon the coasts of the 
Crimea, had established there commercial depdts,and founded a very 
flonriahing town, Ksifa. Mahomet could not leave to his vassals of 
Pera a possession which menaced Constantinople, and the Moldavian 
var having furnished him the opportunity, he directed a fleet of 300 
■ail upon the Crimea. EaSa held out for only six days, when it was 
delivered up by treason to the Ottomans, who carried off almost all 
the inhabitants. The other Genoese places surrendered without re- 
Btstance and the peninsula thus finding iteelf for the greater part in 
the power of the Tnrks, Mahomet installed there as his vassal and 
tribntaiy the son of Devlet, Mengli Shertu. It thns formed a barrier 
against the Busaians, which he thought imfiassable ; for " he feared," 
aaya a Turkish historian, " lest the Muscovites, whose power was be- 

? Inning to increase, might profit by the perpetoal divisions of the 
artor tribes." 

The war in Moldavia was then resumed. The victorions fleet sailed 
back to Akerman, which was carried by assault, whilst the Snitan 
himaelf passed np the Danube at the head of 100,000 men, Stephen 
TV. had acquired, like Hunyade and Scanderbeg, the renown of 
champion of Christianity, or, as the Pope called him, " the athlete of 
Christ" ; but he asked in vain for aid from Hnngary and Poland. 
He then retreated before the formidable army that menaced him, 
drew it into a forest near Bobceni, and there thoroughly routed it. 
Mahomet lost 30,000 men (1476J. 

That reverse only slightly weakened the Turkish Empire, and the 



Sultan fonnd amongst the nnfortonate Christian populations where- 
with to renew the ranks of his armies. 

8. Capture of Oroia. — Siege of Scutari. — Peace with the Tenetiam. 
After the capture of Kegropont hj the OsiQanlis, the Tarkteh and 
Venetian war, for the next two or three years, offers little of import- 
ance. In 1476 the Turks had approached the Salzburg Alps, and the 
very bordere of Italy; and in the summer of 1477, having invaded 
Croatia and Dalmatia, crossed the Julian Alps, they arrived upon the 
Isonzo, defeated a Venetian army, sacked the Frionl, and extended 
their rav^ea in a still more dreadfnl manner as far aa the banks of the 
Piave. CrosBing the Isonzo, they menaced even Venice herself, and 
the Sea-queen might have beheld from her towers the columns of fire 
that rose in the plains between the Tagliamento and the Piave. 
After the enemy had retired, the Venetians attempted to secnre them- 
selves from a repetition of this insult, by throwingnp a lofty rampart 
on the banks of the lower Isonzo, &om Gortz to the marshes of 
Aqniliea, protected at each end by a fortified camp. Bat scarcely was 
it completed when a fresh swarm of Osmafllis, under Omar.Bey, 
broke through in several placee, and a hundPed villages became at 
once a prey go the flames. The historian Sabellioo, who beheld this 
fearful speotaole from a town near Udine, likened the whole plain 
between Isonzo and the Tagliamento to a sea of fire. In other respects, 
the arms of the Turks had not been snccessfnL An attempt ou Crolia 
in 1477 had been repnlsod, and in Greece Lepanto had been delivered 
by Loredano and his fleet. Bat the war had now lasted thirteen years, 
and the resources of Venioewere nearly exhaneted. Discouraged by 
the late reverses, the Republic decided to make peace by abandoning 
Croia. The defenders of that place were the last companions M 
Scanderbeg : reduced to all the horrors of famine, they Borrendered 
on condition of a promise, signed by the Sultan, that their lives would 
be Becnred. On quitting the fortress they were arrested and con- 
duotod before Mahomet, who had them beheaded. 

Cro'ia being taken, the exactions of the Sultan increased ; he de- 
manded from the Venetians the cession of Scutari, and, upon their 
refusal, he went himself to besiege it. The place offered a desperate 
resistance; the walls, reduced to ruins by the Turkish artillery, 
wfaioh discharged halls weighing thirteen quintals, were defended 
with frightful slaughter. After six weeks of continuai assaults, in 
which he lost the moiety of his army, the Sultan found himself com- 
pelled to renounce his enterprise, and the siege was converted into a 

The Ottomans, however, took their revenge upon less important 
places, which surrendered one after another; then the Venetians 
treated (January 26th, 1479), and the principal condition of the 
peace was the giving up of Scutari. The iuhabitants, reduced to 
450 men and 150 women, preferred rather to expatriate themselves 


b, Google 


A.n. U79—UM.] ■ BUG! or RHODSS. . ^^ 

than Bopport the MnsBiilin&ii yolce. The peace condnded at Con- 
Btantiiiople hj Giovanni Dario, the Secretary of State, iras ratified 
b; an Ottoman amhossador despatched to Venice, who vaa received 
■with the greatent hononr. It was even reported that a secret 
alliance woe then conclnded between the Bepnhlic and the Porte. 
We are approaching a period at which the Ottoman Empire is about 
to play a great part in the affaire of Western Enrope. 

9. Sxjoeditioiu into ffungary and Italy. — Biege of Shodet. 

Forced to respect the Venetian frontiers, the Turkish ravagers 
threw themeelvBB with renewed tarj apon Transylvania; the Voi- 
vode, Stephen Bathori and Paul Kims, doant of Temesvar, strove to 
repel them. A great battle was fonght on the 13th October, 1479, 
at Kenger-Mesee, near Earlsbonrg. At the moment when the Hnn- 
gariaos began to waver, and when Bathori, mortally wonnded, 
thonght the battle lost, Einie of Temesvar came up with reinforce- 
ments and decided the victory: 30,000 Tnrks perished. In the 
evening the conquerors celebrated their triumph by an orgie: the 
tables were laid over heaps of corpses; blood was mingled with the 
wine, and Einis himself, holding a Tnrk between his teeth, per- 
formed a warlike dance. That memorable defeat did not hinder the 
Turks from reappearing early in the year following, and from 
penetrating aa far as Styria. 

Two important expeditions signalized the year 1480. Kednk- 
Pacha, with twenty-nine vessels, attacked the Ionian Isles, and 
wrested St. Maura, Zanto, and Cephalonia from the despot of Arto. 
This conquest gave the Saltan an opportunity to display one of 
those singnlar caprices in which despotic power alone can indulge. 
He cansed some of the inhabitants to be conveyed to the islands in 
the Sea of Marmora, where he compelled them to intermarry with 
Africans, in order that he might have a race of coloured slaves. Ho 
next set sail with a fair wind towards Italy, and appeared suddenly 
before Otranto. It was a signal that Mahomet had entered upon new 
projects ; to his conquest of Qreece he was desirone of adding that 
of Italy. It was said that he had promised himself to make his 
horse eat oats npon the high altar of St. Peter's at Kome. Otmnto 
was taken (11th August) ; that unfortunate city saw iteelf delivered 
up to the customary barbarities of the Ottomans, and of which Italy 
bad loet the remembrance since the first incnrsions of the Saracens. 

Another fleet had set sail at the same time from Constantinople. 
It was composed of more than sixty galleys, under the command of 
Mesih Pacha, and was directed against Khodes. The Knights of 
St. John of Jemsalem, who had occapied that isle since tne end 
of the thirteenth century, were, by the very spirit of their institntioti, 
in perpetual war with the Mussulmans. However, having to struggle 
already against the Sultans of I^ypt and the Tunisians, they had 
avoided lending the too formii£^le power of the Ottomans, and 


100 TDRKET OLD ASD KKW, [a-D. USO—liSl. 

had maintained a good nnderatandiiig with the predecesBora of 2Ia- 
homet II. With the consent of even Mtihomet I, they had fortified 
Halicarnaasns, Cos, and the less important idea that cover the 
approaches to Rhodes. The Grand Master, Pierre d'Anbusson, fore> 
saw the peril with which he was meoaced; he hastened to conolnde 
peace with the Saltan of E^pt and the Bev of Tunis, and made his 

S reparations for defence. On the 23rd of May, 1480, the Tcrkisfa 
eet and an army drafted from Asia appeared under the walls of 
Rhodes, and the town was battered in breach by land and sea. All 
the popnlation flocked to its defence : men, women, children, old men 
laboured to repair the walls mined by the artillery, to raise fresh 
ramparts, to remove, by means of snbterranean passages, the fascines 
and stones bv the aid of which the Mnssnlmans tried to fill np the 
ditches. Three assaults were directed s^inst the Bt. Nicholas 
Tower, which formed the principal defence of the harbonr; they 
were valiantly repulsed. Upon the mined walls the besieged had 
erected an enormons catapult, which hnrled back npon the Tnrks tbe 
fragments of their stone cannon-balls, and which was derisively 
called bj the knights the tribute. 

At length, on the 28th of Jnly, the same day on which the sqnadron 
of the vizier appeared before Otranto, a general assault was delivered 
against Rhodes. The Turks mshed in mass upon the breach, and 
it was already carried, when Mesih Facha restrained tbe ardour of 
his soldiers by forbidding them to pillB^^e the town. The assaUants, 
in turn, were repulsed in disorder, having lost 9,000 dead and 15,000 
wounded, which compelled them to reimbark. The Admiral, on his 
return to Constantinople, was ignominiously deposed. 

The year following these expeditions the Sultaa Mahomet Ghazi 
died, August 3rd, 1481. 

10. Character of Malwviet JI. — Sit Itistittiliont. 
Mahomet II. is, of all the Ottoman sovereigns, the one of whom 
Europeans have most spoken. His contemporajdes, the Byzantines 
especially, have painted him in the darkest colours; to his aotn&l 
cruelties they have added ima^narr ones ; thus, when his death 
became known at Rome, the Pope ordered prayers and rejoicings for 
three days. Christianity believed itself deUTered from its most 
formidable enemy. Lat«r, however, fanciful writers indulged in hia 

f raise, in panegrrics that pompously ennmerated the citiea and 
ingdoms he had conquered, that vaunted his tolerance and intelli- 
gence. The truth is that he had all the vices of a cormpt barbarian, 
and though he might love letters and protect them, he was not the 
less a dissolute, perfidions, and sanguinary tyrant — one of the most 
detestable man slayers recorded in history. Bnt he did not solely 
occupy himself in wholesale massacres of peoples and the destruction 
of their cities, he was desirous of founding, administering, governing. 
Thus wo have seen that by his care Constantinople acquired a new 



existence; he therein constracted four mosques, amongst which was 
conspicDons the great mosqae of the conqnerei* (Pethiyi). He 
c&nsed, moreover, to be built a maltitnde of schools, imaxete, baths, 
two palaces, the old and new Seraglioa.* Artists and workmen from 
all conntries were sought for to embellish these edifices; and he 
knew well how to recompense them; thus the architect of the 
Fethiye received as a gift an entire street of the city. 

As a warrior, Hahomet, in spite of the extent of his conquests, 

was not an eztraordinaiy man ; he owed his chief successra to the 
nnniber of his soldiers and the weakness of hia enemies ; but as a 
legislator he was favourably distinguished from his predecessors. 
Before bis reign the Ottomans were rather an army than a nation ; 
their institutions were those of a semi-nomad and adventuroua 
people. It was Uahomet II. who regulated those institutions and 

* DpOD tiie rite of the Acropolu of (he eooient Bjiantium, there, when atom ia 
■ntiqnitj tht temple* of Fellu, Baochna lad Jopiter ; nnder the ChriatiAn SmDeTora, 
tbe ChBTabea of S3. DemetriaB and Min&a, of Tbeodore Sergini and of tfae Holf Tirgin, 
them micht iha lolloiring iDBCripLion be read : " Mn; Qod eterniHi tbe honour of ill 

poMBMari Haj Ood eoneoKd&ts its cuaatiuctioD ! Ua; Qod atreugthw lu f oDodationi I " 
(" Omrtanlin'TV aod the Boephorai," torn, I.) 



gave them a character of stability. His code of laws, called the 
Kaiioun-NamS (fnndamental law), was divided into three parts ; the 
first treate of the hiorarchj and the grandees of the Empire, the 
second of ceremonies, and the third of the penalties for crime and 
the financial and mnnicipal adminiatration. 

The number fonr is taken as the basie of the hierarchical gorem- 
ment, in honoar of the fonr angels who support the Koran, and of 
the fonr Khalifes disciples of Mahomet. The State is compared to a 
tent ; the Qovemment of it is the door or most conspioaoiiB part of 
it. The Sublime Porte (^Babi-Dwelei), it is well known, has served 
from the origin and still serves to designate the government of the 
Sultan. The fonr supports of the Snbtime Porte, the four oolnmns 
of the tent, are the four first dignitaries of the Empire ; the vixier, 
the Kadi-axker, or indge of the army, the defterdar, or secreta^ of 
the treasnryj and the nischandji, secretary for the signatare of the 

At first there was only one vizier, then two, then three ; nnder 
Mahomet 11. their nomber was increased to fonr; bat the grand 
vizier was mnch above the others, both by his prerogatives and by 
the importance of his fnnctions : he was the keeper of the Seal of ' 
State, that was the symbol of his dignity ; he bora it always suspen- 
ded round his neck ; he had the right of holding nnder his roof a 
Sarticnlar divan, which was called the High Porte, in which was 
ebated affairs of detail ; he received the official visits of all the other 
great dignitaries. 

The highest dignity, after that of vizier, was that of Kadi-asker. 
There was only one at first ; in the last year only of Mahomet's reign 
two were created, one for Enrope and one for Asia. They were, 
each in his department, the supreme heads of the judiciary order ; 
they nominated to all the posts of judges and professors (Kadia and 
moaderris), with the exception of some privileged places of which 
the grand vizier reserved the disposal. 

The defterdar came next, who kept the registers of the finances. 
There was onW' one in Mahomet's time ; later on there were fonr. The 
nischandji affixed the toughra npon the diplomae, and furth^ pre- 
pared and revised them. That function became later almost entirely 
honorary, its most important attributeB having passed to the reU- 
effendi, secretary of Stats. 

After those four categories of dignitarieB, who alone had entrance 
to the divan, ranked the exterior agat or heads of the army ; those 
were the aga of the Janissaries, charged, besides the command of 
that militia, with the safe-guard of Constantinopie ; the agas of the 
sipahis and other corps of regular cavalry; 'the topdtchi~baech\, tito 
general of the artillery, the general of munitions, ajid the general of 
transports ; the twelve officers of the imperial stirrup, the standard- 
bearer, the equerries, chamberlains, masters of the hunt, &o. Under 
the name of interior agas_ were designated the great offioers of the 
Seraglio; the principal were the Kapoit.aga (aga of the Sublime 
Porte), or chief of the white eunuchs; the treasurer, the superin- 


iNSTirnnoss or habombt k. 103 

temdent of the table, the oommander of the KapidjU or goard of the 
Conrtu; of the bottandjis or gardenere; the tackauck-baehi, chief of 
the messengeiB of State, who were also cailed be;a of the divan, 
hecanse they watched over the maintenance of order in the hall of 
council ; lastly, the chief of the black ennachs (Kialaragaci, aga of 
the girle), who frequently fonnd himself the most powerful of all by 
his secret influence. 

The provinces were governed by beys, pachas of one tail, heyler. 
bejs, pachas of two tails, who levied toe t^ea and assembled onder 
their banner (gandjaJe) the feudatory horeemen. The names of pas- 
aeeeora of fiefs were inscribed apon the registrars of the defterdar ; 
Uahoinet ordered to be added thereto a statement of the value of 
their domains, which served to rognlate proportionally their ground- 
rents ; a notable amelioration in the system of finance. The other 
sources of revenue of the empire where the customs datiea, fines, 
the mines, and the tributes, a {mti of which the Sultan gave over to 
the viziers and defterdars. 

The most remarkable monnment of the legislation of Mahomet 
was the hierarchy of the judicial and religious functionaries which 
was called the ehtUn of the vlemat. 

The ulemas are not priests, but legists and theologians ; it is a 
learned body* from whitOi are exclusively recruited the judges, doc- 
tore, professors, and the highest civil functionaries of the empire. 
The oi^oiEatiou of that singular body was especially the work of 
Visier Mahmond, learned himself and the friend of the learned. 
The chain of the ulemas comprehends those who teach, and those 
who study, the functionaries and the candidates. The first all come 
out of the higher schools or medrettii, wherein they learn gtammar, 
logic, mfitaphysics, rhetoric, geometry, astronomy, then civil law, 
dogmatio doctrine, the traditions of Uie Prophet, the interpretation 
of the Korftn, in short, jurisprudence and theology ; for those two 
sciences make one only amongst the Uussatmans ) the Koran, the 
traditions of the Prophet, those of the Ehalifes, the hauouns or 
decrees of the Sultans, are at once the sources of law and of religions 
doctrine. In the course of. their studies the candidates take sno* 
cessively the names of thalebi, stndents, or more commonly of sovJttii 
(inflamed with zeal), of daniichmends (gifted with science), and of 
mouIoMffi* (prepared). The grade of danuckTrtend suffioes to obtain 
the posts of imatu, of naib* (inferior judges), or of masters of elemen- 
tary schools ; that of Tnouttuim, gives access to the functions of 
mouderrit (professors of medress^, of superior judges and of mol' 
lah*. All these posts, as has been said, depend upon the Kadias- 
kars; bat since Mahomet II. the nominations, to the lowest as 
well as to the highest, must be coufirmed by a diploma from the Sul- 

' n* pritat* pnperlj m called, that ia to nj, the olergj •[ ths moaqnsi, tba oallcr* 
to praj"! thi iiBui, wid tha prauben, do not enjoj, probably, is uij Stale laas iuflu- 
cuM than in tba Ottanun Kmpin] ; the teaching oorpa, on the oontraij, hu an import- 
ana* and an aalhorilT of irhioh an ezMDjde ii uowhsre alas Bscn, China excepted. Ton 
Haauner, lir. xriii. p. SiZ. 



tui. The monderris are divided into several categorieB accordtDg to 
the importance of their poet and the natore of their teaching. They 
are distingaished by the number afBxed to their emolument ; and 
they are called the twentieth, the thirtieth, the fortieth, fiftieth, six- 
tieth, according ae they receive 20, 30, 40 aspres per diem. The title 
of viollah is reserved for the highest fanctioiiariee of the jndicial 
order. The first of all, in the time of Mahomet, were the Kndiaskers ; 
next oame the chodja (preceptor of the princes), the jndge of Con- 
stantinople, then the grand mufU. This title of mnfti (interpreter 
of laws) designated the learned whose decision (fetwa) constitated 
anthority in matters of religion and jarisprndence ; snoh was the 
sheik who anthorized the esecntion of the King of Bosnia.* Later, 
the anthority of the grand mnftis, supported by religion, became omni- 
potent; they acquired the supreme rank in the body of the alemas, 
and their fetnas often balanced the revered power of the Saltans. 

This corporation of the alemas, bo strongly constitnted, embracing 
all the degrees of the administration, is uie most important of the 
inntitntions of the Ottoman Empire. It has powerfnlly contribnted 
to maintain, amongst the Ottomans, in spite of the contact with 
Europe, the immovable spirit of Islam in ^1 its primitive rigidity; 
it still noorishes that religiooa fanaticism, that servile attachment to 
the letter of the law, that blind respect for tradition, which ropalsus 
all attempt at change and which rises like an insurmountable barrier 
between the Mussulman and the European world ; finally, it has 
become one of the most threatening causes of min for the Ottoman 

The second portion of the Karumn-NamS presents leas of interest. 
It may however be remarked npon the prescriptions relative to the 
ceremonial of the Seraglio, for the fites of the 6eTram,t that dispo- 
sition which characterizes the despotism of the East and the person 
of Mahomet ; " It is my will that no one should eat with My Imperial 
Majesty. My illnstrions EUicestors had formerly admitted their viziers 
to their table ; that cnstom I have abolished. ' That notorious law 
of faatricide may be specially instanced as a lasting testimony to the 
ferocity of the Ottoman usages ; " The nlemas have declared this 
permitted : whosoever of my illustrious sons or grandsons shall arrive 
at anpreme power may cause his brothers to be put to death to assure 
the repose of the world." Let us add that that barbarous cnatom. 
has been faithfully observed ; that it was practised indeed before they 
had the brutal audacity to erect it into a law. The proscription ia 
extended not only to brothers, bnt to nephews and great-nephews of 
the Sultans, imd the sons of their daughters ; it was only to the 
second generation of the descendanto of the Sultanas that it was per- 
mitted to lire. 

As for the third portion of the code of Mahomet, it r^ulates the 
penalty, that is to say, the price of^ blood : " The price of btood must 
be levied by the agents of the police ; it shall be, for a murder, 8,000 

* Ssa p. 93. t TIm Etstsr ol 



KspreB; for an eye destroyed, 1,500; for a wonnd on the head, 
50, ^." It was thns one of the principal resonrcea of the treasoiy. 

The Kanonri'Nami ia, with the ordinanceB of Solyman the Mi^ni- 
ficei^ all the civil legislation of the Ottomans. It will be seen bj 
that in what a narrow circle the Kor&n confines the Bocieties that it 
forma ; but it mnst be added that the Turks, on establishing them- 
selves in the Byzantine empire, permitted to subsist almost all the laws, 
onstoms, forms, ceremonies, pompons etiqnette, the administrative, 
financial, and municipal systems, m short, it may be said nearly all 
tiie social state of the Lower Empire and of the provisoes that were 
for a long time separated from it. Too simple, too ignonmt, too 
]nond to distingaish between the asefal or the injnrioos, the jnst or 
the nnJQst, the oppressive or the aalntaiT in the subtle, confused, des- 
potic, venal, cormpting legislation of that empire, which had only 
retained of Greece and Rome their vices ; seduced by those traditions 
so convenient to the arbitrary, for oppression, for the anarchy which 
they found everywhere existing, they accepted all and employed it 
to their profit, without calculation, thought or reflection for the 
fntnre, anxions only to enjoy the present, as those barbarons con- 
qneroTS have always done. " At the same time that they adopted, 
III its spirit i£ not in its details, the mode of administration and of 
impost m vigour amongst the Hellenes, they recognized the privi- 
iegoa of the great fendatories of Bosnia, Albfuiia, and Servia ; lastly, 
th^ instituted themselves by degrees, under the name of heyloiAt, 
vast fiefs fonnded npon the bondage of the peasants, and which en- 
oonraged the sipahis, possesBors of xiamett and ti-mars, to change their 
right of tithe into proprietary right over land and persons." * 

In all Ottoman conqneets there was a distribution of forfeited 
l&nds into fiefs. It was Mahomet II. who iatrodnced the old feudal 
usages of the Seljnkian empire. This was called the Timariot system, 
ftod in some respects it is singularly parallel with the Engliah feudal 
system. Large tracts of the richest land having reverted to Qovern- 
meut by confiscation, a considerable proportion was divided into fiefs, 
snd conferred on distinguished warriors. The Timariot held his fief 
on the condition of serving the Saltan in compact with a certain 
nnmber of followers proportioned to ita value. It was the Timariot 
spit«ni, in conjunction with the tributes of Christian chiefdom, which 
mainly consolidated Turkish power in Europe. Lord Byron has an 
allnsion to the feudal system of Turkey : 

''We Hoalemi reck not much of blood ; 
But }et the Jine of EansDun 
UDchanged. nochuigf&bla bath stood, 
Fiiat <A th« bald Timuiot bandit 
That woo and well on keep Lbdi iMids." 

The word npahi originally denoted the lowest class of Timariot. 

It was only by means of their fendatories that a small minority of 

ocmqnerors, like the English in India, were enabled to retain their 

* Hipp. Draprra, " La Peuple* do rAutriche and de la Tarqaie," f. SOI. 



ftnthority over a vast popalation, with a large sal^eot element of 
fthrmerB and landed proprietorB. The Christian cnltivatora, in a 
lai^ proportion of oaseB, retained their lauds, paying revennes to 
the Timariot, who, in turn, rendered service to the Saltan. TJnfortn- 
natelj, as differences of creed were added to those of raoe, there was 
never the same fusion which took place in 'Western Europe. The 
Bjetoia might be defectiTe, and it manifested growing defect^ bnt at 
me same tune there vrere some points on which it fevourahly con- 
tnuBted with the Western system. The condition of the Ottoman 
rayah would be one of greater comfort and aecniity than that of the 
Euesian serf or French villein. Like the old condition of baron 
and knight, the feudal military organization of Turkey haa now 
passed away, bat it survived nearly to onr own times, and traces of 
it still remain. 

A. feudal Bystem has two Bides, the military and the territorial. The 
feudal militia, in oonjunction with the Janissaries, for generations 
constituted the strength of the Ottoman power. The Turkish feudal 
system has to be studied both in Asia and Europe. In Asia Minor 
we find the same decay and depopulation as in European Turkey — 
the fallen bridge, the ruined caravanserai,. the thinned population, the 
deserted district. Mahomet II. swept away Othoman's feudal system 
in Asia Minor ; it is a common criticism, however, that he would 
have done better had he tried to reinvigorate and reetore it. The 
ruins of the feudal castle are found in many a sequestered valley of 
the Afiiatio provinces. In Europe other causes have been at work ; 
not only lust and cruelty, the fundamental vices of Islamism, bat the 
denial of iastice and &ir play to Christians, and the blundering 
finance which has been injurious to all creeds and classes. The de- 
cline of cultivation, credit, and popnlation is not essenti&Uy due to 
the fendal systeni conseqnent upon the Turkish conquest, except that 
the fief not passing from father to son constituted a further great 
barrier to improvement. The laws affecting land have always been 
of the moBt iniquitous and Buioidal description, esiA have &lleti with 
equal harshness on the " infidel " and the " true believer." Eor two 
months annually all agricnltural industry is paralyzed. The tax is 
paid in kind — a certain proportion of the annnal crop. The harvest 
waits the leisure of the tax-gatherer ; and the most primitive, cum- 
brous operations are retained because they best suit the convenience 
and the precedents of government. It is calculated that the Christian 
provinces could sustain fourteen times the present populaiion. The 
magnificent resonrccs of Turkey have been an immense lure to specn- 
lators in loans, bnt these resources can never be developed under an 
intensified system of misgovemment. The old feudal system, has 
passed away without the substitution of anything better, but with 
the a^;ravation of its worst elements. When the soil is owned by 
the Mussulman, but cultivated by the Christian, the landlord farms 
the taxes or combines with the tax-collector. Even the feudal system 
has been ill-«xohanged for the abnormal monstrosities that hav» 
succeeded it. 



This rraalt ought not to surprise, if it be considered that there woa 
no j^reat moral difference between the conquerors and the conqnered ; 
the one and the other had been intermingled for two centuries in war, 
peace, commerce and transactioiu of every kind ; that they had very 
nearly the same manners, the same capidity, the same corruption and 
moreoTor the same cruelty ; lastly, that if we regard the fundamental 
diiFerence, that of religion, we find that the cormpt, d^enerate, 
deteriorated Christianity of the eaatem peoples had veiy nearly 
approached to Islamism. 

To these consideiations if we add that the Ottoman armies were 
ia great put composed, either of ChristianB converted by force to 
Tulajiiijcm , like the Janissaries, ; or of Christian aaziliaries, like the 
Serbs,. Bulgarians, Albanians, whom we have seen so frequently 
figuring in the r^iks of the Osmanlis ; that the majority of the 
Chand Viziers,* statesmen, generals, were of Christian race ; tl^t almost 
all administratorB, collectors of imposts, scribes, diplomatic envoys, 
were Hellenes or Slavs ; finally, that " it was a maxim of state among 
the Osmanlis," says Uunmer, " that he must be the son of a Christian 
in order to succeed to the highest dignities of the empire." The fol- 
lowing conclusions, therefore, may be drawn by which a clear under* 
standing of the history of the Ottomans and the prescience of their 
destinies may be arrived at : — " That the Turkish people has been 
formed, as originally was formed the militia of the Janissaries, which 
was in one respect the image of Turkey, by recruiting itself from the 
Greek, Slav, Albanian, and Bulgarian populations, on which violenoe 
imposed apostacy. That if the Ottoman power trod under foot so 
many nations, that result ought not to be attributed to the indolent 
and stolid character of the Turkish race, but to the spirit of finesse 
•nd address which distinguishes the Greekand Slav peoples, to the 
intrgiiditf of the Albanians and Dalmatians, io the persevenuice of 
the Bosnians and Croats ; in short, to the valour and talent of the 
inhalritauts even of the conquered countries ;" ^ lastly, that the Otto- 
man empire has been, from the reasons just given as well as from 
the evils and embacrassments which it has caused Europe, only the 
rastoration, transformation, and oondnuation of the Lower Empire. 

* tTndec Hahonet U., of fire Qnuid TUten, four w«i« of ChiuUui orifin, two 
Sneki, Kid Iwo Ujiiuu i ludor fialjmui tbe 0iaa(, of ume Viiign, eight von of 
CLriitiaD nigiii, Ac Tho Gto EropBli wera Htwtdoniaiii. 

f Baakf, "Hist, do la Serolotion Sorbe;" Hammsr, " ^«t. of th« Otl<ifflui 




Buaa or Buaiit II. Am or Bbum I. (1481-1520). 

1, Revolt and Adventures of Djem. 
Maeoh BT II. left two aoDH, Bajazet, OoTemor of Amasia, and Djem, 
QoveraoT of KaramaniB. This FrinOe Djem, or Zizim, hb Earopean 
hiatoriaiiB Iiave called him, was the yonngeBt of the two brothers. 
He was then in his twenty-second year. Of lively and cultivated 
mind, an expert wrestler, and no mean poet, he had sncceeded in 
winning the affections of the indocile people whom he governed, and 
had created for himself a party from amongst the grandees of the 
empire. The vizier, Mahomet Karamani, who had an anderstanding 
with him, agreed to conceal the death of the Sultan nntil his 
snccesaor was declared. He sent messengers to the two princes, and, 
as 'Mahomet had died at Scntari, he had his body carried to Constan- 
tinople in a shnt-np bark, giving oat that the Saltan was going to take 
the batbs there for the recovery of bis health. Bnt the people already 
anspocted the tmth — the adjem-oghlam (recraiters of the Janissaries) 
enlightened the army. The Janissaries immediately rose in arms, 
pillaged several qoarters of the city, and put the vizier to death. 
That militia, dnring the oontinnal wars of the latter reigns, had 
acquired an immoderate importance, and began to render itself 
formidable. Already, at the beginning of the reign of Mahomet II., 
it had demanded tamnltnonsly tMiditional pay, and the Sultan, whilst 
pnnishing the ringleaders, had been forced to yield to the exactions 
of the soldiers. That fatal example was aboat to be renewed ; it 
passed into a custom, and the bounty on their accession was paid by 
all the Sultans down to 1774. 

.The messengers despatched to Djem, however, had been arrested 
by the Beylerbey of Anatolia, bnt Bajazet was warned in time; he 
quitted his government, arrived in nine days at Scutari, and caused 
himself to be proclaimed Sultan. The Janissaries went tamnltaonsly 
to meet him. They demanded an amnesty for the disorders they had 
committed, the accession bounty, the banishment of Mnstapha Pacha, 
the favourite of the new prmce, and the elevation of lahak Bey, 
Governor of Constantinople, to the dignity of Grand Vizier. All 
was granted, and thus the tyranny of these new pretorians was 

The new Saltan was of a pacific character. la his government of 
Amasia he had lived surrounded by poets and writers, nimself culti- 
vating letters. The Ottoman historians call him Bajazet th^ Bofi, a 
name which thej give to learned men who devote themselves to a 
contemplative existence. He was thrown, however, by the necessities 


k.D. 1*82.1 RKYOLT OF DJBM. 109 

of his position, and, so to speak, b; the destinies of the Ottom&n 
Bmptre, into almost perpetoal war. Djem had taken up arms, 
marched npon Bronasa, defeated a corps of 2,000 JanisBariea, and 
. entered the cit^. Whilst he there installed his Coart, and was 
making the onTinms recognize his sovereigatj, Bajazot raised an 
snny and advanced to maintain his rights. The Snltana Seldjakcha' 
tons, great-aunt of the two brothers, endeavonred in vain to reconcile 
them. " There is no relationship between princes," was the reply of 
Bajazet. Djem divided his already insufficient forces, was defeated 
near Jenischehr (20tb. Jnne, 1482), and compelled to flee towards 
Karamania. Thenoe he sought refuge in the States of the Saltan of 
£gjpt. Bajazet, after having pursued hini for several days, regained 
his capital. In passing before Broussa, the Janissaries demanded 
that the city should be given up to pillf^ as a pnnishmont for 
having acknowledged Djem ; the Snltan, after having Larangned 
them, was constrained to treat with the mutineers, and distributed 
1,000 aspres per man in order to ransom the city. 

The following year, Djem returned from Cairo to Aleppo, and 
allied himself with Kasim Bey, the last of the Karunan princes. 
Several Ottoman governors took part with him, and Konieb was 
besieged. But fortune was again favonrable to Bajazet, thanks to 
the ability of Keduk Ahmed, the conqueror of Eafia and Otranto, 
and Djem found himself compelled to raise the siege , of Konieli. 
The Governor of Angara was defeated and slain ; desertion spread 
itself throughout the army of the rebel prince, and be was forced to 
flee a second time. He sent ambassadors to Bajazet, proposing an 
equal share of territory ; the Sultan replied, — " The bride of the 
empire cannot be shiu^d. Let my brother cease to pinnae hia 
horse's hoofs in Mussulman blood ; let him content himself with his 
legitimate revenneB, and expend them at Jemsalem." Djem re- 
fused, and preferred rather to throw himself into the arms of the 
enemies of the empire. As for Kasim Bey, he nuide his submission, 
and all Karaniania was pacified ; but Keduk Ahmed, who had con- 
ducted that war, having rendered himself odions to Bajazet alike 
Iw his pride and popnlaritr, was put to death. He was son-in-law 
of the Grand Yizier, Ishak Bey : the latter was deposed and replaced 
by Daoud, beylerbey of Anatolia. 

Djem, however, had nudertaken to raise the Ottoman provinces 
in Europe with the aid of the Christian Powers, and, with that 
intention, one of his secret agents was despatched to the Grand 
Master of Bhodes. The surprise of the knights was extreme ; they, 
however, promised the Prince an hononrable reception and a secure 
retreat. On the 23rd of Jnly, 1482, a galley of tke Order brought 
him to Rhodes, where he was received with great pomp. Soon after 
agents from the Saltan arrived, charged to make magnificent offers, 
and negotiations were also entered upon with them. Bat first, a 
treaty was concluded with the fugitive Prince which secured great 
advantages to the Order, shontd Djem be one day established ; then, 
under pretext that he was not in safety at Bhodes, they made him 


110 TUKKIT OLD AHD MBW. (i.». 148S. 

take his dep&rtnre for France. Some dajv after he had set ont the 
knights signed a treaty with the Snltan, by which the hitter engaged 
to remain at peace with the Order during his life, and to paj to it 
an annual pension of 45,000 dacats for ksejtiog his brother in cdb- 
tody. That treaty was a manifest Tiolation of that made with Diem, 
a perfidy so mnch the more odious, that it was stipendiary. The 
Pope, the King of Hungary, and the Emperor of Germany, in vain 
demanded that the Prinoe should be set at liberty, hoping to make 
him assist in the weakening of the Ottomaji power ; but the Grand 
Master, won over by the fresh promises or Qatteries of the Saltan, 
einded all their entreaties. 

ArriTed at Nice, the Ottoman Prince coold no longer dissemble with 
himself that he was not a captive ; the greater part of his saite was 
taken from him and sent back to Rhodes. From Nice he was tnuD» 
ferred snccessirely to Ghamb^, to Puy, and to Bourganeof. During 
seven years he was dragged from one stronghold to another, gnarded 
with increased rigonr. At l^gth, in 1489, the Grand Master delivered 
him np to Pope Innocent vlll. On the death of the latter, his 
snocessor, the infamous Alexander Borgia, proposed to the Sultan to 
keep his brother captive for an annual payment of 40,000 dncats, or 
to get rid of him by murder for 300,000 dncats promptly paid down. 
Whilst that bargam was under debate, Italy was invaded by the 
King of France, and the Ottoman Empire threatened with Berioua 

The Quixotic Charles VIII. had dreamed of the oonquest of Con- 
stantinople and Jerusalem : the submission of the Kingdom of 
Naples was destined to be only the prelude to that gigantic expe* 
dition, for which the French chivalry had been convoked as for the 
ancient crusades. A son of Thomas Paleeologns had sold to the 
young French King his rights to the throne of the East. The Grand 
Master of Rhodes was to conunand the army when it should arrive 
in Greece ; several sovereigns of Europe had promised to contribute 
to the expedition either their money or their soldiers. Agents had 
been sent to rouse up Macedonia, Greece, and Allwnia; arms and 
. money had been distributed among those countries ; the Archbishop 
of DnrazEO and the Mirditee were at the head of the conspiracy ; the 
ronte of the French was marked out from Otranto to Avlona, from 
Avlona to Byzantium, throi^h the Albanian and Greek populations, 
whose concurrence was hoped for. Finally, they reckoned upon 
Djem in person, whom Charles Till, claimed, to disquiet Bajacet 
and ^ect a diversion, by rekindling civil war in the Turkish pro- 

At the news of Chsrles's march into Italy, where the people 
hailed him with the titles of Defender of the Church and Liberator 
of the Faith, terror and hope spread through the East; the Greeks 
took up arms ; the Turks evacuated their positions in Albania. 
" Bajazet," says an historian, who blindly repeats a popular rumour, 
" Bajazet took such a fright that he collected all his ileet to escape 
into Asia." But the Pope, the Republic of Yenice, and Ferdinand 


i-D. 1488— 1*86.] DEATH 01 DJBll. Ill 

of NapleB, in order to oppose tte Fiencb oonqneat, solioitod the 
Sultan to make a descent upon Iteiy. AlesEtoder YI., besieged by 
the French in the Castle of St. Angdo, and constnuned to deliver 
np his captive, gave him up, but poisoned ; lastly, the Venetians 
arrested the depnties whom the Greeks and Albanians sent to the 
King of France, and forwarded their papers to tbe Saltan, who, 
instructed in all the details of tlie conspiracy, extinguished it in tbe 
blood of 40,000 Christians. Djem died at Naples, whither he had 
followed the French airmy (24th Febmary, 149S). His body, de- 
posited first at Qaeta, was some years after transported to Gallipoli, 
and thence to Bronssa, to the bnrial-place of the first Sultans. The 
remembrance of his miafortnnes, of bis long captivity, and of his 
romantic love for the beantifnl Hellene, daogbter of tbe Castellan of 
Saaaenage, was long afterwards preserved in Franco. 

2. Expeditums in Sungan/, Moldama, and Aria Minor. 

The captivity of Djem, and the events ooneeqnent npon it, oon- 
tribnted to multiply the relations of the Ottomans with West«m 
Gnrope. That fact constitutes the most important feature of Bajazet's 
reign ; for that long reign is only occupied with expeditions on the 
frontiers, of no great brilliance or interest. In Hungary and Bosnia 
the war was very nearly permanent—^ war of pillage and atrocities, 
in which Kinis, Jaxich, Tekeli, and other Christian chiefa rivalled 
the Turkish pachas in ferocity ; every year both shores of the Danube 
were devastated far and vride. 

In 1483 the Snltan had directed personally an expedition upon 
the Hungarian frontiers; but that was a mere military promenade, 
in the sequel of which he renewed for five ^ears the truce concluded 
with the King of Hungary. At the same time, one of bis lieutenants 
attacked Herzegovina. That province, which was only a dependence 
of Bosnia, was subjected without resistance and incorporated in tbe 
Ottoman Empire. In 1484 Bajazet tnmed his arms against Mol- 
davia, and seized upon Kilia and Akerman ; at the siege of this latter 
place appeared as auxiliaries 50,000 Tartars from tbe Crimea, led hj 
the Khan Mengli Oheiai. 

The year 1486 saw the commeDcement of a more serious war. 
Since the latter years of Mahomet the Second's reign misunder- 
standings had arisen between the Ottomans and the Sultan of Egypt ; 
they were renewed on the subject of certain Tnrkoman tribes located 
in Cilicia, towards Tarsus and Adana. Those tribes being in strife 
-with the inhabitants of the countTy, their chiefs at length sought 
the aid of the Sultan of Fgypt, and aided him to render himself 
master of the strongest fortresses of the country. The Qovemor of 
Earamania received orders to oppose those usurpations ; but his army 
being thrice defeated, the Grand Vizier took command of it himself 
(1487). The Egyptians not the less obtained a great victory between 


112 THRKET OLD AND HEW. [i.b, 14B1— 1403. 

Adana and Tivtbub, and pillaged the Ottoman camp. Bajaset was 
meditating taking himaeti tbe direction of that war, wheii the Bey 
of Tnnis proposed to mediate between the two MnaenJman princes. 
An honoarable peace pat an end to hostilities (1491). 

In 1492 the war recommenced orertly with Hojo^ary. Taking 
advantage of the tronUes which agitated ^at coontry after tbedeat£ 
of MatUiiaB Corvinns, the Stdbui attempted to Barprise Belgrade; 
he failed, but the marauding of his troops did not the lass desolate 
TransylTania, Croatia, Dalmatia, Illyria, Camiola, and Stjria. The 
Emperor Maximilian sent reinforcements to these aufortanate prtv 
vinces, and the Tnrka wore defeated at Villach ; they took their re- 
Tenge the year following (1493) at Udwine, where 25,000 Hungarians 
perished. In 1494, whilet they were desolating the left bank of the 
Danube, Kinis and the HnngarianB crossed over to the right bank, 
homed the sabnrbe of Semendria and bronght back from Belgrade 
troops of prisoners with an immense booty. Lastly, in 1495, peace 
was momentarily re-established, and the pillaging I'urkB threw ^em. 
selves upon the Venetian provinoes. 

3. Firtt Selations with Susda. — War with the Venetian!. 

At this epoch commenced the first relations of the Ottoman Em- 
pire with Bnssia. From the ninth ceatnry, and chiefly nnder the 
first successors of Burik, the Bnssians had rendered themselves for- 
midable to the Greek Empire. They had ravaged tlie Wallachiao 
provinces, occupied Bnlgana, and even menaced Constantinople. It 
was a conseqaence of these expeditions that they embraced Christi- 
anity ; they received it with the Greek schism, whioh they have re- 
tained. Divided later into a great namber of principalities, Bnssia 
became almost entirely subjected to the Mongols. At length, in 1481, 
Ivan III., Grand Duke of Moscow, freed himself from the Tartar 
domination, reunited under his authority the greater part of the 
prinoipalities, and became, in a word, the veritable creator of the 
BuBsian Empire. In 1492 he made friendly propositions to the 
Sultan through the medium of the Khan of the Chdmea, his ally. In 
1495 a Moscovite ambeesador appeared at Constantinople, and four 
yeara after a second envoy obtained commercial privil^es for the 
Russian merchants. 

Bajaeet entered into pacific relations also with Poland. In 1490 
he concluded with John Albert, third Prince of the Jagellon dynasty, 
a treaty which was renewed in 1493. 

But three years after that good tmderetanding was interrupted 
through both princes contending for the suzerainty of Moldavia. 
John Albert having invaded that countiy the Turks drove him out, 
and made two irruptions into Poland, seconded by the Prince of 
Moldavia, Bogdan, who made his submission to the Porte. They 
devastated the country, burned several towns, pillaged JaroslaT, 



ftnd were oviy arrested by {amine and cold, which decimated their 

At the same period a rapture took place between the Saltan and 
the Tenetians. A Tnrkish fleet and army were sent against Lepanto j 
a naval combat, fonght near Sapienza, opened the entrance of the 
^If to the fleet; the city, menaced by sea and land, enrrendered. 
At the same time, Iskender Pacha, Governor of Bosnia, invaded 
Prinli, crossed the Isonzo, and ravi^ed the Venetian territory ; his 
cavalry pushed even beyond Ta^liamento and appeared tinder the 
walls of Yioenza. In the following campaign the Venetians seised 
npon Cephalonia, and bnmed, at Previsa, a squadron of forty Turk- 
ish ehips ; bnt later, they lost Uodon, Coron, and Navarino. 

In diiB peril, the Venetians implored the aid of Christendom, and 
a kind of cmsade rennited for awhile the Pope, and the Kings of 
Spain, France, and Hongary. Navarino was retaken, then a second 
time lost ; the French galleys and those of the Pope crossed into the 
Archipelago, besieged Mitylene, and hnmed some Tnrkish vessels ; 
another sqnadron seized npon St. Manre. In turn, the Tnrks 
captnred Onrazzo. However, the war upon the Hungarian frontier 
having proved disastrous, Bajazet himself made overtures for peaoe; 
Md two treaties were conclnded, in 1502 with Venice, in 1503 with 
ry, in which all the Christian States were comprised. 

i Bevolt of the Sons of Bajazet.— EU Death. 

The last years of the reign of Bajazet II. were troubled by the 
ambitions pretensions of his sons. He had had eight, of whom three 
mrvired him — Korkud, Ahmed, and Selim. The first passionately 
devoted to letters and the arte, a protector of learned men, and a 
friend of peace, displeased the soldiers } the Sultan even was little 
disposed to designate him as his saccessor, and leaned visibly in 
tvront of Ahmed. Ahmed reckoned, moreover, among hie partisans 
the Grand Yizier, Ali Pacha, and the most influential personages in 
the divan. But the third son of Bajazet, Selim, by his martial 
bearing, by his decided inclination for war, and also by hiB marked 
attention to the soldiery, had won the favour of the army, and es- 
pecially of the Janiasariee. A struggle appeared imminent. Bajazet, 
to prevent it breaking out, distributed the chief governments amongst 
his sons ; Korkud had that of Tekieh, Ahmed that of Amaeia, Selim 
that of Trebizonde. Solyman, the young son of Selim, was also made 
governor of KaSa. 

This arrangement did not satisfy the ambition of Selim ; he aban> 
doned, without orders, his government to repair to KaSa, where he 
brought about an understanding with the Tartars of the Crimea. 
He was ordered to return to hia government. To this he replied by 
asking for a government in IDurope, in order, he said, to be more 
within reach of conferring with his father. Upon the refusal of the 
Sultan, he openly rsrvolted, and marched towards Boumelia. Bajazet 


114 TUKSETJILD AND NKW. [a.I>. 1611— 1G12. 

hoped to intimidate the rebel by sending an army against him ; 
bnt Selim. stood firm, and it was the Snltan's army that was 
compelled to retire to avoid an engagement. The Saltan then 
treated irith hia son, and gave him the goremment of Semendria 
and of Widdin (1511). 

Setim. was slowly directing his steps towards his new residenoe, 
when he learned that Korknd had seized npon the government of 
Saron-Ehan, to be nearer the capital also. At this news, Selini fell 
back and entered Adrianople as a sovereign. Bajazet, yielding to 
the representations ot his ministers, resolved to pnnish his son ; a 
collision took place near Tchorli, and Selim, defeated, fled to the 
Crimea. The Jaaistaries then revolted, and forced the Snlten to 
recall hia son to the goyemment of Semendria. The Prince having 
set ont on his way thither, they went to meet him, and conducted 
him as it were in trinmph to Constantinople. Some days after 
(25th April, 1512), they carried him to the Seraglio with thesipahia 
and a great conconroe of people. " What do yon want F " asked 
Bajazet. "Onr Padischah is old and sick!" was the reply; "We 
would have Selim Snltan." " I cede the empire to him," answered 
Bajazet ; " and may Ood bless his reign ! " He then went and shnt 
himself np in the old Seraglio, abandoniiw the new to his son. 
Twen^ days after he set ont for Dimotika, hia birthplace, where he 
wished to die. He expired on his way thither (May 26). Several 
historians accnse Selim of having poisoned him. 

The reign of Bajazet forms a resting-place in the ascending period 
of the Ottoman Empire, which mnst be specially attributed to the 
character of the prince. His pacific and easy-tempered disposition 
was in disagreement with the spirit of the nation ; the wars also 
which he waged against the Christians were above all inspired by 
religions motives. He cansed the dnat that had gathered on his 
garmento during those holy expeditions to be collected, and ordered 
that it should be placed nnder his head when in his ooflin in order to 
conform to that maxim of the Prophet: — "He whose feet are covered 
with dnst in the paths of the Lord ahall be preserved from the fire 

5. Sdim I. (1512-1520).— TTar witk Penia. 
Baised to the throne by the Janissaries, whose darling he was, 
Selim cansed 3,000 asprea, or fifty dncata per man, to be distributed 
amongst them. A sandjak-bey, emboldened by the occasion, asked 
for au increase of pay — Setim etmck oB his head with one stroke of 
his sabre. Then, leaving to Solyman, bis son, the government of the 
capital, he hastened into Asia Minor, where two sons and seven 
grandsons of Bajazet menaced his power. Whilst a aqnadronwatehed 
the coasts, he marched against his brother Ahmed, and pnrsned him 
fmitlessly beyond Angora. On passing Bronssa he fonnd thereinfive 
of his nephews ; he ordered them to be pat to dentil. One of them. 



ft child of tender jeare, threw himself in tears at the feet of the 
executioner ; another, twenty years old, defended himself with all the 
energy of deapair; 8«lim had their execntion remorseleeely carried 

Kortad, his yonnger brother, was residing peaceably at^Magnesia in 
his goTenunent of Ssron-Khan ; Selim repaired thither secretly with 
the intention of surprising him, and the Prince had scarcely time to 
effect his escape. He wandered during several weeks in the Tekieh 
moontains, was discovered in his retreat, and pnt to death. Lastly, 
Ahmed, after having employed the winter in collecting troops, entered 
upon a campaign at the commencement of 1513. Victor at Ermeni, 
he gave his brother time to repair his losses, was conqnered in tnm 
near Jenischehr (24th April), captnred in his flight, and pat to 

Seated firmly on the throne by those seven murders, Selim ra. 
tnmed to Adrianople, where he received the homsige of the tributary 
Princes, and the ambassadors of Yenice, Hunrary, Mnscovy, and 
£gypt. The truces were renewed with all the European States ; it 
was towards Asia that the new Sultan turned his gaze. 

In the latter years of Bajazet's reign an important revolution had 
been accomplished in the East — a revolution at once political and 
religions, which reawakened the sleeping quarrel of the Shiites and 
Snnnites, and raised upon the rains of the Tartar and Turkoman 
Empires the new Persian Empire of the 8eaji». 

Towards the commencement of the fourteenth century tiiere lived 
at Erdebil a Shiite sheik, renowned for his sanctity, named Ssafieddin. 
It was from his name that his descendants took their title of Stafie 
or Bojit. They inherited the religious anthority which this sheik 
had acquired, uid songht to fonnd upon it a political domination. 
For more thtta a century their efforts were nnfmitfuL At leD^h, 
one of them, Ismail, towtuds the vear 1400, commenced the celebrity 
of his family. The religious antnority he had acquired became per- 
petuated in his descendants. His great Erandaon, Djoun4id, first 
attempted to make use of it to acquire political power. Protected 
1^ Onzonn-Hassau, the conqueriog Prince of the White Sheep, he 
collected followers and launched himself upon a life of warlike 
adventure. He was defeated and slain by the Prinoe of Chirvao. 
His son Haider trod in his footsteps and perished similarly in 1488. 
He left a sou named lam^, who, about 1500, undertook to avenge 
his father and grandfather, and founded the fortunes of his house. 
Half warrior, half prophet, mingling the Shiite doctrine with some 
new maxims, he assembled upon the frontiers of Tekieh and of 
Hamid a great concourse of Shiites, hurried them away to the conquest 
of Chirvan, and succeeded therein. He next intervened in the 
quarrels of the gnmdsons of Onzonn-Hassan, profited by them and 
established the seat of his power at Tebriz, the residence of the 
princes of the dynasty of the White Sheep. Then he subdued Irak- 
Arabi on the West, Khor&ssan on the East, Diarbekir wherein still 
remained a last representative of the OuEOun.Hassan race ; and one 


116 , TUBKBI OLD AJSD HBW. [a.I>. 1&10— 1514. 

of his Emirs seized npon Bagdad. In 1510 he added to Ms empire 
FaraiBtan and Aderbaidjan ; destroyed, the year following, the State 
of the Uabeka upon the Oxne, and extended his dominatioii from, the 
Persian Qnlf to the Caspian Sea, from the sonrces of the Euphrates 
to heyond the Oxub. 

This new power was jnst reaching its apogee, when the revolt of 
the sons of Bajazet II. broke out ; the adherents , of Ismail profited 
by it to harass the Ottoman frontiers ; the Schah himself qnarrelled 
with Selim ; he took part with Ahmed and offered an asylum to his 
fngitave sons; lastly, he solicited the Snltan of Egypt to form a 
league against the new sovereign of the Ottomans. Bat already 
Sehm was preparing to asenme the offensive. The doctrines of IsmaU 
being widely spread in the conterminous provinces of the Empire, 
and especially in the Tekieh and the Hamid, all the votaries were 
Bonght for, an exact censas of them taken with the most profound 
secreey, aiid then a general massacre was ordered : 40,000 heretics 
perished in one day. It was the St. Bartholomew of the Unssnl- 
mans; hut massacres are such common thipgs in the history of 
Eastern peoples, that this one has no more celebnty than many others, 
and is lost in the muttiplioity of those great crimes. 

After that massacre, war was announced in the divan, and the army 
entered upon a campaign (Uarch 1514). It was a holy war. The 
grand mufti declared it even obligatory, adding that the death of 
a Shiito was more agreeable to God than that of sixty and ton 

Selim sent his enemy a threatening message ; Ismail replied to it by 
a letter in torms sufficiently measured ; it ended by saying: " Yoor 
letter is nnworthy of a Snltan ; it ia doubtless the work of some 
secretary intoxicated with opium." The Saltan, infuriated, caused the 
bearer of the message to be massacred. Meanwhile, Ismail himself 
changed into a desert all the country which the Ottoman army had 
to traverse; thus, when that army of 140,000 men reached the 
frontier, it found itself at close quarters with famine; Ismail retired 
before it, and in spite of the insults and provocations of Selim, ha 
Tefused any engagement. The Tnrkish army murmured ; a part of 
it was compuleorily left by the way ; at length, the Janissaries 
loudly demanded a retreat. At the first outery, the Sulten rushed 
into the midst of them and overwhelmed them with reproaches. 
" Let the cowaa-ds," said he, " sepuate themselves from the brave 
men who have taken up the sword and quiver 1" Their enthuaiasni 
rekindled at his voice, and the march was directed towards Tebriz. 
Borne days after it waa reported that the Schah, tired of retreating, 
awaited battle in the valley of Tchaldiran. It was there that » 
decisive action was fought (23rd August, 1514). The Ottoman army 
arrived fatigued ; the viziers advised that some rest should be given 
it; the deftordar Piri-Pacha insisted that battle should be delivered 
without delay. That was the making of his fortone. The fight 
immediately began, and the Ottoman artillery gave them the victory. 
IsmtJl very nearly perished in the action ; he fled precipitately as f&r 


*.»■ 161*— 1(18.] CONQUEST OF EGYPT. 117 

as Tebrii, bat dared not tLere await the enemy. Tebm opened its 
g&tes 'nthont resistance ; the Snlten made his entrance therein on 
the 4th September. He seized upon the Schah's treasnres and 
cftneed the moat skilful artisans of the city to be sent to Constan- 

After a halt of eight days, he resumed the pnranit of iBmail ; bnt 
having reached the banks of the Araxes, his soldiers refused to 
advance further. Winter was approaching and proTiaions were 
wanting ; he was compelled t« yield ; bnt the Grand Vizier was dis* 
missed. After reducing in his retreat several fortresses, the Sultan 
trava«ed Georgia and Armenia, and went to pass the winter in 

Hostilities recommenced in the spring ; bnt they were confined to 
the capture of the castle of Koumach and the conquest of the prin- 
cipality of Sonlkadr (1515). Selim returned to Constantinople, 
leaving to his lieutenants the care of continuing the war. The tiift- 
toriographer Idris displayed remarkable activity therein. The Kurds, 
Eenlons Sunnites, were raised- the chief towns of the Diabekir sub- 
mitted almost withont resistance ; and when IsmsTl, who had re-entered 
Tebriz, entered upon a campaign, the Ottoman troops in concert with 
the population of the conntry, snccessfnlly repulsed him. The 
struggle was prolonged nntil the following year; the capture of 
Mardin (1515) ; that of OSa (the ancient Edossa), of Haka and of 
Moral, achieved the conquest of the Diarbekir. To Idris was confided 
the task of organizing that new province ; and he, well knowing how 
to treat with caution the jealous independence of the Kurds, left the 
antbority in the hands of their chiefs of tribes, and, by that means, 
secnred the Ottoman domination in those countries. 

6. Conqvett of Egypt. — Death and Character of Sdim. 
The war was scarcely terminated on the banks of the Tigris, ere 
already Selim prepared for a more important enterprise. For a long 
time the Sultans of the Osmanlis had borne envy and hatred to the 
Sultans of Egypt. The latter, who had kept the Khalifea in captivity 
and bore the title of " Servantt of the aoly Oitiea," attributed to 
themselves a sort of supremacy over all the princes of Islam ; they 
had often been irritated at the depredations of the Ottomans 
upon the frontiers of their States; lastly, Kanson-Ohawri, Sal- 
tan of Caiit), had made alliance with the Shah Ismail and was 
Ereparing to bring him aid. Selim resolved to ntake war npon 
im, and caased his aggrcssiou to be justified by a fetwa of the 
Grand Mufti. " If a fffldishah," asked Selim, " engaged in a holy 
war for the destruction of the impious, encounters obstacles in the 
succour lent to the impious by anouier padishah, does the law permit 
the former to strike down the latter?" The Mufti replied: "He 
who aids the impiona is himself impious." Immediately war was 
declared, and Syria invaded. The Egyptian Sultan attempted to 


118 TDSKET OLD AND NEK. [^.D. lOlS. 

negotiate, and offered his mediation between Ismail and Selim ; his 
amb(»8ador had all his retinae massacred, and was ignominionslj sent 
back. He then marched to meet the Ottomans. The two armies 
came to blows near Aleppo, in the plain of Dabik, where stands, 
according to the Mussulmans, the tomb o£ King David. The discord 
which reigned amongst the Hamelnkes brought about their defeat : 
the djelbans, Mamelokes of the first cla^s, jealons of those of the 
third, or kortwns, refnsed to take part in the action. The powerful 
artillerT' of tbe Ottomans in the end gave them the victory. The 
Bnltan Qhawri, who was eighty years old, perished in the retreat. 

That victory gave the whole of Syria to Selim. He entered Aleppo, 
the governor of which. Chair Bey, made his volnntaiy sabmission; 
and in the great mosqtie of that ci^ he beard, for the first time, 
added to hie titles that of " ServMit of the Two Holy Cities." Hama 

g^oiphsnia), Hems (Emesa), and Damascns opened their gates. The 
nltan placed governors therein, received benevolently the learned 
men, visited the sheiks, enriched and repsired the mosqnes, partion- 
larly the great mosqne of Damasoas, the most magnificeat edifice of 

However, the Uamelnkes had elected a new prince, Tonman-Bey. 
Belim sent him an offer of peace on condition that he wonld acknow- 
ledge the Ottoman snzerainty. At the moment when his envoys 
quitted audience of the prince, a Mameluke, indignant at their pro- 
posals, rushed upon and killed them. War was instantly declared. 
In the month of November, 1516, a first engagement took place npon 
the Syrian frontier. The Mamelukes were again defeated, and the 
towns of Bamla and Oaza, which had risen at their approach, were 
punished bv the massacre of their inhabitants. The Ottoman army 
set oat on its march in the depth of winter, and in ten days crossed 
the desert that separates Egypt from Syria, in spite of continual 
attacks from the AJabe, and on the 22nd January, 1517, found itself 
in presence of the enemy at some distance from Cairo. The fight 
was abont to begin when a detachment of horsemen, all clad in st«el, 
threw themselves upon the centre of the Ottoman army, and pene- 
trated as far as the Sultan. This was Tonman-Bey and the boldest 
of his followers. They had determined to lay hands on Selim, but 
fell into an error br mistaking him for the Grand Tizier Sinan Bey, 
whom the Mameluke Snitan slew with his own hand. Notwith- 
standing that, the Mamelukes lost the battle. Eight days after, the 
Ottomans entered Cairo. The vanquished defended themselves 
from street to street, &om house to honse, during three days and 
three nights ; at last they surrendered conditionally on the promise 
of an amnesty. They were almost all massacred, and with them 
80,000 of the inhabitants. 

Tonman-Bey had withdrawn beyond the Nile, and, seconded by 
the Arabs, he carried on a war of skirmishes to which there appeared 
no end. Selim tried to negotiate, but the Mamelukes slew hia 
envoys. However, weakened liy the desertion of several chiefs, 
Touman-Bey entrenched himself in the Delta, kept there on the 



defensive, and was abandoned in it by the Amba. A few days after, 
a combat took place with the Ottomans. The Arabs fell npon the 
rear of the Maioeliikes, and determiDed their defeat. Tonman-Bey 
with some hnndreds of horsemeii, sought ref age in the desert. Be- 
trayed by hie host, he was captured and brought into the presence 
of Selim. "God be praised !" ezolaimed the Sultan, "now Egypt 
is conquered." Tonched by the dignity of his language and his 
countenance, he at first treated his captive with consideration, 
bat certain traitors having aroased his suspicion, the last 
Mamelnke Sultan was hanged at the gate of Cairo (15th April, 

S«lim passed a month in the capital of Egypt, distribating his 
&vonrs and dignities, organizing the government, visiting the 
mosques and public esteblishments. He sojourned for some days in 
the Isle of Handa, where the Xilometer stands, and had a vault con- 
structed to protect it. He was present at two great Egyptian fAtes — 
the opening of the Cairo Canal and the departure of the annual 
caravan for Uecca. He received from the Sherif of the Holy City 
the keys of the Kaaba, and, in return, raised to 28,000 dncats the 
tourri, or annual present, which the Ottoman sovereigns, from the time 
of Hahomet 1., had been accustomed to send to Mecca. At length, 
yielding to the mnrmurs of the army, he quitted Egypt, the govern- 
ment of which was confided to Gh&ir-Bey. He carried away the 
treasnres of the Mameluke Sultans ; and took with him a colony of 
artizans, whom he established at Constantinople. Finally, he caused 
himself to be followed by Mahomet SIT., the last representative of 
the Abbasside Ehalifes, nominal head of Islam, to whom the rulers 
of Egypt had always preserved his honorary title. Selim enforced the 
relinquishment by him of the rights and distinctive ensigns of the 
Khalifa te — that ia to sa^f, the standard, the sword, and tiie mantle 
of the Prophet ; and it is thus that the Sultans of Constantinople 
have become the representatives of the Ehalifes and the religions 
and political chiefs of Islam. After paying pious visits to the Holy 
Sepnlcbree of Hebron and Jerusalem, after a sojourn of several 
months in Syria in order to organize lie government of that pro- 
vince, Selim returned to Constantinople at the end of July 1518, and 
shortly after to Adrianople, where be received nnmerons embassies, 
and renewed treaties wiUt the European Powers. 

The rapidity and magnitude of his cooqueets naturally attracted 
the attention and eioitedthe alarm of ihe European potentates. 
Venice and Hungary, tbe Slates more immediately exposed te the 
fnry of the Turkish arms, had deemed it prudent to conciliate the 
friendship of the Porte ; and both Wladialans, King of Hungary, and 
the Bepublic of Tenioe had, at Selim's accession, renewed the peace 
which they had made with his father. The Yenetians, ever alive to 
the interests of their commerce, congratulated Selim npon his con- 

Jnest of Egypt — a country so important to their trade with the 
ndies — endeavoured to obtain from its new ruler the confirmation of 
their ancient pri-^eges, and transferred to him the tribute of 8,000 


120 TltEKBT out AHD KBW. [A.D. 1G20. 

dooats, whiob they bad before paid io tbe Sultan of Egypt for tbe 
posaeesion of CypTTiB. On these terms the peace was confirmed 
(September 17th, 1518), and was not disturbed daring Selim's life- 
After two years of repose, he made ]»«paTatiotis for a new expedi- 
tion. One hnndred galleya and a hundred and fifty other vesaele 
were fitted oat ; nnmerons troops were assembled both in Korope 
and Ama. A fresh attack upon the island of Rhodes was meditated. 
Leo X, who was alarmed, or pretended to be so, in order the better 
to promote his mercenary deaigas, decreed a war afrainst the Infidels 
In the last session of the Lateran Council (March 16th), and obtained 
ft grant of a tithe on all ecclesiastical property in Europe for the par- 
pose of defraying the expenses ; and he pablished a Bull enjoining 
all Christian princes to observe a five years' trace. Bat thongh the 
Pope pat on every appearance of eamestnees, notbing resulted from 
these measures save a profitable compact between himself and the 
French king. The scheme met with no better suocess in other coun- 
tries. In this want of zeal among the Christian nations, it was for- 
tonate that Selim's attention was engrossed by his Eastern provinces, 
and the revolts of bis anraly Janissaries. His gigantic expedition 
af^inst Rhodes was not' destined to be accomplished. Flying from 
Constantinople to avoid the plague, he was seized with that malady 
at Ischorli, and expired September 2lBt, 1520. 

Selim I. has received from tbe Ottoman historians themselves the 
appellation of the Inflexible. His fame as a great conqueror is sullied 
by acts of the most impioas cruelty. He is even said to have con- 
templated the nturder of bis son and successor Solyman, through 
fear of experiencing at his hands tbe fate which he had himself in- 
fiicted on his own father, ffever was prince more formidable to his 
ministers ; the post of vizier became under him so perilons, that a 
man was wont to say proverbially to his enemy : " May iyou be the 
vizier of Saltan Selim ] " He who was highest in his favour, Firi 
Pacba, said to him one day in a moment of gaiety, that he hoped 
Selim would give him warning when he wished to get rid of him, in 
oirder that he might arrange his affairs ; and the Saltan replied that 
he would on that very instant if he knew some one else who could 
replace bim. One day he gave the order to one of the vizlen to 
muster the army; the latter having asked In which direction the 
tents were to be pitched, he put him to death. A second vizier pat 
tbe same question and perished in the same way ; at last, the third 
bethought himself to set them op at the foor cardinal points ; Selim 
then said : " The death of two viziers baa procnred for me the one I 

In spite of these sanguinary whims and crimes, Selim is reckoned 
amongst tbe great men of the Ottoman Empire ; first, on account of 
his conquests ; next, by reason of the care he bestowed on the ad-< 
ministration of tbe provinoes. Bold in his projects, of invincible 
obstinacy in their execution, the violeoce of his disposition did not 
binder Mm from seonring, by wise precaationB, the suooess of hJB 


xn. 1530— 1S21.] SOLTHAH TBI MAGHinCENT. 121 

snterprisea. The Ottomsna relate that a, sheik had predicted that 
Lis reign wonld be of short dnr&taon. He then interrogated him on 
the t&ta of his son. " He will reign for nearly half a century," 
replied the sheilc, " and be distingnished bf his warlike virtue and 
his great successes." "Ah!" exclaimed Selim, with a deep sigh, 
" if Allah had ^ranted me so long a reign, I should hare eqoalled 
King Solomon. 

Esran or Soi-Tiun I., 1020 to ths t 

1. Firit Aett of Bolyman. — Gesture of Belgrade and of Bhodei. 
Thk successor of Selim was Solymui — Solyman the Great, the Mag- 
nifieent, the Conqueror, (he Legiilator. These titles, which history 
has confirmed, are not too pompons for the extraordinary man whose 
Mign is the most brilliant in the Ottoman annab. 

Solyman was twenty-five at the death of his father. From Mag- 
nesia, of which he was goveraor, he hastened to Constantinople, 
rendered the last duties to Selim. and ordered a mosque to be erected 
over his tomb, the SeltTniie, with a school and a niedreni ; then he 
diatribated the accession donative amongst the JanisBaries. His first 
acts showed his love of jastice and his generosity : several high 
fnnctionaries were displaced or pnt to death for abnse of power ; the 
Egyptian artisans brought by Selim from Egypt to Constantinople 
were restored to their native country ; and the Persian merchants, 
whom the edicts against the commerce ol Persia had ruined, were 

One revolt alone tronbled the comraencement of the new reign ; it 
was that of Djanberdi Qhazali, governor of Syria, who thought the 
moment favomable for raising that newly-conqnered province; and 
be essayed in vain to draw Chair-Bey, governor of Egypt, into his 
mtterprise. To the third vizier, Ferhad Paoha, was confided the 
suppression of the revolt. Qhazali, niter having attempted to seize 
upon Aleppo, fell back at the approach of the Snltan's army, and 
reached Damascus, where by treason he cansed 6,000 Janissaries to 
be massacred. A few days after he fought a battle before the gates 
o>f that city (27th Jan., 1521), Defeated and delivered up by his 
followers, he was put to death and bis head sent to Constantinople. 

Scarcely was that revolt suppressed ere hostilities were resumed 
with Hungary. A toe AooucA having been sent to demand the tribute, 
was outraged and massacred ; the Sultan made immediate prepara- 
tions for war, and b^^n his march with 150,000 men, followed by 
30,000 camels laden with munitions and provisions, and 300 pieces (S 
cannon. Whilst. the Grand Vizier, Piri Pacha, was banning to 


122 TURKBT OLD Aim NIW. [a.S. 1G21. 

invest Belgrade, and the akintUefas were c&riTing on their ravages on 
the other side of the Danube, the Snltan marched towards Czabacz. 
The garrison, numbering between 200 and 300 men, made an heroic 
resistance; it waa exterminated, and Soljman made his entry into 
the town between two ranges of heads stuck upon stokes. He then 
retamed to press operatione against Belgrade, which was shattered 
by his artillery, and capitnlated (29th Aug., 1521). The besi^ed 
were redaced to 400 men, and had repulsed more than twenty 
assaults. The Serb popalation was transferred to Constantinople ; 

and 3,000 Janissaries formed the garrison of the conquered city, 
whiuh became thenceforth the strongest bulwark of the Empire. 

Solyman having regained his capital, received the ambassadors 
and the felicitations of the Grand Duke of Busaia, and several other 
princes. Peace was renewed vrith tbe Venetians, and a treaty con< 
clnded which secured to them fresh commercial advantages, and 
fixed at 10,000 ducats the tribute paid by the Republic for possession 
of Cyprus and the Ionian Islea. Then the Sultan resumed the pro- 
jects of his father against the Isle of Rhodes. 


A.klSiS.1 ailQE OF BHODBS. 123 

Since Syria uid Egypt liad been joined to the empire, tb.e poesea- 
non of that island becajne neceaeary to secure the commanicationa 
with those prOTinoes. The circnmgtances were, moreover, faTonr- 
able. The one-half of Korope, engaged in the stmggle of Francis 1. 
against the Emperor Charles T., had not time to lend aid to that 
advanced post of Clmstiaiiity ; the capture of Belgrade had ter* 
rified Hnngary, which only asked for peace. Yenioe had just 
renewed her friendly relatione. Solyman might, therefore, hope to 
efface at Rhodes, as at Belgrade, the remembrance of the chJecks sus- 
tained by his grandfather. 

At the commencement of 1522, a fleet of 300 sail was ready, and 
100,000 men, commanded by the Sultan, took their way by land to 
■econd it. The fleet appeared before Rhodes on the 6th of Jnne, the 
army arrived on the 28Lh of Jnly, and the siege was began. An 
entire month pasaed in digging mines, with partial combats, tho 
advantage of Vbich frequently remained with the Christians. The 
first assanlt took place on the 4th of September, with a loss to the 
Turks of 2,000 killed. It waa followed by several others ; the garri- 
son, consisting for the moat part of Knights of the Order, stn^gled 
with an heroic obstinacy, stimulated by the example of the (^-and 
Master, the aged Villiera de I'lsle-Adam, whose name has been im- 
mortalised by that memorable defence. On the 24th of September 
the ramparto were assailed on all sides at once ; a terrible tneUe took 
place in the breaches, the women even joining the struggle, oanying 
food and munitions, and pouring boiling oil upon the aesailants. 
One amongst them was seen, after having slain her two children upon 
the bivach, to rush sword in hand into the ranks of the Janissaries, 
and there meet her death fighting furiously to the last. The Turks 
retreated after sustaining a loss of 15,000 men. 

Solyman redoubled his efforts, and, after two months more of 
oontinual fighting, he offered the knighte a capitulation (10th of 
December). Powder and provisions were about to fail them; they 
had no hope of snccoor -, they, however, still continued the defence 
and repulsed two fresh aBsamts. At length, on the 21st of Decem- 
ber, the Qrand Msster sent two knights to negotiate the capitnlstion ; 
it was agreed that the Order ahould evacuate the town within twelve 
days, leaving therein fifty hostages ; whilst the Ottomui army should 
retire to the distance of a mile in order to aecure the unmolested 
retreat of the besieged. But, five days after, on Christmas Day, a 
band of Janissaries forced one of the gate^ seized upon the town, 
and began to pillage the houses and churches. Thus fell Rhodes, 
after a siege of five months, and which had cost the Turks more than 
100,000 men. Solyman gave the Grand Uaeter an hononiable 
reception, and secured with regard to the knights the exact obser- 
vance of the capitulation. ■" I am truly grieved," he said to those 
about him, " to have to drive that old man out of his palace." The 
knights embarked on the Ist of Januaiy, 1622 ; tbey found a refuge 
in Ualta, which Charles Y. gave up to them, and whence they deter- 
mined to wage war against the votaries of the Korfin. 


2. The Grand Vizier Ibrahim. — Troublet in Egypt, in the Crimea, 
in Wallaohia. 

On the return of the. expedition from Rhodes, the emnd Vizier, 
Piri Pacha, woa deposed (1523), and his post given to Ibrahim Facha, 
for a long time the Snltan'e favonrite, and Qrand Muter of his 
falconry. This man, celebrated amongst all the other miniaterB 
of the Ottoman Empire by the ertraordinary favonr which he 
enjoyed for more than twenty yeani, uid by Uie almost sovereign 
infliience which he exercised over the events of this reign, belonged 
by birth, like almost all the great men who have governed the Otto- 
man Empire, to the Christian race; he was the son of a sailor of 
Paiga. Carried off by Tnrkish corsairs, he had passed his youth in 
the abode of a rich Magnesian widow, who had bestowed upon him 
an excellent edncatlon. Solyman having met with him when 
governor of the city, was charmed with his good mien, mental 
qnaltties, his skin as a player upon the violin, and made him his page 
and favourite, and afterwards his first vizier. 

The nomination of Ibrahim was seen with chagrin by Ahmed 
Paoha, who had coveted that high dignity; dissembling his spite, he 
solicited the government of Egypt, which was granted to him. He 
*on over the Mamelukes by distributing fiefs among their principal 
chiefs ; then he threw himself into open rebellion, seiEed by surprise 
the Castle of Cairo, and assumed the title of Sultan of Egypt. A 
ttchaouch, sent to him to signify his deposition, was pat to death, as 
well as the governor who went to displace him ; money was also 
coined in his name. Already an army of 30,000 Janissaries was on 
its march to enconiiter him, when the rebel, betrayed by one of hia 
vizierB, was constrained to flee from Cairo, Delivered np by the 
Arabs, he was put to death. Kasim Pacha replaced him (1524). 

In Wallachia, an attempt was made to destroy the last vestige of 
the. independence of that country, and establish therein the direct 
domination of the Porte. After the Belgrade campaign, a detached 
corps of the principal army had entered that province, carried away 
to Constantinople the son of the last voivode and reduced the 
country to a Sandjak. But the boyards speedily revolted and nomi- 
nated a voivode. The latter was slain; a second succeeded him, 
and, supported hj John Zapoly, voivode of Transylvania, he waa 
enabled to make head against the Ottomans. It became necessary, 
therefore, to renounce the accomplishment of the subjection of W^- 
lachia; tlkne the old order of things was re-established with an 
angmentation of the tribute (1524). 

Three years, however, having passed away in inaction, the Janis- 
saries be^m to murmur. At tiie close of 1525, a revolt broke ont 
in their ranks; they sacked the houses of the viziers and the Jews' 
quarter. Solymaa hastened to confront them, and cnt down three 
of the most mntinoos with bis own hand; bnt the others dared to 


A.P.1S2S.] MIW POLICI or FRiNOT. 125 

menace him -with their arrowe. To appeaee their turbulence, -he dis- 
tributed 100,000 duoatB amon^t them. Bnt the two agas of the 
Janiasanes, some sipahifl, and several superior officers were eieoated. 
At the same time, a campaign was announced against Persia and the 
Bncceesor of Shah Ismail. But Solyman could not enter upon that 
war until eight years after, and, during all that time, he had to turn 
hia eyes towards the West, where important events were pEWsing. 
The moment had come when Turkey was about to enter actively into 
the system of the Enropean States, and to exercise therein a pre- 
po&deiatdng infloence. 

3. Wew PoUoy of France with relation to the Ottoman Empire. — 
Francit I. aikt aid from Solyman. — The SuUan'» Letter. 
At this period, France, surronnded by tho States of the House of 
Austria, saw herself with terror isolated from the rest of Europe, and 
excluded from the Meditemaean. Before that House, mistress of 
the Low Countries, of Qermany, of Italy and of Spain, what part 
could she take in the affairs of the Continent F Before that HoDse, 
mietresB of Baroelona and of Naples, of Minorca, and of Sicily, 
having Qenoa and Florence as vassals, allied with Venice, which 
gave her Corfu and Candia ; lastly, possessing Oran, and threateuing 
to subject Algiers and Tunis, what became of the legitimate aotioD 
of France in the Ueditenanean P It was uecessary at any sacrifice 

to restore the equilibrium by a new counterpoise, to oppose to the 
Austrian power a power equally formidable both upon the Continent 
and upon the sea, to restore to France her liberty of action in Europe 

by rendering uneasy by a new enemy the Austrian frontiei 
■tore the power of France in the Mediterranean, if not by her own 
forces, at least by an allianoe; finally, to rsanme, by other modes 
than those of the Middle Ages, by paoific means, by commercial 
relations, her influence over the countnes of the Levant. 

There was only one nation in a position to fill so great and useful 
a part — the Ottoman Turks. Their Empire, seated at ouce in 
Europe, Asia, and Africa, appeared established upon immutable 
bases. Their arms menaced, by way of Hungaiy, the hearii of the 
Austrian States; their ships dominated the Adriatic as far as the 
Bay of Tunis, the Levant to the Sea of Azof. No rivalry of position 
or interest could exist between the Ottoman Empire and France : 
both had the same enemies ; both were united by the same needs of 
commerce; both mutually esteemed each other by reason of their 
warlike reputation. It was thus that France, ^ler having been 
during the whole of the Middle Ages at the head of the struggle 
which Christian Europe sustained against the Mussult^an races, was 
the first to be reconciled with them, in order to derive advantage 
from their now position. That was, it must be owned, a great scandal 
to Christianity ; such am alliance seemed shaioeful ana unnatural ; 


]2ti TCBKBI OLD AKD NEW. [*.!>. 1&S5. 

it was at first kept secret and even formallj denied ; later, when it 
was avowed, it excited thronghont Enrope a general clamoor againrt 
the impious umon of the Lilies with the Crescent. 

The danger, however, was more apparent than real : seeing that 
the Ottoman power was still in its period of growth ; seeing that, for 
a centniT back, it had obtained a steady ^ting in Enrope, over- 
thrown Byzantinni and snbjngated all the provinces of the Greek 
Empire, it seemed impossible that it oonld make much farther pro- 
gress. The West was henceforth too strongly constitnted to need 
fear a new invasion. Islamism cshhb too late. It had only taken 
firm hold upon Oreeoe, isolated 1^ schism from the rest of the Chris- 
tian commonwealth. Already it was exhanating itself in vain efforts 
against Italy, Spain and Hnngsry, and ite wrath mast estingnish 
itself, as well as ite powers, before those foremost barriers of Chris- 
tendom. But the tnrong still terrified itself at the victories of the 
Turks, and ctamoared for a crasade ; yet the statesmen tronbled 
themselves bat very little abont the tnrbaned enemy, and were only 
desirons of waging with them a political warfare. The timee were 
no longer those of Charles Martel and of Gr^ory VII. ; a rising in 
mass of Christians was no longer needed to arrest the infidels ; the 
regular means and ordinary efforts of a few States stifGced. France 
might, therefore, without betraying the canse of Christianity, seek 
alliance with the Ottomuis. 

Was Prwicis I., in seeking to form such an alliance, moved by the 
political ideas above developed ? It cannot be certainly affirmed ; 
especially if it be considered that the policy of that prince was 
almost ^ways of a passionate character, and ordinarily inspired by 
the necessities of the moment ; but it is certain, althongh the origin 
of the aJhance was enveloped in mystery and obscnrity, that those 
ideas were entirely conformable to the opinion of his cooncil, and 
that they inspired the policy of France dnring three centoriee. Aa 
for her chivah«as king, he probably only saw in the Turkish alli- 
ance a momentery weapon, an arm snatched at in despair, for the 
first demand of that alliance issaed from his prison at Madrid. 

The sensation produced in all the Enropean States by the battle 
of Favia is well known. That captivity of Francis I. showed the 
allies of Charles V. what an impolitic path they had entered, in 
contribating to overthrow the sole barrier which protected Ecrope 
against the ambition of the House of Austria. The regent-mother, 
Ixiuise of Savoy, taroed that sensation to profitable account, and 
eacceeded in forming against the Emperor a league composed of the 
King of England, the Pope, the Venetians, and the Swiss. It was 
then that, to alarm Charles in his Austrian States, and to hinder 
him from marching troops into Italy, she determined, whether by 
orders of Francis I., who wonid have, he said, invoked the Devil 
himself to free him from the hands of his enemy, or whether by the 
advice of the Chancellor Duprat, who played the greatest part in 
this daring proceeding, she resolved to seek the aid of the Turks. 
Almost inmiediately after the batUe of Favia, a first agent waa 


4.0. 1525.] NEW POLICr or FRANCE. 127 

deepMched 'with presents, and, it is s^d, even tiie sigiieti ring of 
FranciB ; he was (ureeted by the Paoha of Bosnia and mardered, with 
twelve men who accompanied him.* This ring, a mby of );reat 

rrice, was sabeeqnentlf recovered, and was in the poesession of 
brahim in 1633. There is a lurking enspicion that this deed of 
violence was committed with the privity of Ferdinand of AoRtria, 
who appears to have known that negotiations were being carried on 
between Francis and the Sultan ; and the Turks have indeed often 
expressed their horror at the assassinations committed by the House 
of Auatria. After this failure, Francis, whilst still a prisoner at 
Madrid, contrived at the close of 1525 to send a second envoy, who 
safely reached Constantinople. Thig was John Frangipani, on Hun- 
garian gentleman, a kinsman, doubtless, of that Christopher Frangi- 
pani who was, at ihe same period, one of the most intrepid defenders 
<rf Hnogary. He waa the bearer of a " very humble ' letter from 
the King of France, which, according to the TurkiBh historian 
Solakzade, ran substantially tiius : — " Let the great Padishah attack 
the Kiiig cf Hungary and give him a check; we will attack the 
King of Spain and take our revenge upon him. We beg and pray 
that the great Emperor of the World may do us the favour of 
repulsing that haughty personage, and we shall be henceforth the 
obliged servant of tiie great Emperor, the Master of the Ago." 

It waa not the first time that the King of France entered into 
commnnication with the Ottomans. For some ycEirs past, and under 
pretext of acquiring Oriental nuumscripts, he had sent agents into 
the Levant, who were charged to collect exact information as to the 
condition of the Turks, and by them he had entered upon secret 
negotiations with the Sultan for the protection of French commerce. 
Theae first relations being egtablished, the secret embassy of the 
vanquiehed at Pavia oansed Solyman no surprise, who was, more- 
over, informed upon the political position of Europe; it is even 
thought that he had received at that time propositions of allisuoe 
on the part of Chai-les the Fifth. 

He had not responded to the advances of a prince who was his 
natoral enemy, and with whom no alliance was possible, since his 
States touched the Ottoman States and were the first Christian 
countries that the Turks desired to conquer ; but he welcomed 
eagerly the request of a king, the most formidable foe of his enemy, 
who was about (for this was with the Ottomans the cardinal reason 
for their alliance with France), by his defection from the Christian 
cause, to deliver up to Solyman the West denuded of its best defenders . 
The Sultan received (6th December, 1525) the envoy of the King of 
France with great honours ; and — " thing unheard of ! " relates a 
Venetian ambassador, eye-witness of that reception, "he made him 
rich presents." Finally, " Moved with compassion," gays a Turkish 
historian, " he determined to make war upon the King of Spain, 



Trboee deai^s were ho bad," and iovade Biuiigftiy. Yet no treaty 
was coDolnded npon this matter. Pride and Mnssnlman fanattciBtn 
woald have regarded a direct alliance with a Christian prince as an 
opprobrittm and an impietj.* The Sultan contented MmBelf with 
Tepljing to the letter of the very Christian King by the following 
miBsive— an epistle of proud and prot«cting friendship, the pompons 
preamble of which wa will paas over. 

"To thee, Francis, who art king of thecoantryof France. Ton 
have sent a letter to my Porte, a^lnm of sovereigtui, by yoor &ithfal 
agent Frankipan ; yon have also oommanded him to make certain 
verbal commnnicaHoDB. Ton have made known that the enemy ha^ 
seized npon yonr conntiy, and that yon are actnally in prison, and von 
Lave asked here asylam and sncconr for vonr deliverance. All that 
yon have said having been laid open at the foot of my throne, refoge 
of the world, my imperial science has embraced it in detail, and I have 
- taken complete cognisanoe of it. 

" It is not astonishing that emperors are defeated amd become 
prisoners. Take, therefore, coarage, and let not yourself bo cast 
down. Onr glorious ancestors and onr illnBtriouB grandfathers (may 
God illnminate their tombs !) have never ceased to make war to rep^ 
the enemy and conqner countries. We also, we have marched in 
their footateps. We have conquered at all times provinces and strong 
citadels difficult of access. Kigbt and day onr steed is saddled and 
onr sabre is girded on. 

" May the vory-ezalted God facilitate the good 1 To whatsoever 
object your wish may attach iteelf, may it be granted. For the rest, 
after interrogating your agent about affairs and news, yon shall be 
informed thereon. Know it to be thas. 

" Written at the commencement of the moon of Hebiulakhir, 932 
(15th Febrnary, 1526), at onr residence in the capital of the Empire, 
Constantinople, the well guarded." 

Such was the first act of alliance of France with the Ottoman 
Porte — an alliance which is a very grave event in the history of 
Europe, since it was the rock upon which the power of the House of 
Austria struck. Begotten on both sides by the necessities of the 
hour and by interests of position, it was maintained still more ',/ 
benevolence than by calculation, in spite of religious hatreds, 
difference of manners, and divergent destinies of the two States; in 
epit« of the ignorance, the bmtality, the fanaticism of Turkish 
policy ; in spite of the want of attention, the oblivion, the defections 
of French policy. It has not been one of the least causes of the 

* Tba Tarkiah hiatoiiuu say that the reUtioaa of Soljmui with Prance were accepted 
withmtt a mnrmar bj hia sabjecta bj reason of ■ traditioD whioh mada the Fadb^ali 
deacend from a priooan of the rojal family of Pntaoe. In fact, if ve nwj credit tba 
biatoriana PetcheTi, Selaniki knd All BB«adi, Swandj, admiral of Amar»th Jl., bad 
captured in 142S a ihip richly Uden, on baud of which was foand a French prioMM 
deatjned to bo the bridi of the Emperor John IT. Amnrath 11., who was then reigning, 
placed her in hia harem, nponaed her after ahe had embraced the MabomeMn religion, 
uid bad a eon bj her, who waa the conqueror of Constantinople, Hthomal IL , grand- 
father of Solrman. 



ffrandenr of France, and the Ottoman Empire is indebted to it for 
having taken a bLbfo in its preservation. 

4. The Battle of Mohaez. 

Earlj in 1526 the most alarming tidings arrired in Hnngarj' of 
BoljinaD's vast preparations for invading that kingdom. The 
Hangarian magnates, at continnal fend with one another, were totally 
nnprepared to resist. The lower olasses, who in great niim.bers had 
imbibed the doctrines of Lnther, justified themselves for not taking 
Dp anoB by appealing to one of his propositions which had been 
condemned by Ijbo X., in his Bull of excommnnication, viz., " That to 
fight against the Tarks is equivalent to stmggling against God, who 
has prepared sach rods for the chastisement for onr sins." Above all, 
the treasniT, ever since the reign of Wladislans, had been in a state 
of ntter exbanstion. So complete was this poverty that the capture 
of Belgrade, five years before, was attributed to the want of fifty 
florins wherewith to defray the expense of conveying to that place 
the ammnnition which was lying ready at Bnda. 

In the spring of 1526. Solyman, after visiting the tombs of his 
forefathers and of the old Moslem martyrs, set ont to invade Hungary 
by the route through Servia and Belgrade, with 100,000 Ottomans 
commanded by himself and his three viziers ; they were supported by 
300 pieces of cannon and by a flotilla of 800 vessels. The conrse of 
the Danube was ascended by the right bank ; Peterwardein was taken 
by aasanlt in fifteen days ; Illok surrendered at the end of a week j 
Easek, upon the Drave, wbb pillaged and burnt. On the 28th of 
August the Ottoman army reached the plain of Uohacz, and the next 
morning began a battle which decided the fate of Hungary. 

The Ottoman army was in three lines : in the van, the troops of 
Europe; in second line, those of Anatolia; in rear, the Sultan with 
his Janissaries, his eipahis and his guns, fastened together with iron 
chains, so as to form a kind of ranipart. The ponderous Christian 
cavalry, headed by King Lonis, fell with its usual impetuosity upon 
the Snt lines, broke them, overthrew them, and penetrated as far aa 
the Snltan. A fearful milee took place around him, and several blows 
-were dealt upon his armour. Suddenly the Turkish artillery was 
unmasked ; its terrible fire threw the assailants into such confusion 
that all dispersed. The greater number of the fugitives perished in 
the marshes that bordered the river, and amongst them doubtless 
King Xionis, whose body was neverrecovered. That sanguinary battle 
did not last two hours. It had a great infiaence upon the destinies 
of Europe, since therein perished the Hungarian nationality. 

Bolyman crossed over te the left bank of the river, and received at 
Fceldward the keys of Bnda, but only approached the capital of 
Hungary by slow marches, which he entered on the 10th of September. 
In spite of the express prohibition of the Sultan, the soldiers burned 
two quartoTS of the city and the great church. At the same time, tho 



akindeehis spread themBelres ihronghoiit the Bmroniidiiig' conntrj, 
bnmmg the Tillages and massacreing the mhabitimte, but Dot without 
Bnffermg at times great losses. Wisse^rad and Gran sncceBsfnllj 
resiftled ; Morotb made an heroic defence ; at BacB, the charcn, 
coarert«d into a fortreea, was defended durins anentireday ; between 
BacB and Peterwardein the Hangarians made an entrenched camp, 
the captnre of which cost the Turks more men than did the battle of 
Mobacz. Bat these partial reeiatances only aerred to increase the 
ferocity of the conqaerore, and the number of Hnngarians massa- 
cred in this campaign is estimated at 200,000. At length the 
Sultan, after having promised tlie magnates to give them John 
Zapoly for their Eng, retook the way to his capital, traihng after 
him aa immense booty. Amongst the precious things carried away 
from Ofen figured, with the royal treaenre and the library of 
Matthias Corrinns, those fine antique statues which decorated the 
royal castle and which were set up as trophies upon the hippodrome 
at Constantinople. 

fi. Beoolts in Asia. 

Harassing news from Asia had hastened the return of the Sultan 
from Hungary. The Turkomans of Gilicia had revolted through the 
brutalities and exactions of the Turkish agents. They had massacred 
the cadis and the Sandjak-bey, defeated the Beylerbey of Karamania, 
and soon after, near Sivas, those of Bourn and Anatolia, At length, 
Chosrew Pacha, Beylerbey of Diarbekir, succeeded, by uniting all his 
forces, in arresting their progress. The insurrection recommenced 
the year following, bnt under another form.. A descendant of the 
Sheik Hadji-Bektaach, patron of the Janissaries, was at the head of the 
movement, with several thousands of his religious votaries — dervishes, 
ahdals or kalenders. He defeated successively the beylerbeys of 
Diarbekir, Boum and Anatolia. The grand vizier was himself com- 
pelled to march against them. He negotiated with the revolted 
Turkomans, succeeded in detaching the rebels from them, and then 
quickly stamped out the remaining embers of the insurrection. 

Meanwhile the war continued in Hungary and in the conntries 
annexed to that kingdom, Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, the 
submission of which was effected in 1528. Solyman had set out from 
Buda after promising, as has been said, the Hungarians a king in John 
Zapoly, voivode of Transylvania ; but another pretender presented 
himself, Ferdinand of Austria, brother of Charles V., to whom ties 
of relationship gave claims to the vacant throne. The two rivala 
encountered each other at Tok^ (1527), and Zapoly was conquered ; 
he implored succour from the King of Poland, his father-in-law, and 
soon after that of the Porte. His ambassador, with the aid of 
the Venetian, Louis O-ritti, succeeded in gaining over the Yizier 
Ibrahim to his interests ; and met with a favourable reception from 
the Sultan (3rd Februoiy, 1528). Solyman made a formal promise 
to pat Zapoly in possession of Hungary, and even signed a treaty of 



aUiance with him. Ferdinand vainly endeavoured to bring over tho 
Saltan to liia interests ; his envoys were, however, thrown into 

6. New Belationa of Franeis I. and Solyman. 

At this innctnre, the king of France sent an ambasBodor to the 
Porte. The expedition against Hnngaty which he had solicited had 
proved a fresh check to him, since it had furnished to the Honse of 
Aostria the occasion of enriching itself with two kingdoms. He had 
more than ever need of the Ottoman alliance. On the other hand, 
Charles V. began to suspect his rival's relations with the Porte, and 
accnsed him openly of treason against Christianity. Francis 1., 
becoming nneasy at the clamonrs to which that denmiciation gave 
rise, denied formally his alliance with the Turks, and told Charles Y. 
that " he lied in his throat " (en avail menti par la gorge). But he 
not the less continned hie relations with Solyman, and songbt to 
make them, agreeable in the eyes of Christiana and of his subjects, 1^ 
employing them to protect the faithfnl in the East, and to restore 
French influence in those conntries. A gentleman named Kincon was 
entrusted with this negotiation, and sncceeded therein. The French 
alliance was too preoions to Solyman for him not to aooede liberally 
to the reqnirements of the " very Christian " king. Long since, 
moreover, French commerce had received protection at the hands of 
the Turks : at the time that they were still in Asia, the merchanta 
of Uareeilles had obtained commercial advantages. In 1507 they had 
proCQxed for themselves from Bajazet II. privil^ea which were in- 
creased by Selim I., and which contain the elements of the capitnla- 
tioDS concluded between France and the Ottoman Empire. In 1528, 
Solyman renewed those privileges in an act the text of wMch is lost, 
some few fragments only existing : it is called the trive laaTchande 
by the old French historians. The factories, consnls, and pilgrims 
from France were placed by this trSae under the protection of the 
Snblime Forte and guaranteed from all insult. The French flag 
then reappeared with confidence in the Mediterranean, and it whs 
Uiankfnlly welcomed by Christisjis in the Fast, who hoped for solace 
and protection from it. The pilgrimages to Jerusalem recommenced ; 
a French bishop went to visit the chnrohes of Albania, which, since 
Scanderb^, had been forgotten in its wild moimtains, and he 
reawakened the name of France amongst the Shipetan of the Mirdita. 

The religions zeal of Francis I. caused neither sarprise nor dis. 
content amongst the Ottomans ; in the East men and nations are 
esteemed according to the fervour of their belief ; the alliance became 
even more intimate, as may be jndged by the following letter of the 
Sultan (Sept. 1528) to the King of France :— 

" To thee who art Ftancis, Bey of the country of France. 

" You have sent to the Palace of the Sultans and to ray Porte of 
felici^, which is the Orient of prosperity, and the place which the 
lips of kings and princes come to kiss, a letter in which you havo 


132 TDSEKT OLD kSlt KEW. [^.D. 1620. 

spoken of a Clitircli appertaimng formerlj to the Chnatiana at Jem- 
aaJem, wluch forma a part of our well-g^i^fded States, and since be. 
come a mosque. I know in detail all that you have said on this anb- 
ject. The mendship and affection which exist between my glorions 
Majesty and yon render joui wishes admissibte to my person, soaroa 
of happiness. Bnt this matter resembles not any other matter of 
domain or property ; it conoems onr religion. According to the 
sacred command of the Moat High God, creator of the world and 
benefactor of Adam, according to the taw of onr Prophet, sun of two 
worlds (may the divine blessing and salvation be upon him !), that 
Charch has long been a mosqne, and the Mnssnlmana have therein 
said their namaz (prayer). Now, it is contrary to onr religion that 
a place which bears the name of moaqne, and in which the Munai is 
made, shonld be now altered by a change of destination. If even 
onr law shonld authorize in general that change, yonr demand conld 
not be welcome to onr person, sonrce of happiness. Other places 
beside the moeqne shall continne to remain m the hands of the 
Christians ; no one shall molest, nnder our equitable reign, those who 
dwell therein. They shall live tranquilly under the help of our pro- 
tection; it shall be allowed them to repair their doors and windows; 
they shall preserve in all surety the oratories and establishments 
which they actually occupy, without any one being allowed to op' 
press or torment them in any manner. Let it be known so." 

Snch were the official resnlts of Rincon's mission ; but it is prob- 
able that the presence of that envoy must have contribated to the 
ill-treatment that the agents of Ferdinand received, and that he 
carried away a promise of a speedj taking op of arms. Before 
going to Constantinople he had visited Hungary and Poland ; and, 
at his request, an Hungarian bishop had been sent to France. The 
result of the negotiations, opened by him and that bishop, was a 
treaty of alliance concluded between Francis I. and King Zapoly, a 
trea^ by which the latter designated as his heir one of the sons of 
the King of France. 

7. Second Expedition into Sungary. — Siege of Vienna. 

During the tinie that Francis I. was endeavouring by his diplo< 
macy to confederate all the enemies of the House of Austria, Soly- 
man set himself to cut short the question to his own profit by force 
of anna. The Austrian envoys, after nine months of captivity, were 
brought into hie presence. " Yonr maater," said he ironically, " haa 
not felt BufBciently up to the present moment the effects of our 
friendship and of our vicinity, hut he will shortly. You may tell 
him that I shall go in search of him myself with all my forces, and 
that I earnestly hope to restore with my own hand that which he 
claima Tell him also that he may prepare everything for our recep- 

On the 10th of May, 1529, Solyman set out from Constantinople 



with an anaj of 150,000 men. It was a pretension of the Ottoman 
TnrkB that wherever the horae of the Grutd Seignior had once trod, 
and he himself had rested for the night, the Osmanli power was 
irreTOcablr established. Soljmnii had once slept in the palace at 
Bnda, and had only refrained from bnming it becanse he intended 
retnniiiig thither : all Hangarj, therefore, belonged to the Sultan. 
Ab a last reaonrce, Ferdinand, wholly unprepared to fight, despatched 
uiother ambaBeador, provided with letters to Solyman and his Vizier, 
Ibrahim, conched in the moat humble terms, and with instructions 
to offer a considerable sum in the form of a yearly pension, for that 
of tribute was too degrading. To snch a point was Ferdinand con- 
tent to hnmhle himself ! But it was now too late. Before the end 
of August Solyman was again encamped with an innomorabie host 
on the blood-stained plain of Mohacz. Here, where the pith of his 
conntrymen had been deetroyed, John Zapoly, at the head of a large 
body of Hongarian magnates, met the Sultan, and did him homage. 
He was received with great ceremony, and admitted to kiss the Sul- 
tan's hand, but the crown of St. Stephen, the palladium of Hungary, 
which had already adorned the heads of both competitors, was sur- 
rendered into Solyman's poBseBsion. Three days after the Ottoman 
army appeared before Bnda, which Ferdinand had seized upon. The 
place surrendered after a resistance of six daye ; the Janissaries mas- 
sacred the German garrison, notwithstanding the capitulation, and 
made a great number of the inhabitants prisoners ; but pillage was 
interdicted. Zapoly entered thecit^ with great pomp, and was again 
crowned in the regal castle by the hands of one of the Turkish 
genert^ the lientenant-general of the Janissaries presiding over the 
ceremony, and a Turkish garrison was left in the place. 

From thence the army set out on its march for Vienna, and on the 
27th of September Solyman encamped before the capital of the 
Aostrian S^tes, whilst Ferdinand was anzioualy waiting at Lins 
until the Oerman princes shonld rally round him with their promised 
Bncconrs. Even the Protestants — for the Oerman reformers had 
now acquired that name by their &mons Protest at Spires in the 
spring of this year (1629)^liad not withheld their Bssistance from 
King Ferdinand, and the Elector John of Saxony himself had sent 
2,000 men under the command of his son. The defence of Vienna 
with only 16,000 men, seventy-two guns, and ramparts of six feet 
thickness, against an army of 300,000 Turks with 300 cannon, besides 
a strong flotilla on -the Oannbe, is one of the most brilliant feats in 
the mihtaiT history of Germany during the sixteenth centnry. A 
email number of Hnngarians accompanied the Turkish army, but 
King John, who is said to have possessed neither military talents nor 
even personal courage, remained at Buda with a garrison of 3,000 
Osmanlis. From the top of St. Steohen's tower the Turkish tents 
might be disoemed scattered over hill and dale for miles, the white 
mils of their fleet gleaming on the distant Danube. Ibrahim Pacha, 
recently appointed Seraskier, conducted the operations of the si^e. 
The wbIIb of Vienna were weak and out of repair, and had no l»s> 


134 TOBKBT OLD AND KEW. [ 1C20. 

tions on which gans oonld be planted. The ganisoii, oomm&niled hy 
Philip of Bavaria, as the representative of the Connt Palatine 
Frederick, the Imperial cominander-in- chief, consiBtod of picked 
troops from various parts of Germaiij', inclading a few Spaniards. 
The citixene vied with the troops in valour. The heads of most of 
the noble Anstrian families took part in the sallies : among them the 
Teteran Nicholas von Salm particniarly distingniahed himself. Soly- 
man sent in a message, that if the garrison wonld snrrender, oe 
would not even enter the town, bnt press on in search of Ferdinand] 
if they resisted he wonld dine in Yienna on the third day, and then 
he wonld not spare even the child in the womb. No answer was 
made ; bnt the preparations for defence were nrged on with dogged 
resolntion, thoagh without mach hope of SDCcese. The OsmamiB, 
however, had no well- concerted plan of operations. Their army, 
according to traditional cnstom, was divided into sixteen different 
bodies, to each of which a separate place and a definite object were 
assigned ; and althongh th^ had made several breaches and mined a 
portion of the walls, all their asaanlts were repnlsed. A breach 
having been opened in the Corinthian Glate, and the explosion of a 
mine having given a breadth of forty toises, the Ottomans renewed 
the attack with great fniy during an entire day (14th of October). 
They were again repulsed, and the Snltan, discouraged, gave the 
signal for retreat that night. Robertson and several other historians 
have attributed the raising of the eiege to the treason of the vizier 
Ibrahim ; bnt that is very little probable. . The season waa advanced, 

firovisions were failing, and the soldiers had b^^n to murmur. So 
arge an army conld not be provided for during any long-continued 
siege or blockade, although their flour was conveyed to them by 
22,000 camels; already at Michaelmas the Janissaries had begun to 
complain of the cold ; and the forces of the Empire and of Bohemia 
were beginning to arrive. These reasons, coupled with the 
courageous defence of the city, euffico to explain the retreat of the 
Turks. In this invasion they oonimitted their usual barbarities ; and 
wasted the country up to the very gates of Linz. They suffered 
much in turn during their retreat, as well from the weapons of their 
foes as from hunger and bad weather, and the Germans recaptured 
from them a considerable portion of their booty. The discomfited 
Ottomans did not reach Belgrade till November 10th. Solymon ar- 
rived in Constantinople December 16th. , 

It was the first check that the arms of Solyman had enconntered. 
He pretended to transform it into a victory, by distributing rewards 
to his soldiers and in representing his retreat as an act of generosity ; 
but he deceived no one. Terror, nevertheless, continued to spread 
tbroi^hout Germany r " We have not," wrote Busbek, ambassador 
of Ferdinand I., "we have not to combat an enemy of the same 
species as ourselves. We have to do with the Turk, a vigilant, 
adroit, sober, disciplined enemy, one innrod to military labours, 
expert in tactics, and fit for all the hardships of the service. It is 
by these qualities that he has made for himself a way through 



flolatod empires, tfa&t he lias sa^ngated a 
Persia, nod that he has threatened Yienna."* 

deaolated empires, that he has sa^ngated all from the frontiers of 
" ■ ' ■ ' Viei "- 

8. Third Expedition into Sungary. — Embassy of Francie I. — 
Biege of Chins. — Peace with Auetria. 

In the folloning spring (1531), a Qermui army entered Hangar; 
and went nnancceeefallf to besiege Bnda ; at the same time, an 
embassy from King Ferdinand repaired to Constantinople. After 
enduring the disd^ and insalts of the Grand Yizier, he obtained a 
hriei audience which led to nothing ; the Saltan woald neither 
acknowledge Ferdinand as King of Hnngary, nor as King of 
Bohemia, bat simply aa Lieutenant of Charlee T., to whom he 
accorded only the title of I?ing of Spain. 

In the month of April Solyman had completed his preparations 
for avenging the affront nndergone before Vienna. TT'h army was 
raised to more than >}00,000 men by reinforcements drawn from 
Bosnia and the Crimea. Solyman began his march from Constanti- 
nople (26th of April) with all the magnificence of Oriental pomp. 
A long oontinaed train of 120 cannon nae followed by 8,000 picked 
Jonissariee, and by drores of camels carrying an enormons qaantity 
of ba^age. Then came 2,000 horsemen, the sipahis of the Porte, 
with the Holy Banner, the Eagle of the Prophet, gorgeoasly adorned 
with pearls and precious stones. Then was borne in state the 
Sultan's crown, followed by his domeatics, 1,000 men of gigantic 
stature, the handsomest that oonld be found, armed with bows and 
arrows, some of whom led coupled hoonds, while others carried 
hawks. In the midst of them rode Solyman h-imself, in a crimBon 
robe trimmed with gold embroidery, and a snow-white turban covered 
with precioiis stones, mounted on a chestnut horse, and armed with a 
snperb sword and dagger. The procesBion was closed by the Saltan's 
four viziers, amongst whom Ibrahim was conspicuous, and the rest 
of the Court nobles with their servante. llins did Solyman, the 
MagmJUent, inatignrate his march of vengeance. 

At Nissa he was met by a new embassy from Ferdinand, and at 
Belgrade by the French ambassador, Bincon. Francis I. had been 
compelled to lay down uras and to sign the humiliating treaty of 
Cambrai ; but a ruptare with Charles V. was imminent, and Bincon's 
mission was to renew the alliance between the two monarchs and to 
require of the Sultan, in the event of war recommencing between 
France and Austria, the assistance of his fleets. He was received 
with extraordisacy honours, and of which there has been no repeti- 
tioD given by the Sublime Porto to any Christian Ambassador. A 
p»rt of the aimy was under arms ; the whole artillery of the camp 
fired a saluto ; a magnificent escort was sent to meet him ; the Sultan 
received him upon the throne, in all his Oriental splendour, gave 
him his huid to kiss and enquired aftor the health of " hie brothei'," 
* "DeraMiUtariCotilciTaTeui InHiUiBDdA." 


l;jG TDBRBT OLD ANIt NEW. {l.l>. 1SS1. 

the Eing of France. These honours contrftsted strikingly with the 
hamiliations that the envoya of Ferdinand were made to undergo, 
who had come to solicit a trace. " Francis," says a Turkish 
historian, " was master of great territories, had hrave soldiers and 
enjoyed a great power upon the aea ; as he persisted in his long- 
continued devotedneBB to the Sublime Porte, its regard for him was 
thereby redoubled. So the Grand Yizier spoke to his envoy as a 
friend, but to those of Ferdinand like a lion." . . . . " The 
King of France," says another, " was sincerely attached to the 
Sublime Forte, which is generous as the sea, and the other King 
did not seek its refuge ; thus the treatment that their respective 
envoys received was very different. The French ambassador was 
the object of the gracious regard and discourse of the Sultan, who 
humbled himself to the level of treating his master sa friend, brother, 
and padisha, in the imperial letters with which he dismissed him; 
the others were detained prisoners." The Austrian envoys, when 
the Sultan had deigned to grant them an interview, were conducted 
through a lane of I'jifiOO Janissaries to Solyman's tent, where they 
found him eitting^on a golden throne ; near him was his magnificent 
crown, made at Venice at the cost of 115,000 ducats ; against the 
legs or pillars of his throoe were two gorgeous sabres, in sheaths 
studded with pearls ; also bows and quivers richly ornamented. 
The ambassadors estimated the value of what they saw at 1,200,000 
ducats. Their errand was, of course, fruitless. 

The Ottoman army, late in July, crossed the Drave at Fssek on 
twelve bridges of boats. The march of Solyman through Hungary 
resembled a progress through his own dom.inions. No fewer than 
fourteen fortresses sent him their keys as he approached ; and 
he tried and punished the magnates who had deserted Z^poly. 
The Turkish Fleet also ascended the Danube as far as Presburg ; at 
vhioh point Solyman, instead of directing his march towards Vienna, 
turned to the south, and leaving Neusiodler lake on his right, took 
the road to Styria. On the 9th of August he arrived before the little 
town of Giins, a poorly fortified place, situated at the foot of the 
Bakony-Wald upon an affiuent of the Raab. This insignificant strong- 
hold was destined to indict upon Solyman the Gonqueror the moat 
humiliating disgrace ever experienced by the overweening pride 
of Oriental despotism since the memorable invasion of Attica by 
Xerxes. All that pomp and splendour of Eastern warfare, all those 
formidable myriads of Turkish troops — for the ai-my had entered Hun. 
gary with 350,000 strong — ^led by the Grand Seignior in person, were 
detained more than three weeks by a garrison of abont 700 men, of 
which only thirty were regular troops, and those eavalry, under the 
command of the brave Nicholas Juriaaich, who had been one of the 
Anstrian ambassadors to the Forte. This heroic little band repulsed 
no fewer than eleven assaults, and the Great Sultan was at length 
compelled to content himself with a capitulation, by which ten 
Janissaries were allowed to remain an boor in the place in ord^ to 
erect a Turkish stEmdard. 


1.0. 16S1,1 BETBBAT OP THE TUBES. 187 

This delay, and the defeat b; Sobiutitui Schilrtlin of a body ot 
15,000 Turkish caviiliy who were to enter AnEtria by the Sommering 
Pass, proved the saving of the country. In expectation of seeing the 
Saltan appear before Vienna, an army was shut up in that city, and 
Charles V. aammoned all Germany to the defence of the Anstrian 
States. Informed of these formidable preparations, and intimidated 
by the resiBtance of Qnns, the French and Venetian ambassadors in 
Solyman's camp advised him. not to renew the attempt of 1529 with 
an army thns weakened, and disconraged any general engagement 
with Caarlea's fresh and well-organized forces. Moreover, the diver- 
sion (wnsed by Andrea Doria, the Emperor's admiral, with his fleet in 
the Morea, served to sapport this advice ; who, after captnring Coron, 
Patras, and the two castlea which defend the entrance to the Gnlf of 
Lepanto, the Dardanelles of the Morea, had landed his troops and 
excited the Greeks to revolt. Perhaps even from the opening of the 
campaign, Solyman had not contemplated again besieging Yienna ; 
he had only taken light field guns with him; ia his reply to the 
messages of Ferdinand ho annonnced his intention of seeking Charles V. 
to fight in a pitched battle that only rival worthy of him. However 
that might be, immediately after inveatii^ Gratz, which was well 
defended, Solyman reluctantly abandoned an enterprise for which he 
had made snch vast preparations, Eind on the sncceas of which he had 
so proudly relied, hi spite of the rewards that were distribnted on 
faia return, in spite of the pompons letters of victory that the Snltan 
sent into all the provinces, that retreat, like the firsts resembled a 

Charles V. was prevented from pursuing the retreating Turks by 
the lateness of the season, the want of provisions, the sickness that 
had begun to prevail among his troops, and the desire of several 
of the princes to return to their homes ; yet, on the whole, his first 
appearance at the head of his armies had been attended with consider, 
able glory and suocess. The subsequent dispersion of the Imperial 
army much annoyed King Ferdinand, who had helped to recover with 
it the whole of Hungary, Belgrade inclnded ; but the German leaders 
would not listen to snch a proposal. For fear of such an event, 
however, Solyman, at the request of Zapoly, left 60,000 men behind 
at Egsek. 

Meanwhile, a war appeared on the point of breaking out in Asia. 
All theee events inclined Solyman towards peace Fresh negotiations 
were entered upon ; but, danng seven weeks, the envoys of Ferdinand 
had to struggle against the hanghtinesa and canning of the Grand 
Viaier and of the Venetian Gritti, whom he had made his chief 
adviser ; they had bronght a letter from Charles Y. to the Sultan, a 
friendly letter ; but in which the Emperor had taken unadvisedly 
the title of " King of Jemsalt^m :" this was the occasion of intermin- 
able recriminations on the part of the vizier. " How different and 
truly royal," said he, " is the letter that the King of France sent us 
dunng the campaign in Hungry, in which he signs simply, ' Francis, 
King of Frwice I' Also the Padisha, wishing to do honour to King 


138 lUBKBT OLD IKD NIW. [i.D. 1S3S— 1588. 

Francia, did not in. his reply make an enTuneration of hia titles, 
and wrote to him as a tenderly loved brother." It was on this 
oocaaion ihat the vizier avowed openly that the first invasion 
of Hungary had only been made at the demand of Francis 
L " The King of Franco," said ho, " having been conquered at 
Favla, his mother wrote to my master : ' My son has been made 
prisoner by Charles of Spain. I thought that the latter would have 
the generosity to set hirn at liberty ; bnt &r from doing so, ha has 
treated him infamously. I entreat of thee, gr^at Emperor, to show 
thy magnanimity by delivering my son.* The Padisha, moved by 
compassion at that letter, inVaded Hungary." At iMigth, by dint of 
patience and discretion, the envoys succeeded in obtaining a treaty 
by which the Sultan promised alliance and frtendehip to King Ferdi. 
oand, but without Btipnlating anything with regKri to Hnngary, of 
which he declared himself absolute master by right of conquest. 
Such was the first peace concluded by the House of Ausbia with the 
Porte (1533). 

9. Wwr with Pertia. — OaipUtm of Bagdad. — Ckaireddin- 
Bwrharossa. — Capture of Tunis by Charles V. 

Since the commencemmt of Solyman's reign, peace had never been 
solidly eatahlished between Persia and the Ottomsjig ; the reciprocal 
defections of certain governors of frontier towns brought about a 
com.pIete rupture. Whilst the Khan of Bidlis betrayed the Ottomans, 
the Persian Governor of Aderbaidjan ranged himself on their side, 
and the Governor of Bagdad sent them the keys of the city. This 
latter having been assassinated, the Grand Vizier Ibrahim wasordered 
to reduce Bagdad and bring l^ok to obedience the Khan of Bidlis. 
He set out towards the autumn of 1533, and learned by Uie way the 
defeat of the rebel. After passing the winter at Aleppo, he resumed 
his march, received the submission of places in the vicinity of Lake 
Van, and then took the road to Tebnz, the residence of the Shah, 
and entered therein without obstacle (13tb July, 1534). The Snltaa 
went to join him there in the month of September, and the army 
began its march upon Bagdad. It suffered greatIj|upon the way 
thither, not from attacks of Uie Persians, but from the difficult nature of 
theconntryand the rigour of the weather. The capital of tho Khalifes 
made no resistance, and Solyman made his entry therein at the close 
of 1534; he there sojonmed six months. He returned afterwards to 
Tebriz, retook the road to Constantinople, and arrived therein in 
January, 1536. 

Whilst that triumphant expedition was f^randizing the Empire 
npon its eastern frontiers, the Ottoman Fleets were at close 
quarters with the Marine of Charles V. Two remarkable men 
directed the naval forces of the two empires : these were the 
Genoese, Andrea Doria, Admiral of the Emperor, and, on the side 


b, Google 



of the TdtIcb, the celebrated Chaireddm, known under the name of 

That adventurer was of Greek and Christian origin ; he waa the 
son of a Bipahi of Mitylene ; and following the t«o freqnent cnstom 
of the inhabitants of the Archipelago, he had devoted himself, with 
his brother, Baba-Arondj, to piracy dnring the reign of Bajazet II. 
The two brothers entered the service of the Snltaa of Tnnia, Uahom. 
med, of the &mily of Beni-Hafsz. Having oaptnred a Christian 
ship, they sent it to Constantinople, and received as a reward from 
the Saltan two galleys, and caftans of honour. They then strove to 
seize npon some port on the coast of BarhaiT, made attempts npon 
Cherchell, Bongia, and Algiers, where the Prmces of the Beni-Ha&z 
reined. At length Arondj seized npon Cherchell, then npon Tlemcen, 
where he was attackd by the Spaniards, and perished in a sortie. 
Barbai«esa made himself master of Algiers by assassinating the 
Moorish prince, and did homage for his conquest to the Snltan Selini, 
who had then just conqnered Egypt, and received from him the title 
of Beylerbey of Algiers. The Spaniards had established themselves 
in the islets opposite the town, and had there baili a fort ; he attacked 
them, captnred the garrison, razed the fort, defied a Spanish squadron 
sent to defend it, and connected the islets to the mainland by a jetty 
which now forms the harbour of Algiers (1620). From that port 
nmnerons corsairs began from that time to set sail, infesting the 
coasts of Spain and Italy and the western basin of the Uedtterranean. 
Bolyman, at the period of his alliance with Francis I., having for- 
bidden BarbaroBsa to attack French vessels, the latter took his 
revenge npon those of Spain ; he dispersed one of their squadrons, 
and carried away from the coast of Andalusia 70,000 persecuted Moors 
who helped to people Africa. 

When Andrea Doria had seized upon Goron, Barbarossa was ordered 
to Constantinople. After having by the way burnt eighteen vessels 
in sight of Messina, and captnred two sail of Doria's fleet, he reached 
the capital of the Empire at the moment of the commencement of the 
Persian war (1533). Coron had been already recaptured ; whilst the 
peace with Anstria was n^otiatinig, a fleet of seventy sail was sent 
against that place ; although beaten at the entrance of the Qulf by 
Doria, and weakened by the loss of at least one half, it was able 
nevertheless to blookade Coron, which surrendered after a memorable 
siege. Barbarossa was, however, received with distinction. He was 
made Capndan-Facha, and obtained investiture as Beylerbey at 
Algiers, and took rank before the other beylerbeye. The winter was 
occupied in fitting out a formidable fleet, with which he set sail in 
the spring; it consisted of eighty-four ships. This arfiiament was 
directed at first against Italy ; Reggio, Fondi, and the strongholds of 
the coast, were sacked ; then, steei-ing towards the coast of Africa, 
Barbarossa appeared before Tunis, where reigned Mnley Hassan, one 
of those ferocious and effeminate tyrants of which the Moorish 
dyuasties reckoned so many. He [M-esented himself as a liberator, 
promising the inhabitants to give them the brother of Mnley as their 


140 TUKKBT OLD AND NEW. [i.i>. 163^—1680. 

mler, who had aonglit refage in his fleet ; then, once master of the 
city, lie took posBeaeion of it in the name of tlie Snltan. 

The progress of the Ottoman power npon the African coast became 
disqoieting to the Sovereign of Spain and Italy. Charles Y., there- 
fore, determined to retake Taais, not only in the interest of his 
African posBeSHions, bat also in the hope of dealing H mortal blow to 
the Tarco-French alliance, which oonld only become effective by ite 
maritime power. A powerfnl armtunent was prepared, and the 
Emperor teok command of it himself. On the 16th of Jnne, 1535, he 
disembarked before the fort of the Ooulette, and carried it after & 
month of siege and continoal fighting. Barbarossa, despairing of 
defending the tewn, in which he had te stm^le with the ill-wiU of 
the inhabitante, risked an encounter in the open oonntiy. Abandoned 
by his African anxilioriea, he was forced te take flight. Tunis was 
pillaged for three days by the conqnerors, 30,000 inhabitants wore 
massacred, 50,000 Christian captives had their chains broken. The 
Spaniards re-esteblished Mnley Hassan, on condition that he should 
pay tribnte, and leave to the ChriBtiaos the free exercise of their 
religion. They kept possession of the fort Gonletto. 

* 10. First Capitulation of the Porte mth Franee, 

That feat of arms filled np the measnre of the power and glory of 
Charles V. Europe looked upon him no longer save as the liberator 
of the ChristianH, thet«rrorof the iiifidelB,andniB panegyrists took care 
to contrast his conduct with that of his rival, who had allied himself 
with the enemies of Christianity. That allianoe was no longer a 
secret to anyone. Francis I. formed the resolution of avowing it 
openly, in order to acquire the right of drawing from it all the 
advantage possible. An official envoy, the Chevalier Jean de la Foret, 
was sent to the Snltan, whom he met at Tebriz (1535). He opened 
n^otiatiouB, ostensibly limited to the capitulations made in favour of 
the French merchants by the Sultans, but which wore destined to 
have grave results. These negotiations led to a diplomatic act which 
was at bottom a veritable treaty, but which had not the form of one, 
because Ottoman pride seemed only to make concessions without 
granting reciprocity.* It was therefore under the form of a hitti- 
ckerif, that is to say, an order emanating from the Snltan, that the 
first conventions which nnited France and the Forte appeared, and 
that hatH-eherif was the basis of all the capitulations concluded since 
that period between the two Powers, 

The treaty was signed at Constantinople early in February, 153$, 

* " Th« Grand Seignior, b; % miabkken pride, founded upon • pretaxt of reli^oo, 
will not make tnatitt vith Christian prinoei, pretondiDg that thej ought not to be on k 
ftx with him. That of capUiUaivm u more tgresable to him, heoiiue it regMdi th« 
kda «hieh ho uoorda, and of which he is lo abmlalatj the master, th«t be rcTokeiv 
witen'ts, rsstnins or annnli them without eeremonj when he thinks pn^sr."— 
" Henudr* of the Cheralier d'Arvienz," lom. T. p. K, 



on tbe retnm from tho Persian campaign, SolTDian gives therein to 
Francis I. the title which he himBelf bore, that of Padisha,' which 
Enropean diplomacy has translated by the equivalent of Emperor. 
That was a very great distinction, for that title was looked apon aa 
sacred by the OsmauliB, and was only accorded aftarwards to one 
Christian monu«h, the Czar of Rnssia, PanJ. It testified, in placing 
npon a footing of equality, "to the gloj^ of the princes of the faith 
of Jesns ClmHt," with tiie King of Kings, the Snltan of the two 
earths and the two seas, the " Shadow of God," that a law of nations 
bad commenced between Christians and Mussnlmana. 
The first articles were as follows : — 

1. That as there is peace and concord between the Grand Seignior 
and the King of France, their respective sabjectfl and tributaries may 
freely navigate and go into their different ports for their commerce, 
bny, sell, load, conduct, and transport, by water or by land, from one 
country to another, all kinds of merchandise not prohibited in paying 
the ordinary dues, without being subjected to any imposition, tribute, 
or other chaise. 

2. That when the king shall send to Constantinople or to any other 
part of the Ottoman Empire, a consul, in like manner as the one he 
keeps at Alexandria, that consul shall be accepted and sustained in his 
authority and shall jndge according .to hie faith and law, without that 
any jndge or cadi shall bear, judge, and pronounce, as well civilly as 
criminally upon the causes, processes, or differences which may arise, 
between the subjects of the king only ; and that the officers of the 
Giaod Seignior shall lend assistance for the execution of the 
judgments of the consuls, any sentence passed by the cadis between 
French merchants to be necessarily null and void. 

3. That in case of any civil contestation between the Turks and the 
French, the plaint of the first named shall not be received by the 
cadis unless they should bring proof in writing of the hand of the 
adversaty orthat of the oonauj, and that in any case the subjects of 
the king shall not be judged without their dr^oman being present. 

i. That in criminal matters the subjects of the king may not be 
brought before the cadi or ordinary jndge, nor be judged at once, 
but be conducted before the Sublime Porte, and in the absence of 
the Grand Vizier, before his substitute, in order that the testimony 
of the Turkish subject against the king's subject may be discussed. 

5. That no ase shall be made of merchants' ships belonging to the 
kin^a snbjects, nor of their artillery, munitions and equipages r^iust 
their will, even for the service of the Grand Seignior. 

* Tha Focte eTsn lefiued that title tn the Emperon of Oenniajr, vfaom it recognind 
0bIj •■ Einf^ of EoDgttir, »b3 whom il treated M such, aa TUula uid tributuiei ; for, 
from IGGO iiiitil 1699, ibey paid it aa annual iribots of 30,000 dnrati. It wta onl; in 
16M tbal it rannnM to give tbem the official title of Roman Caiar (Kmn a( tha 
Bumuu) ; bat theii AmboBidon vatlted aQ the lame, tike tboaa of all tir Cbmtiao 
States, after tbe Ambanadon of Fnnce Bsfore tbe treat; of 160S, the greater part 
of Ibe treatici made betireen the Porte tad the Anetriaa monucba irere endonied : 
" QiBdonalj aocordad b; the aTer-vicloHoiu Sottan to tbe erer-eanqnand inSdel King of 



€. That if any gabject of the king qaits the States of the Grand 
Seignior -without having eatisfied his debta, neither the oontnil nor 
anj other Frencbman uhall be responsible for them ; but the king 
shall make satisfaction to the plaintifE npon the goods or person of 
the debtor shonM it be in his kingdom, 

7. That the French roercbants and sabjects of the king shall 
freely m&ke their wills, and that the goods of those who sl^ll die 
intestate shall be remitted to the beir by the care and anthority of 
the consol. 

To comprehend all the importance of these articles, it must be re- 
membered that an insuperable barrier of hatred separated Christians 
and Unssnlmans ; that they mntnally regarded one another as ene- 
mies for whom there was no law ; that religions prejudices proscribed, 
them from having commnnication save by war only. The establish- 
ment, therefore, of relations of jnstice, peace, and even benevolence 
between the two peoples was a great progress ; but such was not 
solely the extent of the articles cited : they introduced an important 
innovation in the law of nations, in authorizing the French to have 
the advantage of their nationality, their laws, their customs under 
a foreign domination ; in giving them, in many respects, more rights 
and liberties than Ottoman snbjects had, in placing tbem almost en- 
tirely under the piotocting dependence of their national magistrates. 
Those prerogatives were such that no nation had conceded the like 
to a foreign nation, and they had the effect of changing the French 
coon ting- houses, so to speak, into small colonies. They were still 
farther increased by the solicitude of the consuls, who transformed 
almost completely their attributes of commerce and police into a 
civil magistracy and into political functions, and ended by arrogating 
to themselves so extraordinary a right of protection in the Ottoman 
Empire, that the denomination of FratJu was attributed even to cer- 
tain subjects of the Sultan. 

The other articles of the hatti-eherif of 1536 have not less im- 
portance : 1. The French enjoyed in all the Ottoman Statos the free 
exercise of their worship ; they had the right of safe-guarding the 
Holy Places of Palestine by religious functionaries, who couM not 
be <£stnrbed, neither in respect to the edifices they inhabited, nor the 
churches that were in their hands. The bishops dependents of France, 
and other priests of the Frank religion, of whatsoever nation they 
were, could not be disturbed in the exercise of their functions, where- 
ever they dwelt, provided tbey kept themselves within the bounds of 
their condition. This article, by the extension which was given it 
and the favonrable interpretations of which it was susceptible, con- 
secrated the right of protection of France over all Catholics in the 
E^st. 2. Earopean merchants, whose governments were not allied 
with the Porto by friendly treaties, might navigate under the French 
Sag in all the seas, and traffic, nnder the protection of France, in all 
countries of the Ottoman domination. Venice alone had, at this 
epoch, commercial treaties with the Porte : ♦ conseqaently, all the 
* Thesa treaties listed from tha arriTil of the Tnrki id Eorope, and pUwd Traice 



other Chriatiftn nationa were otliged to have recourse to the protect- 
ing flag of France to trade with Tarkey, 3. The liberation of. slaves 
made on either Bide was atipalated for, and the SaltAo engaged to 
lenonDce the right of making alaves of French Bubjecte, on condition 
that the KJTig of France ehoold do the same with regard to the 

Bnch were the principal artiolee of the hatH-eherif oi 1536, an 
act the power of which conld not have been onderstood hf the con- 
tracting parties ; for in making the Mnsenlman tiations enter into 
pacific relations with the Christian nations, it weakened forcibly the 
spirit of conqnest and propagation of the former, and was thus a 
kind of limitation for the Ottoman Empire. It was an obacnre but 
officBcions victory of Enrepean oiviliiation over Asiatic barbari ty, of 
tolerance over fanaticism, of the spirit of ezpanuion of the West 
over the spirit of isolation of the East, an easy victory in its 
origin, bnt which was afterwards disputed, for the treaty had to 
submit to many Tiolations and was compellQd to have numerous re- 

The conclusion of this Treaty was the last political act of the 
OniDd Vizier Ibiahim. That nanghty Minister abnsed more and 
more hie favour. During the negotiationB with Austria he had made 
a display of his authority, which had offended the Sultan. Dnring 
the Persian campaign he desired to lodge alone with his master in 
the palaces of Tebriz and Bagdad ; he wrong from him first the de- 
position, then the condemnation to death of the Defterdar Iskender 
Tchelebi, whose wealth and fame gave him um.hntge ; finally, on his 
return, he assumed in his " orders of the day," and even in tae treaty 
with the King of France, the significant title of Seraskier Sultan. 
This last effrontery filled up the measure of his presumption. On 
the 5th of Mareh, 1536, Ibrahim repaired to the Seraglio, as was 
his cnstom ; the next day he was found strangled therein. In the 
middle of the seventeenth century traces of his blood were still 
shown upon the walls. He had for successor the Albanian, Ayas 

Bpoa tbs footing at thbI kail tribnUr; of tbc Snltut. Ai earij aa 1403, ft pki'd ■ 
brihnte of l.flOO dacaU, m tribute which »u aftarwudi nised to 10,000. Wlicn 
llalMiawl II. had Dude himseK mMter of Goiulantinaple, it pnnbued pnM of him 
and ■ ooBtinaatiou of its oommene ; it vm than obliged to pay for the eatabliahmonta 
h had ia the new Empire an aannal Uibate of 80,000 dncata, and it was itipnlated 
that it sbonld Knd, ai in the plat, to CouitautiiiDple, a Ciargt ifAffaim haTiug tlia 
title ef bajfU, aod whom the Tarki ihoald regard and treat aa a hoatiige. Biet; peaoe 
«r troM tlut it made *i(h the Turki wai pnrchaMd with gold. 


TUBKET OLD iND NKW. [l.D. 1G88— 163T. 


1. Bequd of the Franco-Turkish Alliance. — War vnth Venice. 
Thb capitnl&tionB of 1536 annoiinced to Europe that a close Hllianoe 
existed between France and Turkey, bat they did not make known 
the political conditions! they were kept secret; they mnst be re- 
vealed only by facts ; bnt they were ae form^y settled at the time 
as the commercial stipulations. The French ambaesador was com- 
missioned io demand from Solyman a subsidy of a million of golden 
crowns, " the which will not be inconvenient to the Grand Seif^ior, 
seeing that his affairs are constituted in all felicity, and oug-ht not 
to cause him grievance."* He demanded, moreover, that the Otto- 
man fleet, tinder the command of Barbarossa, should attack Sicily 
and Sardinia whilst the king was reducing Genoa; and he had 
already, on that snbject, conferred directly at Tunis with the " King 
of Algiers," as Barbarossa was called. Lastly, he was charged to 
concert with the Saltan the conduct of the war, and to engage him 
to direct his efforts, not towards Hungary and Germany, where his 
presence would only reunite the divided parties, but against Naples, 
Sicily, and Spain. That was, in fact, what ' was resolved upon ; 
Francis 1. should invade Piedmont, and Solyman the kingdom of 
Naples. As to the subsidy, it is not known whether it wae accorded. 
Preparations were made on both sides for war ; but the alliance had 
not the results that might have been expected from it, on account of 
the tnptnre which broke out between the Porte and Venice. 

Thirty-five years had passed during which peace had existed 
between the two Powers. Under the administration of Ibrahim, the 
relations had even assumed a certain character of intimacy ; the new 
yisier appeared disposed to maintain them on the same terms ; besides, 
when Solyman and Francis concluded their alliance, they comprised 
the Venetians in it, and despatched depaties to them to obtain their 
formal adhesion. The Republic replied that it preferred to remain 
neutral ; bat the intrigues of Andrea Doria, who laboured to throw 
Venice into alliance with the Emperor, and those of Barbarossa, who 
eaw in a maritime war only the occasion of obtaining bcioty, snc- 
ceeded in changing the nentrality into open hostility. Already the 
Ottoman Fleet, with the strength of a hundred sail, had landed 
troops in Italy, who were ravaging the coasts of Apulia, when it was ■ 
recalled to attack the Venetian island of Corfu (Sept. 1537), The 
Saltan went in person to assist at the siege, and encamped on the 
shore opposite the island ; hut at the end of eight days, disheartened 
* " InstnicUoD au Sieur de U Porft pour son Ambtssaile i U Port*." 


1,0. IStS—l&St.} aOLTHAX INTADK8 ITALY. 145 

hy the resistikiice of the place, fae renounced the enterprise. The 
GrMid Viiier was ordered to seek retaliation npon Napoli di Romania 
and MftlTaBifti the chief towne held by the Venetians in the Uorea, 
and whence they sallied forth to attat^ the Tarkish territories. He 
besieged those places daring five months without Bnccess (from Jnne 
to the end of NoTember, 1538). As to the Capndan .Pacha, he went 
to reduce and ravage the islands of the Archipelago — an easy con- 
qnest that brought him more booty than Rlory. He afterwards 
carried desolation into Candia ; then, with a hundred and twenty, 
two resBels, he obtained off Prevesa a brilliant but sterile victory 
over a Christian fleet of one hundred and Bizty-sev^i sail, commanded 
by Andrea Doria (25th Sept. 1538). 

The year following, Solyman, who was accompanied by the 
ambassadoi La ForAt, assembled in Albania 100,000 men for a 
descent npon Italy; at the same time B^barossa landed a force 
from seventy galleys near Otranto. Both awaited the opeiations of 
Francis I. who proposed to enter Piedmont with an army and send 
his galleys to Apnba. Bnt the union of the Lilies and the Crescent 
had raised an outcry thronghont Europe : Francis, alarmed by it, 
left his galleys at Marseilles, and waited until the Tnrks had evacu- 
ated Italy before entering Piedmont; then becoming more and more 
uneasy at tho clamours of Christendom, and seeing that the object 
of the Franco-Tnrkisb alliance had failed, he signed with Charles V. 
the truce of Nice (1538). Solyman was dissatisfied, but did not 
break off the alliance ; he confirmed even at that juncture the hatti- 
cherif of IG36, and soon showed that he had, better than the King 
of France, a knowledge of his perils and of the situation of Europe. 

2. Again of Hungary. — Capture of Buda. 

The war continued by land and sea with Venice and the House of 
AuBtria. In Dalmatia, successes were balanced : the Venetians 
•eiced npon Ostrovits, Obrovatz and Scardona ; the Turks stormed 
the fortress of Nadin and took Donbicza; the Christian fleet took 
possession of Castelnnova (27 Oct. 1538) ; that of Barharossa retook 
the place on the 10th of August of the following year. At length 
tbe Venetians solicited peace and obtained it on onerous conditions, 
snrrendering Malvasia and Hapoli de Romania (1539). 

In HungaiT hostilities had recommenced early in 153?; a G-erman 
army of 24,000 men, commanded by Ferdinand s General, Katzianer, 
was Bnrroonded and destroyed at Essek by the Ottoman cavalry ; its 
oommander fled and carried tbe news of his disgrace to Vienna, 
where he was thrown into prison. Some time after he made his 
escape, essayed to sell himself to the Turks, and perished by assassi- 
nation before he could consummate his treason. In the following 
year (1538), the Voivode of Moldavia, Raresch, who had an under- 
standing with Ferdinand, whilst meditating an insurrection, was 
driven out of his province and compelled to take refuge in Transyl- 


146 TUREBT OLD IHl) HIW, [i.11. ISIO. 

vaoia ; his brother Stephen was put in hi§ place ; the fortifications 
of Akerman and KiUa were further strengthened and all attempta at 
rising prevented. 

At this time Zapolj and Ferdinand, who had during twelve years 
disputed for the crown of Hungary, entered into an arrangement; 
a secret treaty was concluded at Orosswardein, by which the two 
rivals shared the conntry between them. Ferdinand hastened to 
reveal this treaty to the Sultan, in the hope of detaching him from 
the interests of hia rival ; but Zapoly died (1540), leaving a son, 
bom fifteen days previous to his death, nnder the safe keeping of 
his mother Isabella. The Austrian troops immediately entered 
Hungary, besieged Isabella in Buda, then seized upon Pestb, Waiaen, 
Wiseegrad and Stnhlweissembourg. Solyman, however, on the news 
of the death of his protigi, had sent a diploma by which the son of 
Zapoly was declared King of Hungary, vassal and tributary of the 
Forte. A new suppliant embassy from Ferdinand having been sent 
to him, he maltreated his agents, declared war against him and 
placed himself at the head of his army (June, 1541). On the march 
he learned that the troops of Queen Isabella had defeated and dis- 
persed the Austrian army, and that Pesth was evacuated ; he arrived 
thus before Buda (August 29th), Zapoly'e son having been presented 
to him in his camp, the Janissaries profited hy the confunion incident 
upon that ceremony to obtain entrance within the city, of which they 
took possession. It was intimated to the Queen that she must quit 
her capital, and the next day Solyman entered therein with great 
pomp ; he converted the great church into a moeqne, made Buda the 
seat of a pachalic and established therein a garrison of 5,000 men. 
At the same time, he gave the Queen a diploma by which he engaged 
to keep Buda only during the minority of the young KTng, and to 
put him, as soon as he attained his majority, in poasession of the 

On the day after the occupation of Buda, other Austrian ambas- 
sadors arrived at the Ottoman camp. They brought rich presents, 
among which a clock that marked the months and the course of the 
stars excited much admiration ; they offered a tribute of 100,000 
florins provided that the whole of Hungary should be given up to 
Ferdinand, or 40,000 dncate for peaceable possession of the portion 
they occupied. They were well received, but were told that peace 
would be accorded if Ferdinand should deliver np the plaoes he had 
seized upon and pay tribute for the rest. 

3. New AllioAiee between Turkey and France. 
Some days afterwards, a French ambassador arrived who came to 
announce that war was recommencing in the West, and to renew the 
alliance with the Ottomans. Frajicis I. after the tmce of Nice had 
changed his policy : whether he did not comprehend the whole 
bearing of his alliance with the Porte, or whether he was deeirons 


A-n. 1S9»— 1&41.] NKW nUHCO-tOBKIBH ALLIANCE. 147 

of coming to terma with Iub rrnH % a show of generosity, he sad- 
deuly exhibited a irarm friendship for Charles T. and ceoeed coire- 
opondence with Solyman. Charles V. had need at that moment of 
peace or of a trnoe (it was just after the defeat of Katziauer) ; he 
profited by the foolish confidence of Francis, and bad reconrse to his 
mediation to obtain one or the other. The King of Fiance wrote, in 
fact, a sanf^nine lettor in faronr of his enemy (1539). Solyman had 
but slightly heeded the sndden coolness of his ally : Bincon, who 
bad remained at Constantinople,* had ekUfnlly kept him favourably 
disposed towards France ; he replied therefore to Francis : " Charles, 
King of Spain, desires and seeks, by yonr mediation, a trace with my 
Sablime Porte. Constant in the fi^temity which has existed thus 
far between yon and me, and which I confirm by my imperial faith, 
I declare that, if the King of Spain wishes to obtain, a trace and 
that it is your desire that he may obtain it, I will that he commence 
by replacing in yonr hands all the ^ovinoeB, lands and fortresses that 
he has forcibly taken from yon. Wben he shall have foMlted that 
condition, you will apprise my Snblime Porte to that effect, and I 
will do all that may be agreeable to yon : it shall be open to whom- 
soever shall present himself there on yonr part, either that I accord 
peaoe, or that I declare war to our common enemy." 

Charles refused to make peace npon the conditions imposed by the 
Saltan, and shortly Francis I., whom be had sbamefnlly deceived, 
broke with him (1641). The struggle between the two rivals became 
more furious than ever : the King of France resolved to crush his 
enemy by the help of the Ottoman forces, should it expose Christen- 
dom to tiie ravages of the barbarians. "If the wolves come to attack 
me at home," said he, " it is allowable STirely for me to call upon the 
dogs to drive tbem away." The King of Spain hoped to break up 
the Franco-Turkish alliance by raising Europe gainst it, and he did 
not recoil from an assassination in order to obtain proof of the 
treason of his enemy against the cause of Christianity. Bincon 
had been the bearer of Solyman's letter : he was ordered by Francis I. 
to return to Constantinople and demand of the Sultan that he shonld 
itninediatoly place all his vessels at his disposition, and that he should 
continue the war in Hungary. He took his way by Venice, where 
he proposed to emboirk, but he was assassinatod in Lombardy l^ order 
of the Oovemor of Milan, who thought to find upon him the instmo- 
tions of the King of France. The nturderer was foiled in bis expecta- 
tion ; Dnbellay, the French Governor of Piedmont, who suspected 
the designs of Charles T., had retained tJiese instructions when 
Bincon passed through Turin, and the Emperor was reduced to 
pnblish docnments wMch he had caused to be fabricated. Francis I. 
denounced his enemy's crime to all Europe, and he replaced Bincon by 

* It ii not knoirii nader wbattitla mi for what buaiiieH Eincon had nmuiined at Cod- 
■tutiaople. Tha Mriea of fint Francli eavDja to tbs Ottoman SmpiTe a vet; ohMore. 
It >p|Mu> (b*t t* Pdi4'. ilied in lfi37, and had for lacosnor HnrillM. To HuiIIm 
mccMded, in 16S9, the Hnpolilui Cautelmo, who mada t«o VDjages to CooitantiaoiJs. 
BiDOOB Bait baTB aoewoded him. 


148 TDRKET OLD AND SKW. I*.I». 15*1— IBiS. 

a soldier of fotinne, a Captain Pavlin, subsequently Baron Ae la 
Oarde, and General of the gallej-e. It was this new agent who went 
in search of the Snltan, then in Hungary, and whom he fonnd at 
Bada and annoanced to him the mnrder of Kincon. Solyman was 
so chagrined and irritated at the news that he wished to avenge the 
death of the French envoy by that of the imperial ambaeaadora. 
Panlin dissuaded him from it ; and took adranta^ of his anger to 
explain the object of his miaaion. 

This time the Saltan hesitated to satisfy his inconstant ally. The 
ambassador followed him to Constantinople, and obtained at first 
that the Riopablic of Venice should be solicited to enter into the 
French alliance ; bnji that overture met with no snccess ; then he 
contrived to win over to his interests the Ministers of the Forte, and 
fonnd especially a zealons anxiliary in Barbarossa, who was only 
seeking for a fresh opportnnitj of maranding the Mediterranean.* 
The Capndan- Pacha was then in the enjoyment of the highest tavonr, 
for he went, favonred it is tme by storms, to inflict a great disaster 
npon Charles V, 

The latter was desirons of recommencing the war by a coup d'Mat, 
by another Tanis expedition. He sailed to attack Algiers with 
74 galleys, 200 veBsela, large and small, and an army of 24,000 men. 
Several ladies of the Conrt of Spain had accompanied the army to 
witness its trinmph. Scarcely had a landing been eSectod at four 
leagnes from Algiers when a frighbfnl storm assailed the fleet and 
troops ; 130 vessels, of which 14 were salleys, were sunk. Pelted by 
a driving rain, harassed by swarms of Arabs, the Spaniards advanced 
nevertheless to the foot of the walls, whero they were received by a 
torrible cannonade. On the fourth day they beat a retreat, and 
re-embarked on board the relics of their fleet, having lost one-half of 
their nnmbers and a portion of their artillery (Slst October, 1641). 
Contrary winds prevented their regaining Europe for the space of a 

Panlin being warmly supported by the defender of Algiers, by the 
i^ of the Janissaries, by the favourite Vizier Bnstem, decided the 
Snltan to place his fleet and ite admiral under the orders of the king. 
He was himself the bearer of that news to Fontaineblcan ; performed 
the voy^^e and journey in twenty-one days, and rotnrncd with the 
same promptitude to Constantinople, to hasten the departure of the 
Turkish vessels. Dnring his absence Ferdinand had again made an 
attempt at negotiation, bnt his ambassador could not even obtain an 
audience. Panlin, however, had still to struggle against the hesitation 
of the Snltan, and the expedition aftor all was put off to the year 
ensuing (1543). It was then that Solyman wrote to his ally the 
following letter ; — 

* Thii intereated tieir rsaderad Barbucau lo tarooTabls to Franoe, that he paned 
U tbe head of the French part; in the DiTao. The Qrand Viiter iaqaired of FerdiiMmd'* 
ODTo; what «aa the object of the friendlj treat; coaeladed betveen the King of FraDOs 
and the King of the Eomana. " laUrronte thereon the grand Admiial," replied tha 
eoToj, poiDtJDg to Barbaroaea. "Do I, Mid the latter, langhinglj, "repreaant hers 
the Ambaasador of the King of Fnuee ) " 



" Glory of the PrinceB of the religion of Jesas, thoa ahalt know 
that, at ihe prayer of thy miniBter Panlin, I have granted my formid- 
able fleet, eqnipped with everything that is neceseary. I have ordered 
Chaireddin, my Capadan- Pacha, to listen to thy intentions, and to 
form hie enterprises to the rain of thy enemies. Thon shalt so 
arrange that after having ham)ily ezecnted them, my army may 
return before the bad season. Take care that thy enemy deceive thee 
not. He wUl sever force himself to make peace with thee nntil he 
shall reoognize that thoa art determined to wage continned war 
against him. May God biese those who esteem my friendship, and 
who are protected hy my victorions arms ! " 

In the spring of 1543, whilst Solyman was a^in entering Hungary, 
the Ottoman fleet, with a force of 110 galleys and carrying 14,000 
men, set sail. Panlin was aboard the admiral's ship, and Barbarossa 
had formal command to follow his advice and the orders of the King 
of France in everything. This fleet pilJs^d the coaetB of Sicily, 
respected the Pontifical States, and arrived at Marseilles, where it 
was received with great honours, and joined the French fleet of 
40 galleys and 7,000 men, commanded by the Coant d'Engbien. 
Francis I., who seemed always emharrasBed by the Turkish alliance, 
knew not how to profit by sach a combination of forces ; by his 
orders the two fleets appeared before Nice, the only city which 
remained to the Dute of Savoy, the ally of Charles V. They made 
themselves masters of the place; bnt die French having hindered 
the Tnrka from pillaging, discord arose between the two armied, 
which, after aseaniting nnsnccsBsfnlly the caetle, separated. The cap- 
ture of Nice was the sole reanlt achieved by a naval armament which 
onght to have annihilated the Spanish fleet, and which cost France 
dearly. Barbarossa, however, had permission to wioter at Tonlon. 
Daring their stay there, his followers acted as thongh they were in 
an enemy's country, and filled the benches of their galleys by carrying 
off all the men they could seize on the adjacent ooaets, while the 
women served to sapply their harems. Barbarossa even took the 
crews out of the royal galleys, and left them totally useless. To 
induce so dangerous an ally to quit France, Francis made him a 
subsidy of 800,000 crowns. At length, in April, Barbarossa set sail 
for Cdnstantinople, and again spread terror and desolation along the 
coaste of Italy, whence he carried off 14,000 Christians m slaves. 
That expedition laised such a chorus of imprecations against the 
French king thronghont Europe, that the following year (1544) 
France refused the assistance Barbarossa offered him in his master's 
name, and concluded the peace of Crespy. This was the Corsair- 
captain's last notable exploit. He died two years after at a very 
kdvanced age (4th Jnly, 1546). His tomb may be seen at Beschik. 
lasch, on the shore of the Bosphorus, at the point where the Ottoman 
Beets usually mnster. 

The Hungarian campaign, opened by Solyman, was marked by 
great successes, but did not prove decisive. Before the Sultans 
arrival his lieutenants had seized upon the fortress of Yalpo, in 


150 TDBKBT OLD AND NSW. (i.D. 1537— lfi47. 

Bclavonia. He himself besieged taid took Siklos, Gran, and Stnli]- 
weiseembont^, which were transformed into SandjalcB (1543). The 
year foUowii^, Wiseegrad, Keograd, Welika, and several other 
fortresses, felt also into the power of the Ottomans. Two Turkish 
corps defeated at Loaeka an army of Croats, Stjrians, and Carinthians, 
commanded by the Palatine Zriny; on the other hand, they sostained 
a severe check near Salla. 

In ] 516 negotiations were opened with a view of pntting an end 
to this war, which dragged on its course so tedionsly. They were 
prolonged till 1517. Ferdinand and Charles V., desirans of peace, 
which had become necesHarj for both, consented to pay an annnal 
snbsidy, the Ottoman ministers stipnlating for the evacnation of 
several places. These difficalties were taken advantage of l^ the 
French ambassador, Gabriel d'Aramon.* He announced that his 
mastor had decided to take np arms again. He reprQaent«d to the 
Sultan the fresh embarrassmente that the revolt of the Lntheran 
Princes of Oermany had cansed the Emperor, and solicited a new 
and effective alliance. The death of Francis I., which happened in 
Uaroh, 1547, pnt an end to those projects, and hastened the con- 
olasion of the treaty. On the 19th of Jnne following, a tmce of five 
years was concluded between the Sultan, the Emperor, and King 
Ferdinand, on condition of an annual present of 30,000 dncats, which 
the lattor agreed to pay for the portion of Hungary that remained in 
his power. 

1. War in Atia. 
Free in Enrope, Solyman profited by it to extend bis domina ion 
in the direction of Asia. During the ten years, the main incidents 
of which have been just narrated, the affairs of Europe had aseamed 
sufficient importance to absorb his entire att«ntion. We have, how- 
ever, to revert to a distant expedition accomplished during the 
height of his struf^le against the House of Austria, and which shows 
with what activity' he directod his attention simnltaneonsly upon the 
most divergent points. In 1537, he received two Indian ambassadors 
sent, one by the sovereign of Delhi, who was sustaining an unequal 
struggle with the Mongol Emperor, the other by tiie Prince of 
Gnzerat, who implored his aid against the Portngaese. Already, in 
1525, an Ottoman squadron had appeared in the Ued Sea in ordei; to 
chastise the Arab pirates; in June, 1538, Solyman Pacha, governor 

* The •genU of FnmM plajnl St this jniiotiice a ■ingnlu' pvt, quite calralatfd M 
disoredit tbem : Kt tha time when the uegotutioiu began, tfae Trmtj of Ctapj had 
jut been coDcludad ; Prancu I. wai ance more reoDDfliled irith Charlea ; Jvan da 
Hootlne aocomptuiied to OoDiUntinople, is qiulitj of SnToj Bitnuirdinarj of the King, 
tha Imparixl Ambtnador, and sappartwl hie orartnrea with a warinth which locked the 
Divan, which oompromieed himHii and embroiled him with d'Aramon, bia njlieagoe. 
The latter set out on hin retnni to Prance. Bhottlj after a miiondeinmnding haring 
again began to abow itaelf between the two riTa] monarchi, d'Anmon went back with 
ftwh inaCmotiDiu, and let hioiNlf to hinder tha negodationi with ai maeh leal a« 
HontJno bad aboi 



of Egypt, with a fleet of 70 sail cftrrying 20,000 Boldlera, cmiBed 
along toe coast of Arabia, subjected in passing Aden, and landed 
in Gnzerat. After captaring two strong forts, lie failed in besi^ing 
Difi ; bnt, on his return, he achieved the conqaest of Yemen, which 
Itecame an Ottoman province. 

In 1547, at the moment he was about to conclnde the treaty with 
Anetria, there arrived a Pereian Prince, Elkazib jUirza, the rebel son 
of Uie Shah, who came to place himself nnder the protection of the 
Porte. War against Persia was instantly resolved npon. In the 
spring of ld48, Soljman passed into Asia. He conquered a portion 
of Persian Kurdistan, entered for the second time as victor into 
Tebriz, and seized npon the fortress of Van. Prince Elkazib Uirza, 
with an army of Knrda and yolnnteers, advanced nearly to Ispahan, 
and sent the Sultan a portion of his booty ; bnt soon after, distrnsting 
the Ottomans, he strove to Bnstain himself by his own forces alone, 
was takes by his brother and imprisoned. After having effected, 
l^ his lientenante, the conqneafc of a pari; of Georgia, Solyman re- 
tamed to Constantinople in December, 1549. 

6. Again of Hungary. — Siege of Erlaa. — Sequel of the Frctnco- 
Tttrkitk Alliance. 

Ere long the flames of war were rekindled in Hongary. Qneen 
Isabella, relict of King John, had placed her confidence in the monk 
OeoTges Martinnzzi, whom Zapoir, when on hie death-bed, had 
recommended to her. That ambitions and intriguing monk had an 
nnderstanding with Ferdinand, and indnced the Qneen to cede 
Transylvania and the Banat of Temeavar to him. At the same time 
lie protested hie zeal for Solyman, and kept htm in a fatal security 
by false reports. Already the treaty was concluded and .signed, 
already a German army was on ite march, a national insurrection 
was organized, and Haitinuzzi still wrote to Constantinope to con- 
tradict what he called the calumnious reports. At length, Solyman 
declared that, in the incertitude, he was about to send his troops into 
Hungary, and the act quickly followed the menace. Ferdinand, 
after the conclusion of the peace, had left at Constantinople a ckarg/ 
^affaire!, whom the Snltan had accepted nnder the title of a hostage. 
He was thrown into prison, and then an army of 80,000 men crossed 
the Danube, September, 1551. The greater number of the etrong- 
Iiolds occupied hy the Germans surrendered without striking a blow ; 
but Transylvania rose at the call of Martinnztn, on whom Ferdinand 
had Jnst bestowed a Cardinal's hat. Lippa was carried by aasanlt 
7th November, the Cardinal monk being himself at the head of the 
assailants, and nas one of the first to monnt to the assault. Soon 
after he meditated a fresh treason ; aspiring, probably, to make him- 
aelf Prince of Transylvania, he made overtures with the view of 
regaining the favour of Solyman. Ferdinand, informed of his 
saw intrignea, caused him to be BBsasduated 18th December, 1551. 


Iij2 TnitKBT OLD AND NRW. [a 9. 1552— 15G3. 

Tlie following year was opened hj a defeat of tHe ImperialiBtB. 
After captaring Szegedin, they were snrprised before the town and 
oat in pieces. The second vizier, ALmed Pach&, took Temeerar, and 
all the Banat retnrned under Ottoman domination. The governor 
of Bnda seized npon Weeprim and several fortresses, and defeated 
sear Fulek an Imperial army commanded by Brasmna Tentel ; the 
Austrian General woe himself made prisoner; lastly, Szolnok was 
carried withont a blow stmck, thanks to tiie cowardice of the 
governor. Bnt Erlan, where Dobo and Stephen Metzkey were xa 
command, immortalised itself by an heroic defence : the women 
fonght upon the breach as vahantly as the men. After a siege of 
five months and many murderons aaaanlts, the Tnrks were compelled 
to retire (1552). 

The straggle had also recommenced at sea. A follower of 
BarbaroBsa, the corsair Torghnd, called by the Europeans Dra- 
gnt, sustained the reputation of the Ottoman navy, and rendered 
himself almost as formidable to the Christians as bis prede- 

The alliance with France, however, was not broken ; Henry IL, 
foreseeing a speedy resumption of arms, had taken care to keep up 
friendly relations with the Porte. D'Aramon, his ambassador, on 
his return to Prance, after having accompanied the Sultan in his 
Persian expedition went, with a brilliant escort, to visit the Holy 
Places, which, since the Crnsades, bad not received a public envoy 
from the Sings of- France. He was welcomed with much honour by 
the Ottoman authorities, with acclamations by the Christians; and 
that journey was in some sort a taking possession of the protectorate 
of the faithful of the East, On Ms retnm to France, d'Aramon 
found the war rekindled with Austria ; he set out again immediately 
for the Levant. On the voyage, he stopped at Tripoli in Africa, 
which had fallen into the hands of the Knights of Malta, and which 
had just been retaken by the Turks : he compolLed the conqnerors, 
by threatening them with the Saltan's wrath, to respect the capitu- 
lation and to set at liberty the French Knights, 1551. Arrived in 
Turkey, he opposed steadfastly the violence exercised by the Capudan- 
Pacha npon the Isle of Scio ; and looking, as he said, npon all 
Christians as his compatriots, he procured for the inhabitants the 
privil^^es that they have in part preserved down to onr own time. 
Lastly, he obtained the Snltan's consent that the Ottoman fieet, 
commanded by Dragut, should join the French fleet under the com- 
mand of Paiilin, 1553. 

These tvio sea captains, after raving Calabria and Sicily, landed 
on the Island of Corsica, which the king was desirons of wresting 
from the Genoose, allies of Charles V. : it was needed wherewith to 
make a place d^armes at which the two fleets coold moke appointed 
meeting and then harass Italy and Spain. The French and the 
Turks seised upon several towns ; but dissension broke out between 
them. : the latter wished to pillage the conquered places, the former 
were desirons that religion, the people and property, should be 


A.t>. 1548.] THE SULTANA BOULAKA. 153 

respected ; the two fleets separated, and the conquest of Corsica was 

That was the last occasion, nntU the present centnry, that Freach- 
men and Turks were seen fighting in the same ranks. The alliance 
continued to sabsist, bnt it ceased to be that which it had been since 
1536, effeotiye, direct, offensive. Snch a resnlt was inevitable. 
France bad entered into the alliance in order to limit the House of 
Aastria ; Tnrkey to invade more easily the countries of Christendom. 
The first partly attained her object by the Treaty of Catean-Cambresis, 
which suspended her stm^le with Anstria for seventy-six yean 5 
the second saw itself cheated of its hopes, since Hnngary, Italy, and 
Spain had opposed invincible barriers to it. The alliance was there- 
fore less nsefnl to both parties ; it became natnrally less close, more 
restrained, and was directed almost solely by the Kings of Fiance to 
the interests of commerce and the protection of the Christians in the 
East Moreover, the political ideas of Solyman — ideas so replete 
with grandeur and dignity, which alone conld give the Ottomans a 
European existence— became enfeebled by degrees, and ended by 
disappearing almost entirely amongst his snccessors. As for the sons 
of Heniy II. of France, gnided by their astute mother, Catherine de 
Uedici, they followed, notwithstanding their stormy reigns, the policy 
of their grandfather with mnch activity and intelligence ; bnt if, 
unidst the religioas fnry which drenched their kingdom in blood, 
they had been desirons of perpetuating the scandal that Francis L 
had given to Christendom by uniting his arms with those of the 
infidels, they would have been infallibly driven from the throne. 

6. War with Penia. — The Sultana BoxaJana. — Death of Muttapha. 

Whilst war was being waged in Europe to the advantage of the 
Turks, the Shah of Persia having resumed the offensive in Asia, and 
obtained divers snccessea upon the frontiers, the Criand Vizier was 
ordered to oppose him. 

The poet of Crmnd Vizier was then filled by Bustem Pacha, the 
most favoured of Solyman's ministers since the fall of Ibrahim. Ue 
was BQstained by the patronage of the favourite Sultana, the cele- 
brated Khou mm- Sultana, whom Solyman, by pre-eminent distinction, 
acknowledged as his l^itimate wife. This seductive woman, stated 
by several writers to have been a French woman named Boxalana, 
was, in fact, a Rnssian slave. She obtained an ascendancy altogether 
extraordinary over her master, and contributed powerfully to ruin the 
&vonrite, who, during sixteen years, had shared the Sultan's 
authority. She had a son, Selim, for whose accession to the throne 
she Buccessfnlly strove, and who became the unworthy successor of 
Solyman. She had also a daughter, who had been given in marriage 
to Rustem, then third viaier. Speedily the fortunate son-in-law of 
the Sultan was raised from favour to favour, even to the highest 
dignity of the empire. The Persian campaign of 1548 had been 


154 THRKBY OLD ASD NEW. [a.b. IGSS~1&S6. 

nndertnken at the inHtigation of the Saltana, in order to give Bnitem 
an opportnnity of displaying his mititaiy talents, and he was there- 
fore made Commander-in-Chief. He set ont, famished with instruc- 
tions from his benefactress, and soon after rendered her a repalsive 
service. Scarcely had he entered npon the campaign than he wrote 
to the Saltan that seditions moTements had broken ont in the army in 
faTonr of Prince Mnstapha, Solyman's eldest son. In reality, Mns- 
tapha mnet have seen with secret discontent hia yonng brother, Selim, 
made Gkivemor of Magnesia ; for it was in that government of Mag- 
nesia, the nearest to the capital, that the heirs designated by the 
Saltan ordinarily awaited the moment for ascending the throne. 
Mnstapha, by his brilliant qualities, by his valonr and generosity, had 
won the aCection of the Janissaries ; and the protection he afforded 
to letters rendered him eqnally dear to poets and learned men. The 
Yisier asserted that the soldiers alr^dy spoke of deposing the 
decrepit Padishah, and proclaiming Mnstapha his snccessor. At 
this news, Solyman hastened to pass over into Asia, and take command 
of the army. Prince Mnstapha went to join the camp near Brcyli 
(5th Ootober, 1553) ; on the day after his arrival, when he presented 
himself in the Snltan's tent, he vas there received by the mates, 
bearing the fatal bowstring; and the nnfortnnate prince perished 
whilst vainly calling for his father, who, concealed behind a cnrtain, 
was present dnring that horrible scene. A son of Mnstapha, left at 
Bronssa, was snatched by craft from his mother's arms and pnt to 
death ; and his brother, Dschihangir, linked with him in the closest 
ties of love, followed him speedily to the grave. The Janissaries, in 
their first burst of indignation, mutinied, bat they were appeased by 
the deposition of the Grand Tizier, to whom pnblio opinion attribnted 
these mnrders ; and the army began its march towards the Persian 

That war presented no remarkable events : after a year passed in 
devastating the conntries of Kerman, both sides b^an to wish for 
peace ; a treaty, conclnded 2&th May, 1656. brought intermission to 
the enmity which divided the two peoples ever since the fonndation 
of the dynasty of the Ssafis and revival of the schism ; the followers 
of Ali were permitted to make the pilgrim^e to Mecca, and the 
Snttan promised to protect them. 

7. Affairt of Hungary. — Sevolt and Death of Sajaiet. 
The Hungarian war continued almost without intermption. In 
1554, at the moment when Solyman was abont to pass into Asia,'an 
embassy had arrived from Vienna, and negotiations were recom. 
menced bnt without result ; however, some advantages obtained 1^ 
the Turks determined the despatoh of fresh sgents, who songht for 
the Snltan in Amasia, and obtained an armistice of six months 
(1555J. That armistice was badtv observed on both sides : the 
TuTkieh marauders and Hangarian hey'dnkes did not the less carry 



on their depredatioiis ; tbe animosity of the two peoples manifeated 
itself by single combttts, by partial rencontree ; and, the year following, 
hostilitiea were resnnied with increased fnry. The Turks, forced 
their way into Szigeth, bnt could not reduce the fortress ; constrained 
to abandon the town,they were defeated upon the banka of the Rinya 
by Thomas Nadasdy, who seized npon Babocsa, Korothna, and sevenJ 
other places. The Turks, on the other hand, took Kostaiiiicza, and 
devastated all the country between the TJnna and the Knlpa ; they 
ftgain Burprised the Fortress of Tata (lS5iJ) and seized upon SziksEO, 
which was bamt. In spite of the bkti^ fary of the war, the 
n^otiations were coutiniiMl ; bat the seal and efforts of Ferdinand's 
agraits only ended in a tmce of six months, whieh was rather dne to 
fresh smharrasanLenta caused the Saltan by the revolt of his son 

That revolt was the work of Lala Mnstapha, the former preceptor 
of Bajazet, become the confidant of Selim and grand master of his 
Conrt. That intrigoer, having a perfect nndeistanding with his new 
master, nndertook craftily to pat armg into Bajazet's hands ; ezasper. 
ated him against his brother by representing that Selim had rendered 
himself odioas hy his dehancheries, that the nation woald prefer him 
to Selim, and was ready to support him. Swayed l^ this advice, 
Bajozet sent his brother an insulting letter, together with a diatafE 
and female veetmente, all of which Selim sent to the Snitan. Soly- 
man, irritated, threatened Bajazet with disgrace, and ordered Mm to 
exchange his government of Konieh forthat of Amasia. The Prince, 
instead of oheying, homed his father's letters, put the messengers to 
death, and took np arma. The vizier, Mahomet Sokolli, was sent to 
rednce him. After a fight which lasted two days (30th and Slat 
Hay, 1561), the rebel Prince was conquered; he fled to Amaaia, 
whence he sent a hnmble and penitent letter to his father; Lala 
If natapha intercepted the misaive, and Bajazet, receiving no answer, 
and finding himself actively pursued, fled into Persia. He was re* 
oeived by the Shah with great pomp and demonstrations of friend- 
ship; but care was taken to disarm or disperse the troops he had. 
brought with him. Messengers speedily arrived from Solyman and 
Selim, demanding the extradition of the rebel. After a long and 
secret negotiation the Persian monarch conaented to surrender hia 

giest ; bnt to keep unbroken hia promise not to deliver him np to hia 
ther, he remitted him to the agenta of hia brother Selim, who mnr* 
dered him with bis five sons (25th Sept. 1561). The throne was 
thus secured to Selim, who remained the sole heir to Solyman. 

8. Peace with Atutria. — Naval Affain. — Siege of Malta. 
The Austrian negotiators, however, were indefatigable : they re- 
turned unceasingly with fresh propoaitions scarcely different from 
tb« preceding, and struggled with a wonderfal address abd constancy 
daspite the exigence and harshness of the viziers, against the claims 


IL6 TURKET OLD IND NEVT. |a.d. 1S62— 1565. 

of the agfiata of Qaeen Isabella, offering large tnbateB, bnt demand- 
ing reatitutiona of territories. The vizier Baetem being dead, the 
conciliating character of Ali Pacha, his Buccessor, bronght abont a 
conclueion. In June, 1562, a peace was signed for eight years npon 
the basis of the statu quo. The tribate, which the Anstrians dis- 
guised under the term of " annual present," was maintained. 

That pacification proved again illnsory : it was scarcely signed 
when already difficalties presented tbemsBlves; the Divan claimed 
arrears of tribute; the Austrian ministers complained that the 
Turkish copy of the treaty was not conformable to the Latin copy. 
War went on npon the frontiers ; whilst felicitations were bemg 
exchanged at Vienna at the re'establishment of peace, the banks of 
the Danube and the Drave were the theatre of furious fighting. 
It was not before the expiration of a year that there was any 
relaxation of hostilities. 

Moldavia, about the same time, was tronhled with internal dis- 
orders. A Candiote adventurer named John Basilicas, sapported in 
secret by Ferdinand, dethroned the vo'ivode Alexander, and caused 
himself to bo acknowledged in his place under the name of Ivui. 
The dispossessed Prince went to carry his plaint to Constantinople ; 
but he had nothing to oSer; the nnnrper, who had sent rich presents 
and promised to increase the tribute, was maintained (1563). A few 
months after, the boyards rose, besieged htm in Snczava and slew 
him ; the voivode Alexander waa restored. 

The peace concluded with Austria, all preoariouB as it was, per- 
mitted the Sultan to give more attention to naval expeditions. On 
that side also the war was permanent. The Capndan- pacha, Piale, 
Salih Bey, beylerbey of Algiers, and Dragut, become beylerbey of 
Tripoli, spread terror in the Mediterranean and kept the Spauish 
marine incessantly in check. Masters of Tripoli, Algiers, Bougia 
and Oran, they had made the coast of Africa the centre of their 
maritime cruises. In 1560, the Spaniards had taken possession of 
the island of Djerbi ; and had scarcely established themselves 
therein, ere Piale attacked them, retook uie island, defeated their 
fleet and carried the relics of it in triumph to Constantinople. 

Fonr years after, the Spaniards having seized upon G-omer and 
Pignon de Yalez, the Ottomans resolved to avenge themBelves by a 
coup d'iolat ; a fleet of 200 sail went to beside Malta (20th May, 
1565). At the very commencement, Dragut was killed by a splinter 
of stone ; the siege nevertheless continued ; bat, after a whole month 
of murderous struggles, the Turks only succeeded in capturing fort 
Saint Elmo. " If the son has cost us so dearly, what will it cost to 
take the father ? " said the Seraekier Mnstapha Paoha, on reckoning 
up his losses. To intimidate the garrison, he caused the prisoners to 
be qnartered, and their limbs to be nailed upon planks in the form 
of a cross which were flung at the foot of the walls. The Qrand 
Master of Yaletta responded to these barbarities by causing his guns 
to be loaded with the heads of the Turkish prisoners, and so fired 
instead of balls. An old Christian slave was sent to summon him 



to Bnrrender: he led him npon the ramparts, and pointing to the 
ditchee, he aaid ; " That is the onlj gronnd that I can yield to yonr 
maeter ; let him fill it ap with the bodies of his JanissarieB." On the 
11th of September, after three months and a half of siege and ten 
assaults, the Turkish army re-embarked. 

9. Sert^Kial of the War in Hungary. — Siege of Siigelk. — Death of 

The peace signed with Austria had already been broken. At the 
death of Ferdinand (1664), Maximilian, his sncceesor, demanded 
the renewal of the trace. But, at that moment, Zapolr's son Stephen 
attacked the Austrian town of Szathmar and took it. Mazimiliwi 
replied to that blow by surprising Tokay. During the coarse of the 
discussions to which this double infraction of the peace gave rise, 
the Yizier AU Pacha died (1565). Kis sncccsBor was Hahomet 
Sokolli or Sokolowitch, a Bosnian slave, the greatest minister the 
Turkish Empire ever had. He breathed nothing but war gainst 
Austria, and it recommenced immediately. Erdoed in Transylvania, 
Paokotta, Kmppa, Novi in Croatia, fell into the power of the Otto- 
mans. At length, in 1566, Solyman, ill and tormented by the gont, 
took the command of his army. Without waiting for his arrival, the 
governor of Ofen, Arslan Bey, laid si^e to Falota, but an army com. 
manded by Count Eck de Salm forced nim to beat a retreat, and Tata 
and Wesprim were taken. When Arslan Bey made his appearance 
in the Sultan's camp, he paid the price of that reverse by the loss 
of his head. On the 29th of June, Solyman, having reached Czabacz, 
received in solemn audience the yonthfnl Stephen Zapoly ; he wel- 
comed him affectionately, called him hie son, and promised him that 
ha would not qnit Hnngary before confirming him in possession of 
it ; bat the Hungarian Prince committed the error ol quarrelling 
with the Qiund Vizier, and the malevolence of that minister was 
destined to bring about his min. 

Solyman formed the project of marching upon Erlau, in order to 
sBace the affront inflicted upon his arms fourteen years previously ; 
but on leaming that a Tnrkish corps d'armee, together with a 
&vonrite Pacha, had been destroyed 1^ Nicholaa Zriny, Palatine of 
Szigeth, he resolved to go first and chastise him. The siege of 
Szigeth, the fiimily seat of that noble near Fiinfkirchen, was begun 
on the 5th of April. Determined to fight even to the death, Zriny 
exhibit«d a certain degree of pomp in the defence : he had the walls 
hnng with red draperies and the principal tower covered with plates 
of Inilliant tin, Solyman, on his arrival, with an army of 100,000 
men and 300 guns, was courteously saluted by the cannon of the 
place. At the end of fourteen days, the exterior works were taken ; 
the besieged had abandoned the town and burnt it, shutting them- 
selves np in the citadel and there making a fierce resistance. This 
siege afforded another instance of the unskilfulncss of the Turks in 


15ti TOBKEV OLD ASD MiiW. [t.i). ISM. 

snch operations. In Tain the Snltan tried to shake Zriny liy pro- 
mises or threate ; in vain was it attempted to cause division amoDgst 
the besieged or to disoonr^e them by false news; on the 5th of 
September — that is to eay, after more than fonr months — the Tnrks 
had only succeeded in deetroying the principal bastion. On that 
day, Solyman, long ailing from the consoqnenoe of fati^e and the 
nawbolesome air of the marshes, died. The Orand Yizier resolved 
to cautioQsIy conceal that event; the secret remaining between two 
or three persons ; pretended letters from the Sultan were read to the 
army in the form of orders of the day, to animate the coorage of 
the soldiers, and the attacks were renewed. At length, on the bth of 
September, Zriny found himself driven bock into the great tower, 
which he had converted into a powder magazine. He then dressed 
himself in a suit of silk, took the moat ancient of the sabres he had 
won, pat in his pocket a bandred dncats and the keys of the fortress; 
then ordered the gates to be thrown open. At the moment when 
the Janissaries approached, an enormons cannon, placed under the 
archway, vomited upon them, almost point blank, a discharge of 
grape-^ot; amidst the smoke, preoeded by his banner-bearer and 
followed by an esquire, rushed forth the Palatine ; he threw himself 
fnrionsly into the thickest of his enemies, uid laid low a considerable 
number. He was, however, taken alive, bound across the month of 
a cannon, uid had his head struck off. The Janissaries, maddened 
with rage, threw themselves upon the citadel, maasaored all therein, 
snatching bold of the women and children and tearing them in pieces. 
Amidst the carnage, the tower, already mined, blew up with a- 
terrible concosaion and bnried three thousand of the victors in its 

The death of the Snltan was still kept concealed during three 
weeks ; tetters announcing the victory were sent forth in his name ; 
the Divan assembled as usual, and the Vizier conducted affairs until 
the moment when he learned that the heir to the throne had arrived 
in Constantinople. 

Solyman had long been in bad health. Besides the goat, he was 
subject to attacks of melancholia, and lay sometimes totally uncon- 
scious in a swoou or trance. Navaeero* describes him, at the age of 
sixty-two, as much above the middle height, but meagre, and of a 
yellow complexion; yet there was a wonderful gnmdeur in his 
aspect, accompanied by a gentleness that won all hearts. He was a 
rigid Mussulman, and insisted on a precise observance of all the 
precepts of the Kor&n. He was very temperate in his diet, ate but 
little meat, and amused himself chiefly with hunting. In his moments 
of depression he was wont to hnmble himself before Glod, and com- 
posed spiritual hymns, in which he compared his nothingness with 
the power of the Almighty. He was very scrupulous in keeping his 
word ; he loved justice, and never knowingly did wrong to anybody. 
' In short, allowance being made for his Turkish education and preju- 

* BditioDB of ITftTigBra, in Albwi's OoUectim. 



dicee, he may be very adviHttageoiiBlf compftred with Bereral Chrietiaik 
Pniices, his contemporaries. 

The long reign of Solym&n, aignalized ezt«riiall7 hy Boch vaiBt oon- 
qsestA, hj ench a great developmeiit of power, is not lesB remarkable 
in that which oonceraB internal admin is tration, institntions and 
l^islation. It is even from this last (wint of view that Solyman is 
especially illnstnonB among the OttomaJia : thej oailhini El-Ka/nouni, 
the legislator. His attention was particnlarlj directed to the or- 
ganizstion of the nlemas, to the system of fiefs, to finance, justice, 
civil and penal law, the army, Ac, 

In the chain of the ulemai, the sub-diviBions were multiplied, the 
adv&ncement regulated, the hierarchy rendered more rigorons. New 
privilq^ also were granted to the members of that learned corpora, 
tion : snch ae exemption from taxation and hereditary right in the 
family, in such wise that the property of the nlemas never oontribn- 
ted to the exchequer. It was at that epoch that the dignity of mufti 
became the first in the judicial and religions orders ; it most be 
attribnted especially to the extraordinary estimation which the oelo- 
brated mnfti Ebon-Soond enjoyed, who preserved nnder the two 
following reigns his title and authority. 

The arrangements relative to the fiefs are one of the most impor> 
tant portions of the l^islation of Solyman ; they were for the most 
part supported by fetwa* delivered by the mufti. According to the 
political and religions doctrine of the Mussulmans, the soil belonged 
to God, and, consequently, to the Sultan, his representative; the 
lands, however, were divided into three classes: 1. the lands occupied 
by Mussulmans after conquest, which were only subjected to the 
tithe ; 2. the lands let to conquered populations, to rayaht, and for 
which they paid beddeB the tithe, the Kharadj, that is to say, the 
GApitation and territorial impost ; 3. the domains given by the Sul- 
tana in the shape of military rewards under the names of timar» 
and liameU, and the institution of which dates from the reign of 
Amurath I. Solymui at first regulated the levy of the tithes, then 
that of the Ehanulj, in a mode to render the one and the other less 
onerous and more productive ; he regulated also the arbitrary im- 
posts, levied by virtue of Kanouni, upon marriageB, merchandize, 
foreigners, duties, &c. Lastly, he occupied himself with timars and 
aiamets, the posseBsion of which gave place to a host of abuses. The 
proprietors of these domains levied upon their peasants, farm rents, 
a territorial tax and a tithe, which often exceeded by far the tenth 
of the produce; they themselves paying no ground rent to the 
treasury ; they wore only held upon oath to afford ntilitary service : 
thus, as already said,* for a timar of 3,000 aspres income, the tenant 
was bound to furnish, in time of war, a horseman fully equipped, and 
another horseman for every income of 5,000 aspres over and above. 
That system resembled Western feudalism, but differed from it in 
that it was exempt from the principle of hereditary right. When 

* Seep. 53. 



Amnrath I., in the origin, distributed to his horsemen tho conquered 
lands, those conceasioDB were only for life ; the fiefs were tr&tiBferred 
ordinarily from father to bod, hot it was inonmbent npon each new 
posseBBOT to receive in<reBtitnre. Amnrath, had moreover, taken cara 
to prevent those Sefa from being parcelled ont, or alienated ; several 
timare might be combined in a ziamet, bnt a ziamet never eonld be 
divided into timars, several individnals possessed, Bometimes collec' 
tively, a fief, great or small ; bnt they represented together only one 
head. The meaanrcB taken nnder Solyman had at first for object the 
regnlating and moderating the taxes levied npon the rayahs by the 
possession of fiefs, then to preserve to those fiefs their prectoions and 
revocable nature, to hinder the hereditary transmiBsion, to maintain 
and affirm the prerogative of the sovereign. The governors of pro- 
vinceB originally conferred the investitnre of fiefs ; bnt it was decided 
lat«r that they conld no longer confer it save for the small fiefs ; 
-when it concerned a ziamet, it was obligatory to refer to the Porte in 
order that proof might be obtained that the candidate was the son 
of a Sipahi, to ascertain his services, those of his father and the in- 
come which the latter had enjoyed ; npon the favourable report of 
the Pacha, the berat or diploma of investitnre was expedited. It was 
eetablished as an invariable maxim that no one conld receive a tiniar 
nnless he were the son of a timarli. If the possessor of a ziamet of 
20,000 to 50,000 aspres left several children, the latter conld at fir«t 
receive only one timar, it was from 4,000 to 6,000 for two sons if 
their father had perished in war, and if the father had died in his 
bed, 5,000 for two sons and 4,000 for one only. If the eons already 
possessed timara, there was allotted to them only a proportional ang- 

Egypt was sabjected to a particnlar administiation. There were 
neither fiefs nor ziamets there, bnt farmers ; there were also lands 
granted for life by the Sultan, transferred hereditarily by means of a 
new investitnre conferred npon each new incnmbent, the farmers 
(moultezim) levied likewise npon their peasants {fellahs), the tithe 
and tax, bnt they retnmed a portion of it to the treasury nnder 
the name of farm rent;* instead of military service, a cont^dbntion 
in money weu demanded from them. That system had been estab- 
lished in the fonrteenth century by the Mamelukes, it was main- 
tained under the Ottoman domination; the Grand Tizier Ibrahim, 
in 1525, and later the governor Solyman Pacha, were chai^^ with 
its reorganization, in a manner to weaken the Uameluke militia, 
to correct its abuses, to prevent the farmer from being illegally 
alienated or overburdened by mortgages. Egypt prodn^ to tbp 
treasury, by that financial system, at first 800,000 dncats, afterwards 

* The JfmKotmi being only faimen, wlioae inleint it i u to iqneen their felUlil^ 
l]i«re resulted from thkt lUte of things m oppresiioa vhicb neecHiil'ted contiDmlly tb« 
eicplojinetit of force, uid >om reodered the militirj chitfa alone ahls to bold the f»nu ; 
then heiirhip Mtablithed ittelf bj dfgreps, tud the French ioTuioD foniid it Uiera In 
tiUI operation ia 1768. — (Siej, " M4mDir«a enr U Conqaete de I'Kgjpta.") 



It will thns be seen wliat were tlie regular eonrcee of public re- 
venae : the Kharadj, the tithe, the farm rents, and divers dntiee ; to 
the«e mnst be added the revenues of the Sultan's domains, which 
reached the enormons enm of 2,441 charges of aspres, that is to say 
abont 5,000,000 dncats. These resources, however, became inenffi- 
cient. At the commencement of Soljman's reign, before the cam- 
paign of Uohacz, an extraordinary contribntion was laid of fifteen 
flsprea per head, bnt that device was not repeated : the products of 
war, the tributes of Christian nations, the spoils of conquered pro- 
vinces, supplemented deficiencies ; Hangary, Transylvania, were 
■nbjected to a financial rale which exhausted those unhappy pro- 
vinces to the profit of their masters. Finally, the venality of the 
fiscal burdens, the introduction of which began under the vizier 
Rnatem, contributed to enrich the treasury, but at the expense of 
the fnture. Solyman shut his eyes to that traffic, he only kept 
watch, with extreme rigour, that venality should not reach the miU- 
tan- departments. 

The Kanoun-nami of punishments decreed under Solyman is still 
at the present time the criminal legislation of the. Ottomans. It is 
divided into five parts : the first relates to ofiences against morals; 
the second to violence and injuries ; the third to thefts and brigan- 
dage ; the two last to the police of towns and the regulation of 
trades. Without entering into detail of these enacting clauses, it 
m^ bo observed that corporal punishments are very sparing therein : 
ft fine is the punishment most frequently apportioned; there is a 
tariff for every offence. The particular attention accorded to police 
r^nlations of markets, to all which concerns the popolar welfare, 
reveal, in Solyman, a prince truly enlightened and of a careful spirit 
in all their details. 

Notwithstanding all that presents itself as remarkable in the 
legislation of Solyman, notwithstanding the brilliancy of his reign 
and the glory of his name, it mnst be recognized, and the Ottoman 
historians have themselves confessed it, that he himself commenced 

tans no longer ordinarily presided over the Divan ; Solyman ceased 
entirely to appear thereat ; he was never to be seen in council- That 
custom, borrowed from the manners of the effeminate despots of Asia, 
fevoured sloth and indolence among his successors. He himself 
■nffered from the conseqaeuces of it ; he conld not escape from the 
iMUiefnl infinences of the harem, and was the first Saltan who allowed 
himself to be governed by a woman. He was also the first who 
made a minister of a favourite : Ibrahim passed from a domestic 
employment to the snpreme direction of affairs ; so sudden an eleva- 
tion was until then without example. He showed, moreover, for 
that favourite, and even for the ministers who succeeded him, an 
excessive indulgence, made them colossal fortunes at the expense 
either of the treasury or the people — or, rather, at the expense 
of both. It has been already said that he tolerated venality in fiscal 



burdens, & scoarge which, under the following reigns, developed 
itself with a frightful rapidity, and mined the State. Finally, his 
example, that of his vizieiv, and of all his conrt, enconraged Inxnry, 
BO formally condemned hy the law of Mahomet, and carried it to 
anch a degree that the anrronndingG of the Chrietian princes of the 
West paled before the pomp of Constantinople. At & solemn feast 
given to a Persian emhassy, the court tables were served in vessels of 
gold and silver — an express violation of the Korin. Sensoality uid 
£>ve of lozory had, indeed, spread thronghont that nation formed 
for war, and corrapted the simplicity of manners which was neces- 
sary to preserve its vigonr. The nse of wine, so severely inter- 
dicted, and so fatal to the Sonthem nations, began to be common, to 
the great scandal of eealons Mnssnlmans. CoSee was also introduced 
at this time into Turkey ; Mahomet wonld probably have interdicted 
it ; bat it was not cared to interpret the law so rigoroDslj, and the 
nee of that exciting beverage soon became general, and was carried 
io excess. Several acts of his latter years seemed to testify in Soly- 
man to a certain access of religions zeal ; but that was doubtless a 
result of old age : at bottom, tolerance was one of the principal 
traits of his chatacter. He appeared even to sympathize with the 
manners of the nation : thus the native poets ventured to turn into 
ridicule the interdictions of the law; HaKz song the praise of wine^ 
and the mufti Ebon Soond, when urged to prosecute him, replied 
that he must not judge him with too much rigour. The progress 
would have been salutary could it have been completed, if a complete 
approach had been effected between the morals and ideas of the 
Mussulman nation and those of Europe ; but many Solymaus would 
not then have sufGced to accomplish that fnsion, to fill up that im- 
mense abyss which separated those two adverse societies. The 
little that was done only served to alter the national institntious. 

The army itself b^an to enter on a path of decadence. At the 
end of Soljman's reign its strength amounted to 300,000 men, of 
which 50,000 only were regular troops, 300 pieces of cannon, and 
28U vessels of war. His chief strength was in the Janissaries, whose 
power had then reached it« height, at the same time that its weakness 
commenced. Their pay was increased, and they were divided into 
three categories; the reoruite received from three to seven aspres 
per diem, the veterans from eight to twenty aspres, the invaUds from 
thirty to a hundred aspres. Solyman had a lively affection for those 
turbulent warriors : he confided to them the keeping of Constanti- 
nople, which became their head-quarters and the residence of their 
chief, always chosen from amongst them ; he distributed them in all 
the great towns and strongholds of the empire ; they furnished the 
guards of honour to the ambassadors and foreign consuls. Their 
number soon became insufficient for all the services required of them, 
and it was necessary to summon recruits to their ranks, no longer 
only by the conscription of Christian youths, but by many privilegea 
which attracted to the corps adventurers of every kind. Kiey were 
permitted to marry, their sons were admitted into the ranks, they 



were allowed to follow trades, they became etationary in the garrisoriB 
they occapied, and wherein, aa cittzone, fathers of families, merchaats, 
operatives, they had no longer either discipline or military virtaes. 
lAstly, the title of Janissaiy being a snffioient protection against thtf 
exactions of local aathorities, each desired to be inscribed npon their 
register i and the corps of Jaaissaries, which wae formerly an army 
permanently mobilised, encamped, on the march, waging war, became 
a kind of national gnard. Solyman took from them also the privilege 
they bad of entering npon a campaign only when the Snltan com- 
manded the army. That was a great political error ; as the Jania- 
saries were the nerve of the armies, it followed that, for every im- 
portant expedition, the Sultans were compelled to take the command. 
Solyman freed his snccesaors from that obligation, and favonred by 
that measnre their proclivity to inertia and cowardice. Thns, in the 
acts of that reign, eo prosperons within, so brilliant abroad, are to be 
fonnd the primal caoses of the degradation of the princes, of the 
corrnption of the great men, of the enervation of the people, of the 
weakening of the army — in a word, all the Kerms of a decadence that 
was not tardy in ravealing itself. 

bv Google 


Fkom TBI Dun or SoLnuir to tbb Puob or Oktiawm. <16e6-iese.) 

Bnom 01 Siuw IL urn Ainjuis III. (lESS-lSOS.) 

1. SeKmJI. mmamed the DntuJcard (1566 — 1574).— Revolt of the 

JaMxssaries.— Peace vnth Av.itria,. 

Selfh II. arrived e,t Cbalcedon on the 24t}i of September, whence 
he deepatohed a messenger to CoiiBtantiiiople to annoiiDce his 
presence ; it was thns that it became known in the capital that SoIt- 
man bad ceased to live. After having received al the Seraglio the 
homage of the principal dignitaries, the new Sultan set out for 
Belgrade, whither the army went to salnte bim. He made his 
appearance, clad in monming, prayed beside the fnneral car that bore 
the remains of his father, and withdrew, saluting to the right and 
left, withont anything being said or done toaching the accession 
donative. ■ The Janissaries began to marmnr : " The Ottoman 
princes," they said alond, " in order to ascend the throne, onght to 
pass nnder the sabres of onr militia " Nevertheless, they continued 
their march to Constantinople ; and it was there that they broke into 
revolt. When Selim's retinue made its appearance at the Snblime 
Porte, it found the entrance obstracted by a dense crowd of Janis- 
saries, clamouring for the accession donative, and disposed to show 
very little respect for their new Sultan. The second vizier, the 
Capudan- Pacha, the aga of the JaniasarieB, and several other great 
officers strove in vain to calm the mutineers ; they fonnd themselves 
insulted and maltreated ; the outer court of the Seraglio was invaded ; 
the Sultan was compelled to show himself. " Give to ns ! " shouted 
the soldiers to him, " Give to us according to ancient custom." The 
aocession donative was at length accorded, and the distribution of 
Bumerons other gratifications amongst the officers of the Seraglio 
and the ulemas reBulted in the exhaustion of the treasury. Thns 
opened the reign of Solyman's successor. 

Selim is the first of the Ottoman Sultans who proved to be utterly 
unworthy of the throne. He commenced the series of do-nothing 
princes whose personal nullity has powerfnlly contributed to the 
decadence of the empire. From earlj jonth he was wont to stupify 


^p. 1H9.] RELATIONS WITH rSlKCE. 105 

himself by the unmoderate nse of wine, and when governor of 
Ma^eeia he waa alreadr designated bj the appellation of the 
Drunkard. Slothful and cowai^ly, he had always preferred the 
repoae of the harem to the fatigaes and dangers of war. Short and 
obese, his fiuahed oomplezion and inaignificant phyeiogQoiiiy, typified 
vividly the decadence of the nation. Happily he had sufficient good 
sense to leave all the cares of Government to his vizier, Sokolli, who 

S reserved the traditions of the last great reign, Etnd maintained the 
ignity of the empire in its foreign relations. The decadence only 
became visible after his death. 

Immediately after the oaptnre of Szigeth, negotiations for peace 
were opened ; the Austrian ambassadors were set free, and the con- 
ditions upon which it was possible to treat made known to them. 
Hostilities, however, did not cease ; Fertew Pacha, who had taken 
Gyoola, in Transylvania, a few daysprevioas to the death of Solyman, 
again seiEod npon Jene, Yalagosvar, and several other places ; the 
bftnks of the Maros were devastated. At length, peace was oon- 
clnded (17th of Febmary, 1568) : Austria retained her possessions in 
Hnnguy, Dalmatia, and Croatia ; she submitted to the annual tribute 
and recognized the Voivodes of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Walla- 
chia, as vassals of the Porte. To obtain these conditions, the Austrian 
negotiators distributed more than 40,000 dncat« among the Turkish 

Peace waa also renewed with Poland, which obtained the restitution 
of several strongholds. 

2. Selationt with France. 
The alliance of France was not neglected : in 1569, on ihe first 
demand of the ambeasador, Claude du Bonrg,* the Snitan renewed 
the capitulations with important modifications, and sent the inter. 
preter Ibraham to Paris to present them to King Charles IX. Those 
modifioations chiefiy consisted in a clearer, more minute, more de- 
tailed interpretation of the first articles, an interpretation rendered 
necessary by the barbarism of the Turks and their hatred of the 
Cbristians. To the old privileges several new ones were also added : 
every Frencbman, settled in the country, was perpetually exempted 
from the capitation tax ; the amboBsadora and consuls had the right 
of making search after French slaves who found themselves in the 
power of Unssnlmans and of demanding punishment of the 
oorvaira who had captured and sold them. The Sultan eng^ed to 
make restitution for the objects carried off by the corsairs from 
French vessels and to punish the perpetrators ; the Ottoman marine 

* Tod'AruDon hid neoeed*d,lD 1551, CadimuiVwhabetnjsdFnDCeuidpBMad into 
thr Hrrioa of PhiUp II. After him aune LkTigoe, who r«muiwd at ConatanUnaple from 
1567 to 1501 ; llien QnillMme da I'Aobe, vho kcoainpani«d Boljnutn in hii luC e&m- 
paifB ; th«B OnD-CMDpwra, who atrDre to briog ahonl the failnra of the tre»t; mq' 
dodad b*tvefD Aiatiia and Uie Porta in 1568 ; laitl;, Clkads da Bonrg. 



had orders to treat French ahipa amicably, and to lend them assiat- 
ance in case of mnning aground on the ehorea of Tnrkej, and cause 
the persons and effects of the shipwrecked to be respected. Finally, 
the French nation should enjoy, iu the Ottoman States, all the 
privileges accorded to the VenetianB, even those which they had pnr- 
ohaaed with money. Thanks to these large concessions, whilst Spain 
and the Venetians were exhausting themselves in warlike efforts 
against the Ottoman power, France was mistress of the commerce of 
the Mediterranean. " The Mediterranean," the Algerian corsairs 
complained, " is all swarming with French ships." Those vessels 
carried on the coasting trade npon the shores of Turkey, without 
paying any navigation dnes. The coral fishers ^m Marseilles 
pOBsessed several establishmente on the African coast, among which 
was one called the Bastion of France, a sort of exchange-honse 
situate some six miles from Bona, where a commerce in grain, wax, 
and horses was carried on. Catholic missions were founded in the 
Turkish States by consent of the Sultan, and capuchin convents were 
Been to locate themselves even in the suburbs of Confitantinople. The 
Christians of the East, and especially those of Syria, found in the 
French ambassadors and consuls protectors ever prompt to defend 
them against the persecutions of the Turks. Pilgrims of every 
nation could visit the Holy Places nnder the protection of the 
Fiankish name and the letters Af the ambassadors. The French flag 
floated over the monasteries of Syria, which appeared like oases of 
Christiamty amidst the Mahometan domination. 

Selim, siter the renewal of the capitnlations, sought, after the 
example of his father, to utilize the French allianc^e gainst his 
enemies. As he had formed a project of taking the island of Cyprus 
from the Venetians, and as the latter sought the aid of Snrope, he 
sent an embassy to Charles IX. to invite him to declare France 
against them. At the some time, he sn^ested to him that he should 
give his sister Margaret of Valois in marriage to Stephen Zapoly, 
Voivode of Transylvania, whom the Porte had the project of causing 
to be elected King of Poland. That union would, in the opinion 
of the Divan, bind Poland to France and Turkey, and thus give a 
new enemy to Austria, who wonld restrain her on the north, whilst 
Turkey confined her on the east and Fiance to the south. Charles 
IX. had no fleet, and could not, amidst the troubles of his kingdom,' 
aid either the Ottomans or the Venetians ; he efiered, however, his 
mediation to the one or the other ; but he rejected the proposition to 
many his sister to the vassal of the Turks, France having adjourned 
all her projects against the House of Austria, from which Charles IX. 
had himself jnst taken a wife ; nevertheless, he conceived, from that 
moment, the idea of attaching Poland directly with French policy, 
by causing his brother, the Duke of Anjou, to ascend the throne 
oi the Jagellons. 


3. Et^aediHon to Arabia. 

Within the Empire, the activity of Mahomet SokoUi maidfested 
itaelf by works of utility, and by the prompt represeion of revoltB, 
UBnal apon every acceesion. It was he who caused the mosqne that 
bears the name of Selim to be constmcted, and which is coitBidered 
the maeterpiece of the architect Sinsn. He had conceived the pro- 
ject of uniting the Don with the Volga by a canal, and, by that 
meanB) securing the domination of the Mnscovite coantriee ; to effect 
that it was necessary to be master of Astrakhsji ; but the corpt 
tTarmie that ought to have taken thatcity was defeated and dispersed 
by the Russians. The Ottoman troops had shown very little good- 
yim on this occasion ; they were persuaded that the north was closed 
to the Unssulmane. " The nights," they said, " were too short in 
summer ; it was necessary to break one's rest in order to offer np 
sunset prayer and that of daybreak." Hnnger, cold, and t«mpes- 
tuons weather destroyed a portion of the army, the renewal of peace 
was therefore hastened with the Mnecovite Czar, and the mterprise 
was abandoned. Another enterprise of the same kind, the piercing 
of the IstbmuB of Suez, entered also into the projects of the vizier ; 
bnt the continual insurrections in Arabia adjourned the execution of 
it indefinitely. 

Since a portion of that country had been conquered by Solyman 
and reduced into a eandjak, Arabia was almost perpetually in a state 
of revolt. Already, on the acceesioii of Selim, Oulian Oglou, chief 
of the Beni-Omer, had tried to throw off the yoke ; deprived of the 
support of the Persians, upon which he reckoned, he was easily over- 
come. The country, however, was not subdued. Uonthahher, chief 
of the sect of the Se'ii^'eB,* seized upon Seaana, Taas, Aden, and 
several ot^er places in Yemen ; assuming the titles of Khahfe and 
£mir-al-Monmenim. An army destined to reduce him was placed 
under the command of Lala Unstapha, become one of the principal 
favourites of the Sultan. The vizier, who detested him and dreaded 
his inflnence, contributed himself to get him uonunated Sersskier, 
in the hope of involving him in some disgrace. These mancouvres, 
and the jealousy of Sinan Pacha, Governor of Egypt, caused the 
expedition to miscarry, and Mustapha to be recalled to Constanti- 
nople, but they did not succeed iu depriving him of his master's 
favour. Osman Pa«ha, nominated Beylerbey of Yemen, and the 
Governor of Egypt, were charged with the enterprise (1569) ; the 
first seized upon Taas and Kahirije the second remained alone at 
the head of tiie troops, and completed the expedition successfully, 
Aden and Ssaana fell again into the power of the Ottomans, as welt 
as the greater number of the adjacent strongholds; the fortress of 
Kewkeban detained them during nine months. Fin^y, in 1570, the 
Iman Monthahher was reduced to submission and to recognize the 
suzerainty of the Porte. 

* TU« Mct took iu Eume tram Seld, gnkt-grtndwa ol AIL 


4. Conquest of Cypntt. 

The pacification of Yemen was immediatelj followed by the con- 
quest of CyproB. Selim bad long meditated that expedition ; it was 
that one of all his reign in 'which his personal will had the moat 
part. He had conceived the idea of it when he waa yet only Gover- 
nor of Magnesia, and th&t conviction had been confirmed, it ie said, 
by hie taste for the wine which that island prodnced. A Portngneee 
Jew, named Joseph Nassy — bo the story rtina—incited the wine- 
bibbing Saltan to nndertake the expedition against Cypme by repre- 
senting in glowing terms the excellence of ite wine. This man, by 
ministerii^ to his crapnlons tastes, had acqoired a mairellons ascen- 
dancy over him ; he had received a promise of being made King of 
Cypras, and meaiiwhile, had been named Duke of NaxoB and the 
Cyclades. The Grand Vizier would have done better to have tnmed 
the Ottoman forces against Spain in favonr of the Moors, who had 
Bonght the Saltan's protection ; he made representations to that effect, 
bnt they could not prevail against the inflnence of the Jew, of Lata 
Mnstapna, of Sinan Pacha, and of Selim's own iaclination. The 
Grand Mnfti Ebon-Soond issued a fetwa declaring that the treaties 
concluded with the infidels were not binding, and that it was the 
dnty of the Sultans to reconquer all coantries which had belonged 
to the Moslems. The Venetians were indisposed for war : their great 
arsenal had just been destroyed by fire, burnt, perhaps, by agents of 
Joseph Nassy; they made some efforts to conjure the storm, but as 
the cession of Cyprus was demanded as a condition of peace, hostili- 
ties commenced. 

On the 1st of July, 1570, the Turkish Fleet appeared before 
Limasol, near the ancient Amathonte ; it consisted of 136 galleys and 
more than 100 transports, under the command of Piali Pacha ; the 
army landed, commanded by Lala Mnstapha, waa abont 100,000 
strong. The Venetian Governor did not attempt to hinder the dis- 
embarkation; the Turks established themselves, without encountering 
any resiRtance, at Leftari, and determined to besiege Nicoaia, the 
capital of the island. That town, finely situated, was protected by 
strong entrenchments of recent construction, and defended by a gar- 
rison of 10,000 men ; but the nnskilfnlneaB of the governor paralyzed 
the defence. The siege lasted for more than a month ; three assaults 
were bravely repnlsed ; at length, on the 9th of September, the place 
was carried and delivered up during eight hours to all the horrors of 
pillage. Twenty thousand inhabitants were massacred ; 2,000 were 
crammed into the vessels holding booty ; but a woman set fire to them, 
and all perished in the flames or in the waves. 

The other towns were afterwards rapidly subdued ; Famagousta 
alone opposed an energetic resistance ; the siege of it was deferred 
until the following year, and the Seraakier wintered under its walls. 
The operations commenced on the 1 Gth of April, and were pnshed for- 
wards with great activity ; a vast fosse was dug round the town, and 





beliind it ten batteriee were erected which thondered against the ram- 
parts. Marc Antonio Bragadino, who commanded the place, showed no 
leea stnbbornnesB in ita defence. With a garrison of bnt 7,000 men and 
the fortifications in rains, he held oat daring two months and a half 
and repnlsed six assaalts. The want« of manitions compelled him at 
length to capitulate (2nd of Aagast, 1571) ; it was agreed that the 
besieged should retire freely with five cannons and fifteen horses, and 
should be conreyed in Turkish galleys to Gandia. The capitulation 
was already in part executed, when it was shamefully violated. 
Bragadino, having refused to deliver up as a hostage a yonng Vene- 
tian noble, was arrested and loaded with chains, as were those who 
accompanied him ; the Christians already embarked were despoiled, 
maltreated, massacred, or reduced to slavery. Then, at the expira- 
tion of twelve days, the brave Bragadino was drawn from his prison 
to be delivered over to the most atrocious torments. He was sns- 
pended from a yard-arm, from the height of which he was several 
times plunged into the sea ; he was afterwards compelled to carry 
earth for the construction of bastions ; he was put in the pillory ; 
lantly, he was flayed alive; his body was quartered, and his skin, 
staffed with hay, carried through the camp and town, and then, with 
his head, sent to Constantinople. 

These atrocities aroused the anger of the fiery and enthusiastic 
Pius v., one of whose darling projeote had always been to curb the 
power and insolence of the Turk. 

By his exertions an alliance against the Sultan, called the Holy 
League, was at length concluded between himself, Philip II., tho 
Venetians, and one or two other minor Powers. The French tendered 
nothing save their good offices. Before tho end of September, 1671, 
the Allied Fleet, consisting of seventy-seven Spanish, six Maltese, 
and three Savoyard galleys, under Don John of Austria, twelve 
Papal galleys under Maro Colonna, and 108 Venetian galleys and six 
galeazzi under Sebastian Ventero, Captaiu-QeneraJ at sea, assembled 
at Messina. 

6. The Battle of L^atito. 
The war had begun in Dalmatia at the same time as it had in 
Cyprus ; its successes on either side were balanced : the Venetiana 
surprised Sopoto in Albania ; the Capudan-Pacha ravaged Candia, 
Cerigo, Zante, Cephalonia, Navarino, and seized upon Dulcigno and 
Antivari. At the commencement of hostilities, the Venetisns made 
several attempts at negotiation, enconrt^^ed by the vizier, who desired 
peace ; but, at the news of the ravages committed in Candia, the 
negotiations were broken off, and the formidable league of the Chris- 
tian Powers above described was formed to avenge the cruelties in- 
flicted in Cyprus upon the Christians. The Porte became uneasy at 
it, and, by the intervention of the French Ambassador, who returned 
to Paris, it requested the mediationof France. Francis de Noailles, 
Bishop of d'Acqs, was appointed Ambassador to Constantinople, and 


170 TDKKliY OLtl AND HEW [a.I). 1S7I. 

charged with negotiating thai affair; he paesed by way of Venice, 
and took part with the Senate in its preparations against the Otto- 
mans, havin? failed in his pacifiu misBion. The ChriRtian Fleet 
set sail for Gorfn, then towards Cephalonia; thence it directed its 
oonrse to the Archipelc^. The Ottoman Fleet, of 300 sail, nnder 
Mnsinsade Ali, was posted at the entrance of the Onlf of Lepanto. 
The Christians determined to attack it ; the Turks came ont to meet 
them. The two naval armaments were ranged np factog each other, 
within sight of Gape Villa di Marmo, which stands at the entrance 
of the gnlf . A cannon shot, fired from the Ottoman Admiral's vesnel, 
gave the signal for the fray ; Don John replied to it by a ball of lai^ 
size, and the battle began. 

The thickest of the fight took place at the centre of the Christian 
Fleet, ronmj the vessel having on board Don John ; the Capndan- 
Pacha vigoronaly attacking the Christian line, foand hiniself engaged 
between the Spanish admiral and the Venetian admiral. On one 
side, fonr Ottoman galleys, commanded by the Seraakier and three 
Sandjak Beys ; on the other, the Christian rear-gnard hastened to 
snstain the straggle. After an honr of fierce fighting, the Capndan- 
Pacha fell, struck by aball ; whereupon the Spaniards mshed aboard 
his ship, cnt off his head, and carried it to Don John, who rejected 
the sangainary tr^hy with horror. The victory was from that 
moment decided. One hnndred and thirty galleys fell into the hands 
of the allies ; ninety-fonr were bnmt ; 360 pieces of cannon, and 
15,000 Christian slaves were bronght back in triomph. The Bey- 
lerbey of Algiers alone escaped with forty galleys, the K)1e remains 
of the Ottoman Fleet. 

That brilliant victory only cost the combined fleets fiftoen galleys, 
8,000 men, and some few prisoners. In this battle, which, though 
really won by the power of Venice, created the reputation of Don 
Joh.a of Anstria, were also present two men who, like him, were 
afterwards to be governors of the Netherlands : Don Lonia de Re- 
qaeeens. Grand Commander of Castile, sjid Alexander Famese, the 
nephew of Don John. A fourth name may be added, snheeqnently 
immortalised in literature — that of Cervantes, the anther of " Don 
Qaisote," who was wounded and lost his left arm in the oombat 
with the Tnrk. 

Such was the memorable battle of Lepanto, from which the Otto- 
mans may date the decline of their power. The tidings of it were 
received throughout Europe with transport. Marc Antony Colonna 
ascended the capitol like the triumphers of old, and vowed upon the 
altar of the Virgin a column of silver to call to mind his name and 
his victory. At Venice, a commemorative ffite was instituted, and a 
chapel was consecrated, on the walls of which was depicted the 
triumph of the Christians ; at Padua, the great chorch then being 
constmcted was dedicated to St. Justine, in remembrance of the day 
on which the battle was fonght. Lastly, the Sovereign Pontiff, in 
St. Peter's Chair at Bome, celebrated that great success with en- 
thusiasm, and applied to the Victor of Lepanto that Urtt of the 


9 a man sent from God, whoBe 

name was 

The conBtemation wm not less great at Constantinople than the 
joy among the ChriatianB. It was the most terrible disaster that had. 
jet befallen the Ottoman arms ; f oi- fifty years, the Turks had been 
the terror of the Mediterranean f masters of the African littoral, 
accnstomed to carry devastation along the coasts of Christian conn- 
tries and to put to flight the feeble sqnadrons of Spain, they sud- 
denly saw annihilated that formidable marine collected so laboriously 
)»' Selim I. and Solyman. Their unworthy sncceseor, on learning 
the catastrophe, vaa so cast down, that he remained for three days 
shnt np without taking any nourishment, " The battle of Lepanto 
cost the Ottomans more than men and ships, the loss of which can 
be repaired ; for they lost that influence of prestige which conatitntes 
the caief power of conquering peoples, a power that is once acquired 
but never found agaiu.' * 

6. Emhaify from France. — Peace viith Venice. 

Meanwhile, arrived the French Ambassador Francois de Noailles; 
he entered Constantinople amidst the general consternation, through - 
the furious shouts of the popnlace, who clamoured for the massacre 
of all the GhristianB. The Soltaii had even already caused the 
Frankiah monks to be imprisoned, and grievous aifliction wbb expect- 
ed, when the ambassador, by his entreaties to the Grand Vizier, by the 
threat of conipelling France to enter the Catholic league, obtained 
the deliverance of the prisoners. The principal mission of the Bishop 
d'Acqs was te bring about a peAce between the Ottomans and the 
Venetians. Wten he solicited an audience of the Sultan, he experi- 
enced a refusal, because it was known that he intended, contrary to 
cnstom, to carry thither no presents ; it was even offered, to keep up 
appearances, to provide him with them. To this offer, he replied 
" that it was not throngh avarice that the King of France refused to 
make the Grand Seignior presents, but that his master, who was the 
first and greatest king in Christendom, having known that the Sultan 
demanded them as tribute, had forbidden him to present any." The 
circumstances warranted that boldness ; there was need of the French 
alliance ; its mediation might become necessary : the audience was 
granted. " The ambassador having presented himself at the Turkish 
Porte," says the historian Bandier, " as two capidjis offered to lead 
him by his wrists towards Selim to make his obeisance, according to 
the custom that no stranger ahonid approach the Turkish Emperor 
without two men holding him by the arms, he would not Buffer liim- 
aelf to be thus led, remarking that the freedom of a Frenchman and 
the dignity of a bishop woold not endure that he shonld be conduct- 
ed like a slave ; and, repulsing the capidjis, he went fa-ee and alone 
towards Selim, saluting him only by kissing his robe and his hand, 
• BoD«ld, "U(iiUUaa?[imitiTe." 


172 TURKET out AND NBTV. [a.d. 1S72. 

withont throwing himBelf at his feet as every one else does."* Those 
irregnlaritieB were tolerated, and an extraordinary complaiBaace for 
the demands of the bishop was shown. His conduct even earned for 
him a certain personal consideration, which irae not nnserviceable to 
the sncceBB nf his jniBsioii. 

The victory of Lepanto, however, bad been sterile for Christianity : 
tho allied fleets dispersed witboat undertaking anything, on account 
of the advanced period of the year. Ottring that time the activity 
nf Sokolli repaired the loBsea of the Ottoman marine with a marvel- 
lone promptitnde ; and that great reverse only served to show more 
clearly what were the resonrcea of Tnrkey. The Yenetian bayle, who 
had remained at Constantinople notwithstanding the war, repaired to 
the Yisler to sound his intentions with regard to peace. " Have yoa 
come to see," said Sokolli, " with what courage we be^ this last 
misadventure ? We have lost less than yoa have ; in capturing 
Cyprus we have cut off one of your arms ; in fighting our fleet yoa 
have only shaved off onr beard : the lopped arm will not grow again, 
but the shaven beard will retom thicker than before." The dock- 
yards were enriched at the expense of the Seraglio gardens ; in the 
space of a single winter loO galleys were bnilt therein. The new 
Capudan- Pacha, Ouloudj Ali, representing that it was not possible to 
procure enough anchors and ngging for so many vessels at once : 
, " Seignior Pacha," replied the vizier, "the riches and power of the 
Sublime Porte are so infinite, that it could, if that were necessary, 

frovide ropes of silk and sails of satin." In the month of June, 
572, the Capadan-Pocha went to sea with a fleet of 250 sail. The 
Christian fleet was numerically stronger; but the misunderstanding 
amongst its commanders hindered its action, and both sides confined 
themselves to observing each other. The war in Dalmatia, however, 
was languidly waged ; and shortly the Venetians, wholly at It^get* 
heads with the Spaniards, made propositions of peace which were 
zealously supported in the Divan by the French Ambassador ; and on 
the 7th of March, 1573, a treaty was concluded as favourable for the 
Ottomans as though the war had be6n entirely to their advantage : 
Venice paid an indemnity of 300,000 ducats, and the tribute which 
she paid annually was augmented. 

7. Gaplvre of Tunis. — Affaira of Poland and Moldavia. — Death of 


During the Cyprus expedition, Tunis had been retaken bv the 

Ottomans ; they had driven oat the Moorish prince whom Charles V. 

had reinstated there, and fort Goulotte was the only one remaining in 

the possession of the Spaniaids. On the 7th of October, 1572, Don 

John of Austria set ont from Sicily to retake Tunis ; at his approach 

the Turks evacuated the city ; he entered therein without resistance, 

again reiustatod the Moorish prince with a Spanish garrison, and. 

erected new fortifications. But that conquest was of short duration 

* "InTantauwdel'ButoindeaTqToa," p. US. 



Eighteen months after, in M&y 1574, a fleet of nearlr 300 sail left 
CoDBtantinople to snatch Tnnis from the grasp of the Spaniards. 
The town waB badly defended, bnt fort Gonlette resisted daring 
thirty -three days i it was at length taken by asfianlt on the 4th of 
Angnat, and the garrison made prisoners or put to the sword. Two 
gmall forta still held ont, that on the island and that called the 
bastion of Tnnis : after a Tigorone reeiBtance they were carried. 

Abont the same time important events were taking place in Poland 
and Moldavia. The relations established between Bogndan and King 
Sigismimd were regarded nnfavourably by the Porte ; an adventurer 
named Iwonia, a former renegade returned to the Christian faith, 
solicited and obtained the investiture of Moldavia with a body of 
Turkish troops to enable him to hold it. Bogbdan was at first ans. 
tained by the Poles ; but the death of Sigismund (7th of July, 1572) 
having left him without support, he fled to Russia, where the Czar 
had him put to death. Iwonia left master of Moldavia, refused to 
submit to an increase of tribute and raised the province (1574) ; sus- 
tained fay the Hetman of the Cossacks, be thrice defeated the Turks 
and seized npon Braila which was sacked, upon Bender, Akerman and 
BielogTod. On the Sth of Jone, he encountered at Obloutsch, in 
Bulgaria, an Ottoman army. After three days of sanguinary fighting, 
he began to parley, and surrendered on condition that his life should 
be spared ; but, during the interview he had with the Turkish com- 
mander, the latter flew into a rage and struck him with his sabre ; 
he was quartered and his head nailed to the palace gate of Jassy. 
The countvy submitted and a new prince was installed in the name of 
the Porte. 

In Poland the royal race had become extinct in the person of 
Sigismund ; hut for a long time the event had been foreseen ; every- 
thing had been concerted between France and Turkey, and it was 
one of the chief objects of the Bishop of Acqs' mission. The united 
influence of the two Powers caused Henri of Anjon to be elected, an 
election which might have had immense results if the prince upon 
whom it fell had been less incapable. 

Pacific relations continued with Austria, notwithstanding several 
infractions of the peace ; the truce was renewed for eight years, and 
the ambassadors were even able to free themselves from certain 
humiliating obligations. With the Muscovites, friendly relations 
were also kept up, but at the same time, preserving towaids them a 
protective and dominating attitude. Transylvania was vassal and 
tributary very nearly on the same conditions as Moldavia; on the 
death of John-Sigismond Zapoly, in 1571, the investiture was given 
by a tehaonch to Stephen Bathory, his successor. The Wallachian 
&kea tried to supplant him by winning over the Giund Vizier with 
presents ; Bathory outbid him, and preserved at that price his princi. 

The Tunis espedition was the last salient event of Selim's reign. 
In the conrse of the year 157-4 several natural scourges had afflicted 
the Empire : torrent-like rains, inundations, an earthquake at Con- 

Dot zed by GoOglc 

174 TUREBY OLD AND NEW. [l.o. 1574— IGTB. 

atantindple, & fire which destroyed Et portion of the Seraglio. In these 
events the BupeietitiouB Selim saw the presage of his approaching 
end. Seine time after, having gone to inspect a bath recently con- 
Btmcted, he experienced a chill from the coldneea of the place, and 
to warm himBelf he drank oS a flask of Cypma wine and immediately 
fell down insensible: he expired eleven days afterwards {12th of 
December, 1574). 

8. Amurafh III. (1574-1595).— JVm* acU of hU Eeign. 
Notwithstanding the nullity of Selim, his death was a misfortane 
for the Empire, inaamach as it pnt an end to the omnipotence of 
Mohamet Sokolli, who reigned nuder his name. His f 

strained tlie Vizier's anthority, and gave np everything to the in- 
flnence of women and favonrites. Aninratb was brave, hnmane, and 
a friend to letters, and held out bright hopes for his future career ; 
but soon two passions developed themselves in him even to frenzy — 
lust and avarice, by which he was rednced to imbecility. He passed 
his life in the Ser^lio, snrrounded by ennnchs, wotnen and buffoons, 
oocnpied with the contemplation of nis treasorea and only interven- 
ing in aSaira of state in order to allow the caprices of the slaves 
who governed him to dominate. He arrived in GonatAntinople on 
the 21st December, and during the night caused his five brothers 
to be strangled. Next d^, he received the homage of the grandees. 
Banged round him, the officers of the Seraglio awaited in (dlence the 
first word which should fall from his lips ; for the Orientitls have 
preserved that superstition of the ancients, which regarded as a 
pres^e the first words uttered. " 1 am hungry,'' said he ; " let them 
give me something to eat." Those words were considered as a bad 
omen, of which a famine that occurred daring that year seemed to be 
the fufilment. 

One of the first acts of the new Sultan was a decree against the 
oae of wine- Under the reign of Selim II , drnnkennesa, encouraged 
by his example, had scandalonsly increased ; the public fnnctionaries 
even sold wine openly ; the soldiers were heard to say to one another, 
" Where shall we get oar wine to-day, from the mnfti or the cadi P" 
One day that Amurath was passing the door of a tavern, some Janis- 
saries held ap their glasses, shouting aloud that they drank to his 
health ; this induced nim to issue the decree. Some daya after, a 
mntiny broke out among the Sipahis and Janisaaries, and the Grand 
Vizier himself was both insulted and maltreated. Thereupon it was 
announced that the soldiera would be allowed to driok wine, provided 
thOT abstained from committing violence. 

Early in 1575, it became known that I^enjT of Valois had deserted 
hia throne of Poland to return to France, llins miscarried the sole 
chance of scouring the aocession of Poland to the Tnroo-French 
alliance, an accession which would not only have checked the af^rand- 
isement of Austria, but hindered the rise of Bruasia. Amnrath was ao 


4.11. 1677.] EBUTIONS WITH FRAKCE. 175 

diBsatiaSed with the fliglit of Henry III. tbai he did not notify hia 
own Rccesaion to the Coart of France. The Polish magnates having 
sent a depntation to compliment the new Saltan, he recommended for 
their snfErages the Yotvode of Transylvania, Stephen Bathory, who 
was elected at the end of 1575. 

9. War with Hungary. — Itelatiofu with France. 

The commencement of the new reign was marked, aa nanal, by 
hostilities in Hungary. Villages were nnmed on difierent pointe of 
the frontier, attempts were made against several fortresses, and a 
hattle fonght in the environs of Kmppa, in which the Imperialists 
were defeated ; thoir chiefs perished in the action, and their heads 
were sent to Constantinople, where the Anetrian ambassador was 
compelled to redeem them from the hands of the eiecntioner. The 
Emperor Bodolph, who succeeded Maximilian II. in 1576, made 
certain protests, the result of which was, that peace was formally re- 
newed ror eight years from the 1st January, 1577 ; but perpetual 
aggreasionB on one part or the other continued to disturb the peace 
without breaking it, until the last years of Amnrath's reign. 

The attitude of the Porte was very nearly the same towards 
Poland : a nominal peace and actnal hostilities. Bathory protested 
on several occasions against the aggressions of the Tartars ; a treaty 
was concluded, 30tb July, 1577, a treaty by which he was promised 
protection. However, the incureionB continued ; his envoys were 
rudely rebuffed and he was threatened with weu". Poland was treated 
like Transylvania, as a vassal and tributary State ; in the last truce 
with Austria it waa included in the number of the oountries pro- 
tected by the Porte, without giving it the title of kingdom. 

Venice had less cause of complaint, thanks to the dominant in- 
fluence of the favourite Sultana, the Venetian BaSa. She obtained 
the renewal of the capitulations and groater security for her com- 
merce. As for the alliance with France, it was respected ; the Baron 
de Germigny, their ambassador, succeeded in acquiring great in- 
fluence in the Divan. An embassy from the Sultaji to the Fronch 
Court had a magnificent reception, and it presented a letter to Henry 
III., in which Amurath oSerod him, with his friendship, "his naval 
army, comprising eighty galleys." " I have made him," savs Ger- 
migny in his report, " a reciprocal ofier of yours, hut in general terms, 
to make him relish and prize the grandeur and power of jour 
Majesty." The restriction was necessary with Henry III., who was 
compelled, from the want of a navy, to send his ambassadors to 
Constantinople on board a Venetian vessel. 

Germigny snoceeded in rescuing numerous Fronchmen sold into 
slavery, and obtained reparation for pillage committed by the Barbary 
corsairs ; procurad permission to set up and regulate the new coral 
fishery upon the coast of Tunis which the Marseilles adventurers had 
newly commenced there. He obtained the nomination of » Greek 


176 TDREBT OLD AND SEW. [a. D, 1677. 

patriarch and a voivede of Wallaohia, in spite of the opposition of the 
fevonriteB and even of the Snltana mother ; he cansed civil appoint' 
ments and even military comm&ndg to be {^ven to Tnrke " whom he 
bad recognized," saje he in hie report, " as well-dittpoGed to the king's 
service." Ho fovonred with his protection " the afiairs and sabjects 
of the Pope, of the Emperor, of the Seigniory of Venice, of the 
Bepnhlic of Bagusa, of tbe Grand Master of Malta, to the benefit," 
he said, " of Christianity j so that Kis Holiness conld send a bishop 
as apostolic visitor to lie Chnrches of the Levant," He obtained the 
renewal of the privil^es of the Holy Places of Jemsalem and Sinai, 
permission to establish at Pera a convent of Cordeliers, and divere 
fervonrs to tbe profit of the Catholic bishops of the Archipelago, &o. 
Lastly, be obtained the renewal of the capitnlations " accrned to 
certain important articles, as precedence, by pnblic and solemn act, 
above all the ambassadors of Christian princes, and notably those of 
Spain." "That precedence was accorded," said the treaty, "in 
favonr of old ties of friendship between the Ottoman monarchs and 
the kings of France, who have in all time been attached sincerely to 
the Sublime Porte, and are in all respects the most illnstrions princes 
of Christendom." The article which confirmed to France tbe protec- 
tion of the Christian nations in the Ottoman States was worded thas ; 
" That, the Venetians excepted, the Genoese, tbe English, the Portn- 
gnese, the Spaniards, the CataJans, Sicilians, and Kagnaans, and en- 
tirely all those who have walked under tbe name and banner of France, 
from old time until the present day, and in the condition Id which 
they have walked heretofore, they may walk therein in the same 
manner." Amnrath having sworn, " these pactions to be honoured 
and maintained, without any of his pachas being able to give them 
hindrance," sent into France Ali Bey, first interpreter of the Porte, 
"to invite the king to be present, in the persons of his ambassadors, 
at the circumoisioo of his eldest son, and to congratulate him upon 
that ceremony, with commandment to the said ambassadors to present 
to the king the confirmation of the ancient treaties mode between tbe 
Grand' Seignior and France." That embassy was received with 
great magnificence. 

In spite of all these offers, these professions of friendship, these 
concessions, Germigny appreciated at its dne valne the alliance and 
goodwill of the Turks ; he did not allow bimself to be dazzled by their 
power ; he foresaw the decadence of that empire, which had no longer 
a Solyman to direct it. " I recognized," said he, " by certain con- 
jectures and latterly by their manner of proceeding, treating and 
negotiating, the disposition in which the Grand Seignior and his 
pachas were to collect and receive from all parte' indifterently the 
friendships and alliances they were able to find . . ,' in all of 
which it appears that they prefer h small present commodity to the 
forethought of a good or evil mnch more important to their state; so 
far are they blinded by ignorance combined with extreme avarice, 
perfidy and iniquity, which possesses them with such restless con. 
fnsion, that they seem to have arrived at their last stage." 



Getmipiy'a ill-bnmoar waa jnatified by several acte. Tlio capitu- 
lations with France bad been renewed BCflrcel j two years when Queen 
Elizabeth of England, whose ships until then had only navigated the 
Ottoman waters under the flag of France, demanded from the Saltan 
freedom of navigation and of commerce tor her subjects under their 
own B&g. The ambassador charged with that negotiation waa Uare- 
bone or Harbam. The Sultan acceded to the demand, in spite of the 
lively opposition of the French and Venetian ambasBadors, giving as 
a reason that " the Sublime Porte waa open to all those who came 
thither ia seek protection." 

That maxim received, at this period, very numerous applications. 
The overtores of the Christian agents of all nations were encouraged 
by the Viziers, the great officers of the Seraglio and the army, the 
favonrites of both sexes, for whom it was a source of revenue. The 
venality of the grandees was newer more scandalooa : everything waa 
bartered for, within and without, and the Snltan was the first to set 
the example. The historian Ali relates that Schemsi, one of the chief 
bvonrites, made nse of every art to induce his master to adopt such 
a practice ; he was a descendant of the sovereign race of the 
Isfendiars ; he averted hia ancestors by accelerating amongst their 
conquerors the progress of corruption. On the first occasion that he 
induced the Snltan to accept a present of 40,000 ducats for the con- 
olnsion of an affair, he congratnlatcd himeelf as though he had 
accomplished a triumph. The wide-spread venality invited to Con- 
stantinople agents from all the commercial states of Europe. Even 
the Swiss entered into negotiations through the medium of an Italian 
Jew. Spain, at length, in 1578, made propositions of peace, and sent 
an ambassador- It required five years of thorny negotiation to 
reconcile that hanghty enemy to the Porte, and still the peace was 
verj' imperfect and often violated. 

Whilst these n^otiations and treaties enriched the Snltan and bis 
Uinieters, treasure was amassed in another way — the fmit of piracy, 
which no treaties atopped. The corsairs of Algiers, of Tunis, and 
Tripoli pillaged almost indiscriminately friends and foes, and the 
Porte compelled them to diverge. Transforming them into regencies 
or pacbalics, those three cities were made to pay an annual tribute. 
In 1578, the Pacha of Tripoli was ordered to carry succour to the 
Cherif of Fez, who had implored the aid of the Porte against a com- 
petitor ; tbe latter, on his part, invoked the Portugnese, who landed 
with an army of 60,000 men. A great battle was fought near 
Alcazar- Kebir; 20,000 Portugueae were left dead on the field, with 
their king, Sebastian, and the Moorish pretender ; an immense disaster, 
from which dates the decadence of PortngaL That brilliant victoiy 
brought to the Ottomans rich presents from the Cherif and a donu- 
nating influence in the Mogreb. 

These sncceeses were sadly atoned for by tbe fall of the Grand 
Viaier, Mahomet Sokolli. Powerful through the Sultan's weakness, 
the favonrites laboured at hia ruin, and urged the prince to take the 
direotion of affairs. At first, disgrace fell npon the friends of Sokolli : 


17tj TCRKET out AND NIW. [l.I>. 1&79. 

the Secretary of State, Peridonn, who was indebted to him for his 
fortnne, was dismiesed. Another of hia prot^gSt was the (Jreek 
Cantacazene, to vhom he had giTen the monopolj of salt at Anchi- 
oloa, upon the Black Sea. This man had, it is tme, nnworthilj 
ahased his faroDr; his exactions had rendered him the terror of the 
Greeks ; the TnrltB themselves called him Sheitanogli, " son of Satan. " 
Bo long as Sokolli's power lasted, Cantaonzene purchased impunity by 
allowing the Yizier to share the fraits of his plunder ; he was also 
sustained by the Yiziers Afemid and Piale ; bnt, after the death of 
the latter, he was, upon the accnsation of one of the enemies of 
Sokolli, dismisBed at firsts then arrested and hanged at the gat« of the 
palace which he had erected for himself at Anchiolos. A more direct 
blow was dealt the Grand Yizier : his nephew, Mnstapha Pacha, who 
since the death of Solyman, had been Governor of Ofen, was execnted. 
The year after, Sokolli was assassinated in his palace. The mnrderer, 
pat to the torture, made no confession ; the crime was laid to the 
account of private vengeance (1579). 

10. War mth Persia. 

., . y, war had broken onl „ _ 

aged Shah Thamash had died in 1576, poisoned by his wife; 
Circassian and Georgian parties, already contending dnring his life- 
time, dispated for the sway. Haider, the fifth eon of Thamash, was 
f>laced upon the throne by the Georgian khans, bat his reign was 
imited to a few hours, being assassinated by the Circassian par^. 
His brother Shah Ismail succeeded him.; he was a furious maniac; 
after eighteen months of tyranny he died, strangled by the order of 
his sister. The Yiziers in favour, Sinan and Mnstapha, persuaded 
the Sultan to turn to profit these internal troubles of Persia in order 
to snbjngate that country. MuBt«,pha received the command of the 
expedition ; and, without a declaration of war, hostilities began on 
both sides. Mustapha obtained (Aug. 8, 15?8),noar the stronghold 
of Tchildir in GeorgiSi, a brilliant victory over the Persian army ; 
several Georgian chiefs made their sabmiseion, and received, by the 
title of sandjaks, diplomas of investiture in the Sultan's name ; Tiflia 
was occupied by the Ottomans, and its churches converted into 
mosques. On the 8th of September a second battle was fought on the 
banks of the Kuieak ; the FersianA lost 3,000 men ; the bridge of 
Kansak was broken down, and a great number of the fugitives 'perished 
in the waters. The town of Scheld opened its gates to the victors; 
Geoi^ia, almost wholly conquered, was divided into four governments, 
confided to as many beylerbeys ; then the army retnmed to take np 
its winter quarters at Erzeroum. Hostilities recommenced in the 
middle of winter : f onr Persian armies took the field ; two directed 
their march towards Geoivia, the two others threatened the Ottonum 
provinces of Bagdad and Erzeroum. Osmau Pacha, beylerbey of 
Chirvan, obtained at first a signal victory over the Peraiaa governor 


^D. INS— 1683.] WAR WITS PKKBU. 179 

of Cbamakie ; but soon after, aasailed by the great Persian army and 
besieged in Chirvan, lie was conatrained to retire toirards Derbend. 
Tifiis was besieged hj \t» former prince, Simon Loaarech, onited with 
the Persians ; the valiant resistance of the garrison ^ve time for 
the reinforcements to arrive, and the town was saved. The Ottomans 
then resumed the ofEensive and carried tiieir ravages throngh the 
nnenbdned cantons ; at the ezprese command of the Snltan, formid- 
able fortifications were raised at Kara; and that city has remained 
nnto the present day the strongest bnlwark npon that frontier of the 
Ottoman Ehnpire. * 

Intestine disorders which again broke ont in Persia, and a change 
of commanders on the side of the Tnrks, now retarded the march 
of military events. On the death of Sokolli, Mnetapha and Sinan 
Pachas, inflnentiaJ rivals, alike hoped to sncceed him. They were 
both deceived ; the Sultan bestowed the dignity of Grand Vizier 
Ttpon Ahmed Pacha. Bnt Sinan, by his influence over the new Vizier, 
succeeded in procuring the recall of Mnstapha; and of obtaining 
command of the Georgian expedition. Some months after, the feeble 
Ahmed was dismissed, and the seals given to Sinan Pacha; which 
Mnstapha took so much to heart that he died some few days after, 
either of grief or probably snicide — a crime, however, very rare 
among the Osmanlis. Sinan did not nrge on the war vigoroDsly. 
He met with several checks, and incurred the suspicion of allowing 
himself to be gained over by the Shah of Persia : he was replaced 
and sent into exile. The Hnngarian Siawous Pacha was named 
Grand Vizier, and the beylerbey of Boumelia, Ferhad, seraskier for 
the Persian war. The campaigns of 1682 and 1583 were without 
reenlts ; Ferhad, the seraskier, having to straggle against the indis- 
cipline and had will of the troops, Sequent mntinies, and continual 
pillage ; the Janissaries making common cause with Georgian bri- 
gands to shE^re the booty. 

The honour of the Ottoman arms was better sustained in Daghes- 
tan by Osman Pacha, who there made a valiant defence from the 
commencement of the war. He was aided at first by the Khan of 
tite Crimea, Mohammed Gherai ; but, in lliSO, the latter withdrew in 
spite of his remonstrances, and Osman obtained no more than a few 
reinforcements sent, with the greatest difficulty and danger, by the 
Black Sea and the Caucasus. On the dth of May, 1583, be engaged 
the Persians in a great battle upon the hanks of the Ssamonr. It 
was fonght without cessation during a day and a night ; the carnage 
continned by the light of torches ; but the victory remained unde- 
cided. Two days after, the Turks found themselves surrounded ; 
they resolutely attacked the enemy, cut their way through his 
masses and obtained a deoisive victory ; the Persian army waa 
destroyed and the submission of the country secured. After having 
erected new fortifications at Chamakie, distributed garrisons in the 
fortresses, and established an Ottoman governor, Osman Pacha quitted 
Doghestan and traversed the Caucasus ; the march was difficult and 
frequently harassed until he succeeded in reaching KaSa, whither aa 

X 2 


180 TURKET OLD AND NBW. [a.11, 1584. 

order from the Snltan sent him, Mohammed Qherai, by hia deser- 
tion, had drawn npon himself the diBpleaanre of the Porte ; he was 
deposed and offered reeiatance 'with arms in hand, bnt he was taken 
and pat to death ; his brother, Islam Gheral, replacing him (1584). 
Onman then retamed to Constantiaople, where be was welcomed 
with extraordinary honours : Amnrath reoeived him in private 
aadience, desirons of hearing from his own month the narratiTe of 
his victories, and dismiBsed him with magnificent presents. A few 
days after he was named Vizier, and Seraskier of the army destined 
to invade Aderbaidjan. 

11. Belatiom wilh France, England, Voniee, Sfc. — Peace with Persia, 
Weither the Viziers nor the Oenerala were the veritable depositaries 
of power; that was entirely concentrated in the harem : the mother, 
the Saltan's sisters, the Sultana BaSa, and two Christian slaves, who 
disputed with her for their master's attachment — these were the true 
sovereigns of the Empire. After these oame the chief of the ennnchs, 
the governor of the harem, the Saltan's preceptor (Kodja), and the 
mnfti, who strove by endless intrignea to make themselves masters 
of the weak Sovereign. These latter inflnenccs provoked in him an 
excess of religions neal, which manifested itself by persecntion of 
the Christians. It became a qnestion of transforming into moeqnes 
all the churches in Constantinople ; bnt the efforts of the ambasea- 
dors, and especially the sacrifice of money made by the Greeks, hin- 
dered the execntion of the project. However, three churches at 
Qalata were closed, and the protests of the French ambassador were 
very badly received. Germigny had quarrelled with Sinan Pacha, 
who was then Vizier, and a disagreement arose between him and the 
Divan. A war was imminent at that period between France and 
Spain : Philip II. had jost entered into an alliance with the Leagne, 
and Henry III, welcomed the depaties of the United Provinces, who 
offered him the sovereignty of their country. It was the opportunity 
for putting to the proof the offers made with so much effusion some 
years before ; Henry, by his ambassador, demanded the aid of an 
Ottoman Seet against Philip IL Catherine de Medicis wrote on this 
subject to the favourite Sultana ; bnt the latter showed the letter to 
the bayle of Venice, who caused the King of France's demand to 
miscarry. Shortly after, Oermigny demanded the re -establishment 
of a vo'ivode of Wallachia, protected by France; it was refused. He 
presented to the Sultan, secretly, a memorial in which he set forth 
the wrongs of his nation ; and the latter sent it back with these 
words in his own handwriting : " All the favours that we have granted 
may be revoked if the King of France is wanting towards ns in 
generosity." The closing of the churches bronght the irritation of 
the ambassador to a climax. The Sunday following he repaired, 
accompanied by eighty Frenchmen, to the principal church, who 
knocked at the portals whilst chanting psalms, and retired amidat 



the inanlts and threats of the mBnrgent popalation. The reopeiung 
of the two ohnrolieB -was pnrchaaed by presents. To Germigny, in 
1586, succeeded Savary de Lancoame, who wae wholly devoted to the 
League, and who represented it at Constantinople. His condact did 
not contribute to restore harmony ; one Sunday, in St. George's 
church at Oalata, he seized with the Btrong hand upon the place of 
honour occupied b^ the Imperial ambassador ; the chnrcb was closed, 
and tiie Grand vizier declared "that it shonld only be reopened 
when M. de Lancosme ceased to play the fool." 

England gained the infiuence which France had lost. It had been 
seen that Harebone, the first ambassador sent by Elizabeth of Eng> 
land, obtained capitulations analogons to those of France, but limi- 
ted to commerce, and in which there was no question concerning the 
Christians and the Eastern churches. Ha afterwards asked for aid 
from the Sultan against Spain; and, if he experienced a refusal, it 
was caused by the sacrifices which the Persian war demanded. When 
Harebone returned to England, he took with him a letter for the 
Queen, in which the Sultan offered to set at liberty -the English who 
should be taken by the corsairs, on condition that such good office 
shonld be reciprocal. Harebone's Buocessor, Edward Burtoa, de- 
manded that the cruisers might be allowed in order to molest the 
commerce of the Spaniards in the Indian Ocean, and that succour 
should be given to the Portuguese pretender. His demands were 
eluded, bnt without being positively rejected, with a view to en- 
conn^ the English Government to continue the war gainst the 
Spaniards. In 1589 Burton wae charged to notify to the Porte the 
accession of Henry lY. of France ; Lancosme bad then absolutely 
ceased to be the representative of that country : he was merely the 
agent of Philip II. ; the English ambassador was for some time the 
charge d'affaires for tbe French King; be demanded on his part aid 
against Spain, but met with a refusal. Affirmed in his accession, 
Henry IV. demanded the dismission of De Lancosme as a spy of 
Spain, and replaced him by M. de Breves. 

The relations of the Porte with tbe Christian States continued to 
be pacific In spite of several flagrant infractions of treaties, the 
protection of the Sultana preserved peace with tbe Yenetians. The 
Czar of Bassia, Feodor Ivanovitcb, sent ambassadors with rich 
presents. In Poland Stephen Batbory having just died (1586), tbe 
Porte designated to the Magnates Prince Sigismond of Sweden, who 
was elected. The new King had, like his predecessor, to undergo the 
insults of the Tartars and the arrogance of the Ottoman Ministers. 

The Persian war, however, under the command of Osman Paohat 
bq^n again with renewed activity : in spite of two partial checks, 
the Ottomans entered Tebris as conqnerurs and pillaged it during three 
days and nights ; after which they surrounded it with fortifications. 
Bnt the ill-health of the vizier arrested his successes ; a eorpi iTarmie, 
nnder tbe command of the renegade Cicala, waa defeated near 
Schembi-Ghazan by the Persian prince Hamsa; and 20,000 Ottomans 
there lost their lives. Constrained to effect his retreat, and already 


182 TtlBEET OLD AMU HEW. [a.D. 1686— 1S9S. 

dia&bled from directiBg the army, OBtnan was attacked and suffered a 
second defeat ; he died a few days afterwards. The son of Cicala, 
whom the Tarks called Djighala Zode, achieved, however, the retreat 
without seriooa losses, and obtained some advantage over the enemy. 
After his departure the Persians went to lay siege to Tebriz ; the 
garrison resisted daring ten months, sustained fifteen assanlts, and 
fonght forty-eight combats; it was at length relieved by the arrival 
of Ferhad Bey, to whom the command had been given. That general 
caused likewise the si^e of Tiflis to be raised, and maintained a 
secret understanding with the Turcomans of the Persian army ; 
shortly after. Prince Eamsa perished by assassination. The dissen- 
sions by which Persia was font at this time decided Shah Khodabende 
to make proposals of peace ; an armistice was signed ; bat it was 
almost immediately broken. Ferhad fonght, in the plain of Grnes, a 
great battle which lasted three days, and which ended in the defeat of 
the Persian army (1586). At the same time Djighala Zade, become 
Governor and Seraskier of the province of Bagdad, seized upon the 
fortress of Disfoitl and several other strongholds, and defeated the 
Governors of Loristan and Hamadan. 

In 1588 Ferhad, in concert with the Governor of Chirvan, Djafer, 
invaded the conntry of Eorabagh, seized on Ghendj^ the capital, and 
converted it into a stronghold. Khodabende had then, for npwards 
of a year, ceased to reign : his son, who was the great Shah Ahbaa, 
had compelled his abdication. Pressed on the east by the Usbecks, 
the new Shah detennined. to demand peace ; it was signed at Con- 
stantinople the 2lBt of March, 1590 j the Ottoman Empire was ag- 
grandized by Georgia, Chirvan, Loristan, Tehriz, with a portion of 

12. Bevolts of the Janisaariet and irouhlei in the Provineet. — War 
Tonewed in, Mungary.— Death of Amtirath III. 
At this junctare a fnrions revolt among the Janissaries broke out 
at Constantinople. The spirit of that militia became more and more 
corrupt ; during the Persian war it had more than once given proof 
of insubordination. The defterdar and the heylerbey of Bonmelift 
having proposed to pay them with alloyed coin, they attacked the 
Seraglio, and demanded the heads of those two functionaries. It was 
necessary to satisfy them, and the Saltan dared only to avengo the 
insult by dismissing several high dignitaries suspected of having 
provoked the insurrection for his deatmction. In the three following 
years the Janissaries twice broke into rebellion ; the pnnishment fell 
npon the viziers, who were deposed. In 1593 it was the sipahia who 
revolted and demanded the head of the defterdar ; there was a hesi- 
tation in satisfying them, as the victim was an emir, that is to say, a 
member of the family of the Prophet. The Janissaries intervened, 
and partly by force, partly by conciliation, order was re-established. 


A.D. 1GB2— 1£94.] BSTOLT OF THS JANiaSARIBS. lt» 

Some time after the Janissaries liad the audacity to appoint, of their 
own authority, a voivode in Moldavia, and their proWjf waa only de- 
posed because he did not pay the tribute. 

At the same time troubles agitated asTeral provinces. In the dis> 
trict of Eeif£, iu Asia, an adventarer who gave himself out as Ismail, 
son of Shah Thamash, attempted to create a party ; overcome and 
takea by the Governor of Erzeroum, he underwent the last punish, 
ment. In ^grpt the militia of the country revolted. At Bnda the 
garrison, to whom six mouths' pay was owing, assassinated the Pacha ; 
thirty-five of the guilty were nai^:ed. Lastly, at Tebriz, the troops 
mutinied becanse it was proposed to pay them with the alloyed coin of 
Ckinstantinople ; the Governor, Djafer Pacha, parleyed with the 
principal rebels, convoked tbem to a great festival iu token of recon- 
ciliation, and caused them to be massacrttd to the number of 1,800. 
A terrible pestilence, which afflicted the capital in 1592, formed the 
olimax of the pnhlic calamities. The insolence of the Janissaries 
became intolerable ; it was resolved to go to war to get rid of them. 
Sinan Pacha, who had again become Giand Vizier, decided that it 
should be waged in Hungary. 

Thereupon hostilities immediately commenced. Hassan Pacha, 
Governor of Bosnia, took Sissek, iu Croatia, and obtained a signal 
victory over Nadasdy, who was taken prisoner ; but, the year fol- 
lowing, compelled to give battle to the Imperialists, under the same 
walls of Sissek, he waa completely defeated, and drowned himself 
with many of his followers. War was then declared against Austria, 
and her ambassador imprisoned. The Grand Vizier seized upon 
Wesprim and Palota; on the other hand, the Pacha of Buda waa 
overcome near Stuhlweissembourg, and nine fortresses fell into the 
power of the Imperialists. The year following (1594), the Anstriana 
took Ifeograd, Chrastovitz, Qora, Petrinia, and Sissek ; the Ottomans 
seized upon Jata, Saint Marton, Papa, and Baab. Successes, there- 
fore, seemed balanced, when Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia 
revolted all at once, with an nnanimity which had not been witnessed 
for a long time, and made alliance with the Emperor; the Turks 
scattered through those three provinces were massacrod. In the hope 
of rekindling the ardour of the Janissaries, Amn rath sent to them 
their aga, who, until then, had never entered upon a campaign save 
with the Sultan ; he caused also the holy banner of the Prophet to be 
brought from Syria and despatched into Hnngary ; but those devices 
wholly failed to romedy the insubordination and discouragement of 
the troops. Soon after a report of the Sultan's illness completed the 
dejection of his soldiers. It is related that the imbecile Amniath 
was singnlarly struck by an extraordiuEuy dream related to him by 
one of his bvooritee ; he thought that he saw in it a prosage of his 
approaching death. He theronpon fell ill, had himself carried to 
a kiosk which commanded a view of the harbour, and ordered lugu- 
brions music to be played before him. Two Egyptian galleys entering 
the Golden Horn on firiug the usual salnte the detonations broke the 
windows of the pavilion : this was another omen for the anperstitiouB 



Sultan. " Formerly," said he, "the entire artillery of the fleet m 
broke e, window-pane ; I see that it ie all over with me I" That a 
night he expired (January 6th, 1596). 

Buam or Miaoni III. um Aohmh I. (1598-1017.) 

1, First oeb and character of Mahomet III. — Revolt in Alia. — IncU- 

pendence of Wallaehia. 
To Amnrath snooeeded Mahomet III., son of the Venetian BaSa. 
The death of the Saltan was concealed, aa naaal, till Mahomet conld 
arrive from, his government of Magnesia. He was the last heir of 
the Turkish throne who enjoyed before his accession an independent 
goTemment ; in fntnre all the Saltan's children were brought np 
eiclnaively in the Seraglio. His accesBion was marked by the moat 
horrible application of the fratricidal law of Mahomet II. : he ordered 
the mutes to strangle his nineteen brothers, whose coffins, decked 
with tnrbans and heron's plumes, were solemn^ deposited near the 
paternal tomb. The inanbordination of the JaniBsaries had to be 
soothed with a donation of 660,000 dncats, and it was also necessary 
to similarly appease a revolt of the discontented Sipahia, Lastly, to 
satisfy the nlemaa and the faithful, Mahomet, renewing a ceremony 
neglected by his father, repaired with great pomp to the mosqne, 
there to offer np public prayers. 

Nothwitfastanding the sanguinary tragedy enacted upon his acces- 
sion, the new Sultan, a pnpil of the poet Nevi, and of the historian 
Seadeddin, was an enlightened prince, a protector of letters and 
legists. He composed verses himself, and signed them nnder the 
name of Adli, or The Just. He evinced, indeed, right intentions, and 
one of bis first cares was to discharge the debts contracted by hia 
father wi'& several public funds. He followed scrnpnloosty the laws 
of Islam, and claimed to make them observed : " ^low," aaid he to 
one of his ministers, " that I hav6 sworn never to pardon a Qrand 
Vizier, but to pnniah severely the slightest prevarication." Not- 
withstanding that, Mahomet did not know how to arrest the deca- 
dence of the Ottomans. 

Thia prince, whose official langn^e betokened pride and absolute 
power, was continually dominated by his mother and by hie Minis- 
ters. The Sultana-valid^, maintained herself in favour with her son 
by presenting him with beantifnl slaves. Sinan Pacha, Djighala 
Zade, and Hassan the Cruel, who succeeded him, all renegades and 
parvenu*, to power by violence and baseness, put up to auction the 
public posts, alloyed the coin, and established new taxes both in kind 
and money. Gold, embezzled by those official peculators, was often 


A.II. 15S9— 1608.] REVOLT IN ASU. ISA 

mmted for tbe most nrgeiit needs, and even for payment of troops. 
Thence conatantly occurring seditions, -whicli the Sultan could not 
repreaa witliont the rivalry of the SipaJiis and JanisBarieB. 

Constantinople was not the only theatre of these insurrectionB. In 
I£99, a military revolt very nearly stripped the Forte of its Asian 
Tvovmces. The insnrgents formed a formidable army, and Dely- 
Hasan, victor over several viziers, said in his sovereign decrees : " I 
Lave overthrown in those coantries the Ottoman power, and the 
domination undivided now belongs to me." That movement was 
not exclnsivcly military ; the Enrde, the Turkomans, and other Asiatic 
tribes took a very active part in it. Three years were occupied in 
reducing theuL Atlen^h, Dely- Hasan consented to lay down arms; 
he obtained the government of Bosnia, and tnmed his savage hordes 
gainst the Christians. Fifty thousand men followed him; half- 
naked barbarians with long and flowing hair, and their arms and 
necks encircled with amulets, the bones of camels dangling from 
their stirrups. Before leaving Asia, Dely-Hasan sacrificed thirty 
■beep upon the tomb of Soliman, son of Orchan. Was it a fresh 
Turkish invasion of Europe ? The Moslems themselves beheld not 
without terror those lat« comers, whose lances, with white banderoles 
attached, spared the Osmanlis no more than the rayahs. The army 
of Dely- Hasan traversed Bonmelia like a devastating scourge ; when, 
at length, having reached the banks of the Danube, it perished 
almost entirely in giving battle to the Hungarians (1603). That 
rising in Asia brougnt alxiut, by a rebound, a revolt of Sipahis, who, 
finding themselves deprived of the income of their timars by the 
rebels, demanded compensation, and attempted to pillage the mosques 
of Constantinople. The Sultan's life was threatened ; bat the Janis- 
saries, having returned from Asia, fell upon the Sipahis and brought 
them under submission. 

The war, however, continued in Hungary and Transylvania : every 
year the Turks returned to those provinces, pillaging, rav^ing, 
carrying off captives, by turns conqnorors and conqnered. We shall 
not weary the reader by tedions details of these expeditions, which 
were all of like character and only inspire disgust, but say a few 
words touching events in Wallochia, that had a great importance. 
That country had then a remarkable man as Yoivode, and who has 
remained the popular hero of it, Hichael the Brave. At the close 
of Amurath's reign, he had stirred up the people to revolt and 
allied himself with the Emperor. The great Vizier Sinan hastened 
with an army against him ; he seized npon Bucharest and fortified it 
(1595). Bat Michael drove back the Ottomans into some impractic- 
able marshes; he took Tergovitz and caused the entire garrison to be 
empaled or roasted alive. The Turks retreated ; but, whilst crossing 
the Danube near Qinrgevo, he surprised them again and crushed 
them. Then he carried Kicopolis by assault and compelled Widdin to 
capitulate. " Thus," says a Wallachian historian, " in the space of a 
rear all the Turkish forces had been repulsed ; the fortresses of the 
Danube belonged no longer to the Crescent, the eaglo of Wallachia 


186 TDBKET OLD AND NSW. [a.1>. IBM. 

floftted aboTo their ramparts ; the pachas, the best generals of the 
Porte, had failed against the efforts of a people fighting for the liberty 
of their countrr- It required, however, a prompt rem.edT for the 
evils of WftUachia, the inevitable conaeqnenceB of war. Michael the 
Brave caused provisions and seed to be brought into Transylvania ; be 
distributed tbem among the people, who, obedient to the summons of 
their Sovereign, emerged from the virgin and eternal forests that 
covered a great portion of the principality, and which, in time of 
danger, have been impenetrable strongholds and the snreat asylums 
for the inbabitanto. The WallaohiauB set about rebailding their 
towns and villages ; new dwellings speedily rose upon the ruins 
of tbe old, and the nation felt itself proud of the independence 
which it had so dearly purchased. However, that independence was 
not yet sufficiently ensured ; it required fresh sacrifices, new com- 
bats. The Turks, although already several times vanquished, were 
unwilling to lose Wallachia without first trying every possible means 
to make themselves masters of it. For them that principality was 
a source of inexhaustible wealth, or, as they called it, the granary of 
Constantinople. In fact, that capital was solely nourished by the 
products of Wallacbia : it drew thence oxen, sheep, wheat and other 
cereals, cheese, butter, and honey. To lose all those good things was - 
an irreparable misfortune for the Porte."* 

2. War in Sunyary. — Treatment of the Chritfiane by the Vinera. — 
Michael the Brave. 
Whilst Michael was delivering Wallacbia, tbe Imperialists seized 
upon Gtan, in Hungary, and some other lees important towns. 
Mahomet III. then bad recourse to negotiations ; he strove to break 
the alliance between Rodolph II. and Michael l?ie Brave : repulsed on 
that side, be offered Sigismond Bathory to annex the Wallachitm 
territory to Transylvania ; Sigismond replied that he would never 
turn his arms against the Christians. The Sultan, in spite of those 
two checks in his diplomacy, not the less resolved upon a new expe- 
dition. At the importunities of the Janissaries, he followed the 
example of bis ancestor Soljjuan, and placed himself at tbe bead of 
the (amy. He entered Hungary and took the town of Erlau, the 
garrison of which was massacred by tbe Janissaries, at tbe moment, 
when according to the capitulation, they quitted tbe town (1596). 
The Archduke Maximilian and Sigismond Bathory arrived too late 
to succour the place ; after some unimportant snccesaea, their troops 
were put to rout in the plain of Keresztes : 50,000 Germans or Hun- 
garians perished in that battle, which the Ottomans have compared 
to that of Mohacz. The Sultan returned in triumph within the walls 
of CouHtantinople. 

Lp. 103. 


LB. 1002.] WAS IN HUHOART. 187 

After the captore of Erlan and the battle of Kereaztes, there is 
nothing to record, nnder the reign of Mahomet III. save the deliver, 
ance of KauiBcha, frnitleusly besieged bj a GermEui army (1602). 
The war was carried on on both eidee with eqnal fury ; the Hun- 
garians and the Walloons in the service of the Empire frequently 
committed even greater excesses than the Tnrks ; for, if the viziers 
sabmitted at Constantinople to the yoke of the Janissaries and 
Sipahis, th^ maintained a severe discipline within their camps. 

One of them, Ibrahim, knew how to win by hie gentleneBS the 
inhabitants of the frontiers and the snbjeot Christians. The Serbs 
and Wallacles of Semendria and Temeswar aasembled in crowds 
abont him ; he loaded them with presents and presented them with 
banners. The Christian inhabittuitfl of Fosega having slain the 
Tnrkish jndge daring an insurrection, he pretended that matters 
had been thns arranged 1^ his orders, and he even expedited on act 
to attest that the blood of the magistrate had been l^ally shed. 
To those who remonstrated with him npon snch a mode of action, 
he replied, " Is it wise, by prosecnting them, to drive back these 
rayafas into the arms of the enemy f " He made use of bands of 
subject Christians, bronght thus nnder his standards by flattery, 
indnlgenoe, and liberalities, in order to exterminate the heydnkes, 
who, for more than thirty years, had spread terror thronghont 
Sclavonia-* Even in Wallachia he found Christians willing to 
sustain the canse of the Tories ; Michael the Brave had to repress, 
in 1697, a conspiracy formed by several primates in favour of the 
Ottoman Porto, That voivode would have been a more dangerona 
enemy for Mahomet III. if ambition had not turned his arms against 
the Christians. By violence he united under his authority Moldavia, 
a portion of Transylvania, and thought even to make himself King 
of Hungary and Poland. Wholly occupied witli his personal inte- 
rests, he treated oleverly, in the latter part of his career, with the 
Moslems whom he had fought with so much energy and success ; he 
solicited investiture of the Sultan, and negotiated secretly with 
Ibrahim a treaty of alliance. Death came to arrest his projecta. 
He perished, assassinated by the order of Basta, commander of the 
Imperial troops in Transylvania, and left Wallachia a prey to civil 
war and Mnssulman invasion (1601 ). " Michael the Brave," says a 
German histerian, " powerfully helped to tnm Tnrkish barbarity 
from other portions of Enrope. If that man had had a more careful 
education, if he had not fulen npon conjanctnres so difOcult, he 
might have been compared to John Hnnjade. Had his reign proved 
of longer duration, it would have been decisive in procuring a better 
fate for the countries situate on the Lower Danube. But, in the 
forty-third year of his age, he was torn violently from his career ; 
his enterprises have had no seqnel ; but his name, at least, will live 
in history."! 



3. Relation* of the Porte with France. 

Whilst the Imperialiate dispntfid nith him pOBsession of Kangnty, 
aod the voivode Michael tore away from him that of Wallachia, 
Uahomet succeeded in remaining at peace with the other Christian 
States. Poland solicits the maintenance of treaties and sent Beveral 
ambaaaadors to Constantinople ; the Bepablic of Yenioe congratu- 
lated the Saltan npon his snccesses over the Germans ; the Enf^lish 
ambassador, Bnrton, followed him in person in the campaign of 
1596 ; lastly, France reconfirmed her alliance. She was represented 
at the Porte by Sayary de Brtvea, the saccessor of Savary de Lan- 
oosme, one of those men who most contrihnted, by their zeal and 
intelligence, to extend French influence in the East. 

He sought primari^ to make the Ottoman alliance serviceable in 
his master's affaire. The MarseOlais had embraced the party of tho 
League and refused to recognize Henry rV. ; the Sultan, by the 
advice of Breves, -wrote to them persuading them to submit to their 
legitimate king, and threatening them with a war tbat would min 
their commerce. Philip II. had sent an ambassador to Constanti- 
nople to solicit an alliance with the Turks : the Sultan, at the re- 
quest of De Breves, refused to receive him ; moreover, he solemnly 
renewed his protestations of friendship for Henry lY., to whom he 
deputed one of his favourites to congratnlato him npon his victories. 
" Finally," says De Brftves in his Memoirs, " I compelled him to 
keep, during four or five years, large forces at sea to divert the 
Spanish power and hinder it from carrying it«elf wholly to tho aid 
of the League." The influence of the French ambassador became 
Buch, that the Torkiah hintorian, Selaniki, spoke thus of it : " It 
very nearly happened that, in the house of Islam, a veritable enthu- 
siasm was declared for Fiance by the secret dealings of its accursed 

However, with a government so disordered as that of the Tarks, 
with pachas independent and fanatical populations, with religions 
hatreds that no politictd consideration could weaken, the alliance of 
the Porte with France had always something precarious (utd wavering 
about it ; the capitnlations were often violated, the Catholics found 
themselves exposed to numerona and obscure persecutions ; mer* 
chants and travellers had to submit to frequent extortions fnnn the 
Mussulman authorities. Br^vea busied himself, with an nnliring 
perseverance, to pi'event those tyrannies, those abuses, those violations 
of treati^i'and he caused to intervene, in the iniquities of the 
Turks towards the Christians, the name of France with so much 
wisdom, that he almost always succeeded in hindering them. Thus, 
the Janissaries having rushed furionaly npon the churches of Galato, 
on account of three renegades having taken refuge therein, he 
stopped the infuriate soldiers by throwing himself before thom, 
threatening them with the vengeance of his master, and declaring 
that he would defend at the peril of his life the exercise of the 


A-D. 1600.] S&TABT DE BRivBS. 189 

Christian religion. He tnmed aaide the Sultan's anger from the 
Isle of Scio, who was deairona of visiting npon its inhabitanto a 
enrprise attempted by Bome Tnscan galiejB. He stopped the Pacha 
of Damasona, who wished to convert the charch of the Holy 
Sepnichre into a moBqne. Lastly, in 1600, " having been apprised, 
he himself relat«B, " that the Grand Seignior had resolved, on 
aoGoont of the bad anccesB of the war in Hnngair, to prevent not 
only the devotions of the pilgrims who £ook to JernRaiein, bnt to 
retein thent m slaves and have them led to Constantinople in ohains 
t<^ether with the holy men, cnstodians of the Holy Sepnichre, sud- 
denly aa the notice of thia nnexpected reaolntion was given me, I 
made him revoke it, telling him that it wonld aSord Pope Clement 
VIII. a meana of uniting all the Christian Powers to avenge the 
injury that all Chriatianity wonld receive, esteeming that my Sove- 
reign, aa a very Christian and very pione prince, would be one among 
the firat to band himself against hia power." 

"The inflnence that I had acquired," he says further, "with the 
ULniaters of the Grand Seignior, and the language of the country 
which I possessed, gave me tiie means of aerving ^vantageonaly the 
king and of aiding those who had reconrae to the powerful pro- 
tection of his name. Thus there ia not a city in Europe that has not 
felt the eSects of my assistance ; for I have given liberty to more 
than from 1,000 to 1,200 men, at different titnes, who were slaves, to 
some by my indnstiy, to others for having been captured contrary 
to the treaties and capitulations accorded to the king, aa well in 
favour of his snbjecta aa of foreignera who have liberty to tr&fGo in 
the realm of the Grand Seignior, under the ataudard and banner of 
His Uajesty." 

One of the principal oarea of M. de Brdves was to hinder the 
encroaohmenta of England npon French commerce. Queen Elizabeth 
having obtained from, the Porte capitulationa analogona to thoae of 
France, the Engliah veaaela entered into concurrence with the French j 
bnt they did not confine themselves to that. " They aonght care- 
Inlly," says De Braves, " the means of depreciatiug the French flag, 
and they made the Ctrand Seignior allow that foreign nations that 
have no ambaasadors at the Porte and that have liberty to traffic in 
ita realm under the French flag may come thither under the English 
banner." England was then allied with France, and Henry IV. in 

etrt -owed his crown to the help of Elizabeth ; in apite of that, 
r&vea complained bitterly of the usurpation by the Engliah of the 
most preciona privilege that France had obtained from the friendship 
of the Porte ; he demanded reparation for it, and, notwithstanding 
the oppoaition of Blizabeth'a ambaeaador, the concession which had 
bees made him was revoked. 

The Saltan did not derive that advantage from his success in the 
Hungarian war which might have been ezpect«d. In the campaign 
of 1597 nothing decisive waa achieved, while that of 1598 was highly 
adverse to the Turkish arms; Baab, Tata, Weapnm, Tachamlwck, 
I Beventl fortresses, were taken by the Imperialists, and the 


180 TUREBT OLD AND »BW. [tD. 16M— 1008. 

operations of Hb^ Tnrkiali SeraskieT, SatordBchi, were so mtfortnnate 
as to cost tiim lua diBmissal and his life. Both aides were now 
ez}iaaBt«d, and eager to conclude a peace if satisfactory terms could 
be obtained. In 1599, the Grand Vizier, Ibrahim Pacha, who com. 
manded the Tnrkieh forces in Hangar;, made proposals to the Im- 
perial General, Nicholas Paify; bat nothing was effected : the demands 
on both sides were too high, and the war was continued six years 
longer. It woald be nnprofitable, however, to enter into details of a 
straggle that was feebly carried on with vaiying sacoess, and which 

Sve birth to no events of decisive importance. Even the death of 
ahomet III. C22nd of December, 1603) had little effect on the war, 
except that it served still farther to exhanst the resonroes of the 
Port« by the payment of the accaetomed donative to the JanisBaries. 
Uahomet was qaietly sacoeeded by his son Aohmet I., then hardly 
fifteen years of age. 

The revival of the war between the Saltan and the Shah of Persia 
in 1603 tended still farther to dispose the Porto tp pat an end to the 
straggle in Hungary ; and the negotiations were facilitated by a 
revotntion in Transylvania. 

4. Decadence of the Envpire. 

The Turks, although not naturally fond of the sea, nor a commercial 
people — for what little trade they had was mostly in the bands of 
Europeans or Jews — nevertheless surpassed, during the period of 
their prosperity, the other nations of Europe in their maritime forces. 
Karly in the sixteenth century, under Selim I., the Turkish fleet 
nnmbered 400 sail of all descriptions, carrying 30,000 men, Aft-er 
the time of Selim, although still very formidable, it somewhat de- 
clined ; and the battle of Lepanto inflicted upon it a blow from 
which it never thoroaghly recovered. The rapidity, indeed, with 
which after that tremendous defeat the Turkish vessels that had been 
destroyed were replaced by new ones, excited the astonishment of 
the Bishop of Acqs, the French ambassador to the Porto; bnt fresh 
crews could not so easily be supplied, and still less experienced officers. 
Through mismanagement and neglect the Turkish Navy began rapidly 
to decline towards the end of the sixteenth century ; and Sir ThomAS 
Roe, who was at Constantinople in 1662, described the Turkish 
galleys as mostly so rotten and decayed that not fifty were fit to put 
to sea, and those very ill-manned and equipped. The Corsair Fleets 
of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli appear, however, not to have shared 
this decay. It was remarked early in the seventeenth century that 
the Beys of those places possessed a fleet of forty large sqnare-ri^ed 
vessels, with which they harassed the commerce of the Mediterranean ; 
and they are related on one occasion to have blockaded Malaga, while 
another division of their ships cruised between the Tagos and the 

The ohief naval stations of the Turks, besides Constantinople and 



Oftllipoli, were Nicomedut, Negropont, and Avlona is AIbfHii&. The 
Oreeks formed the best sailors in the Tarkish fleet ; gtdle j slaves for 
the oars were supplied by the Christian prisoners, and there was also 
a luaritime conscription thronghoat the Ottoman Empire. Before 
the battle of Lepanto, the Turkish galleys carried only from three to 
seven gaoB, one or two of which were of heavy calibre. After that 
disastrons defeat the number of ^nns was doubled, yet were still 
nneqnal to those of the Venetian ships. The Torts understood little 
of manoenvring in line ; their tactics were to reserve their fire till 
they came to close qnartere, and then to board the enemy. The 
Gapndan.Pacha, or Chief Officer of the Fleet, not only commanded 
at sea, but had also the nncontrolled direction of the arsenal. In 
favour of Chaireddia Barbarossa, this o£Bce was elevated to that of 
Beylerbey of the Sea and the dignity of a Faoha of Two Tails ; for 
the sea, like the land, was divided into sandjaks, fourteen in nnmber. 
After the taking of Chios by Selim II. in 1666, the Capndan- Pacha 
was made a Vizier and Pacha of Three Tails. 

Not only the Ottoman Navy, but also the empire in general, was 
beginning, towards the close of the sixteenth century, to 'feel the 
approach of decay. The wars of Selim II. had so exhausted the 
treasure, that he caused what remained of it to be removed to his 
private treasury. It had been previously kept in the ancient Byzantine 
Castle called the "Seven Towers." In the palmy days of the Ottoman 
Empire each of these seven towers had had its appropriate use ; one 
contained the gold, another the silver money ; a. third the gold and 
diver plate and jewels ; valuable remains of antiquity were deposited 
in the fourth ; in the fifth were preserved ancient coins and other 
objects, chiefly collected by Selim I. during his expeditions into 
Persia and Egypt ; the sixth was a sort of arsenal ; and the seventh 
was appropriated to the archives. After the time of Selim II., the 
" Seven Towers " were used as a prison for distinguished persons, and 
as an arsenal. Amurath III., whose avarice was prodigious, retained 
and improved upon the custom of his predecessor. He caused, it is 
said, a vault to be built, with treble locks, in which his treasure waa 
deposited, and over which he slept every night ; it was opened only 
four times a year to receive fresh heaps of wealth, which have been 
estimated at twelve million ducato annually ; but two millions are 
perhaps nearer the truth. 

More then a century of Turkish despotism had at length done its 
work. Bagazzoni describes the Christians in the Ottoman Empire in 
15?1 as so depressed and degraded, that they dared hardly took a 
Turk in the face ; the only care of their listless existence was to raise 
enough for their maintenance, and to pay their KaraUch, or poll-tax 
— all beyond would be seised by the Turks. Constantinople, however, 
still afforded a secure place of residence, whither the Greeks flocked 
in great numbers ; so that, towards the end of the sixteenth centniy, 
it was reckoned that there were 100,000 of them in that capital. 
Uany of these aoquired great wealth, either by trade or by fanning 
certain branches of the Gtrand Seignior's revenue. Among them, one 


192 TDEKBT OLD AlfD NBW. [*.!), 1608-161S. 

Hicliael KantakozennB wm conBpicaons both for his enormoaB wealth 
and his mtrignes, which prooored him the name of the " Devil's Son " 
(^S^tan Oglie) , although it waa thonght that he was not a tme Greek, 
but aa EngUahman by birth, belonging to the family of an English 
ambassador. The t&be of whole provinces lay in his hands ; be coald 
fit ont twenty or thirty galleys at hia own expense, and the eplendour 
of his palace at Anchioli rivalled the Seraglio of the Grand, Seignior. 
Kantaknzenns had gained bis inflnence throngh the favour and friend- 
ship of Mahomet SokolU ; but even that powerful vizier could not at 
laet save him from the wrath of Amnrath III. ; and he was hanged 
before the gate of his own palace (March, 1578). The Jews lUeo 
occupied an important position in the Ottoman Empire. From the 
earliest period the pbysicians of the Saltan were of tne Hebrew race ; 
they monopolized most branches of commerce, they were the chief 
musical performere, and acted obscene comedies for the entertainment 
of the Grand Seignior. 

5. War and Treaty leith Persia.— Treaty of Sitvatorok. 

The reign of Achmet I. marks the first steps towards the decided 
decadence of the Ottoman Empire. Having ascended the throne in 
his fifteenth year, Achmet only attained manhood at the close of his 
reign. According to the ezpresaion of a Turkish poet, " He was the 
first among all the sons of Osman who posscseed empire before 
having carried the standard," that is to say, before having reached 
his majority. His hther bequeathed him a power weakened by 
seditions among the soldiers, and two wars to sustain, one in 
HungaiT against the Imperialiets, the other in Asia against the 
Shah of Persia. 

In 1603, the formidable Shah Abbas, breaking throngh all con- 
ventions made with the Tnrks, seized upon Tebriz, Erivan, uid Kars. 
He maintained his advantages until 1612, and then extorted a treaty 
from the Pori« bv which it renounced all its contjaests since Selim. 
The revolts whicn broke ont in Asia favoured the Fei%ian arms. The 
submission of Deli Hassan had not put an end to the insurrection. 
Other chiefs succeeded to him, and the rebellion extruded from 
the frontiers of Persia and Syria to the shores of the Bob- 
phoms. The Enrds, the Druses, all the tribes of the Lebanon, 
figured in that lea^e formed by Asiatic popniations against the 
authority of the Osmanlis. The straggle was long and murderous. 
Murod Pocho, whose indomitable enei^ succeeded in terminating it, 
gained thereby the somame of Reatorer of iie Empire. 

In Europe the Hnngarian war was pushed with little vigour ; but 
Austria neglected io profit by so favourable a diversion aa the war 
(wainst Persia and the Asiatic rebels ; she irritated the Hungarians, 
who chose as their king, BoskaT, nncle of Sigismoud Bathory, and 
solicited the protection of the Snltan. The latter hastened to give 
the investitnre to Boskai (1605). Austria, enlightened by that act. 


*.!>. lOOa— 1015.] TBBATT OF SITrATOKOK. 193 

oonclnded, in 1606, k treaty by which she rect^ized BoRkai as Prince 

of Transylvania and the districts in Hnngary, which the Bathorys 
had poBaessed ; it was stipulated that on the death of Boskoi all his 
poBsesflions ehonld revert to the empire. The Porte then consented 
to sign the treaty of Sitvatorok (11th of November, 1606), in which 
Ottoman pride stooped for the Srst time and abolished the humilia- 
ting conditions of preceding treaties. The annnal tribute of 30,000 
dncats, which Austria paid to the Sultan nnder the name of a gift 
of honoar, was suppressed ; " for this time only," it was said in the 
treaty, " 200,000 crowns will be paid to the Turks ; but, in future, 
every three years, ambassadors shall bring voluntary presents, the 
value of which shall not be filed on either side." " The Emperor 
and the Sultan," it added, " shall treat on a footing of equahty j the 
attackii, the surprises, the irruptions, must cease ; the damages shall be 
repaired and the prisoners set at liberty." Gran, Eriau, and Kanischa 
remained in the power of tho Turks ; Austria kept Raab and Comom. 
That peace was ratified by the States of Knngary and Austria, united 
with Presbourg (1608), and a convention signed at Vienna in 1615, 
confirmed it for twenty years. 

That peace of Sitvatorok, says Hammer,* which has not sufficiently 
arrested the attention of publicists, and the remembrance of which 
is lost, effaced by that of the treaty of Carlowitz, signed a centuir 
later, has, however, a high signiGcation in the history of political law 
and the diplomatic relations between Turkey and the rest of Europe. 
It fixed for the first time a limit to Ottomaa conquest, which until 
then had threatened the West. The signs of vassalage, the annual 
tribntes brought by ambassadors, were suppressed ; diplomatic rela. 
tions were established on a footing of equality ; TransylTOnia was 
half emancipated from the Turkish yoke ; and Hungary, although 
still subjected to Ottoman domination for a portion of her territory, 
was at least freed from tribute for the remainder. For the first time 
wore observed, on the part of the Sultan and of the Grand Visier, 
the diplomatic formalities in use among the nations of Europe. The 
act, written in Turkish, was not, as hitherto done, imposed upon the 
Imperial plenipotentiaries without allowing them to take cognizance 
of it ; it was examined by the dragomans of both parties. Tho 
peace of Sitvatorok annonnced to the European Powers the deca- 
dence of the Ottoman Porte and prepared the way for the treaty 
of Carlowitz. 

A short time after this peace, Boskai died ; but the Transylvauiana 
refased to place themselves under the Austrian domination, and they 
took successively for princes, under the protection of the Porte, 
Sigismond Ragotski, Gabriel Bathory, lastly Bethlem Gabor, the 
implacable enemy of the House of Austria, who fought in forty-two 
battles and was the faithful ally of the Sultans. Thai prince, in the 
firman of investiture, engaged to prevent the Voivodes of Wallachia 
and Moldavia from acquiring any domain or any fortress upon his 
* Von Hunmar, torn, ii, p. S27. 


19i TDBKRI OLD AMD NBW. [i.d. 1609—1612 

territory ; and if those TOirodes, vassalB of the Forte, revolted against 
the Saltan, he was botind to refnee them an asylum &nd Bend them 
prisoners to CoDstantinople. " Thus," e&ja a Konmanian historian, 
" Tarkey had comprehended that, eo long as the Moldo-Wallachiaa 
princes should be attached to Hnngarj or Transylvania by interests 
of property or by the hope of finding therein a refuge, tiey would 
always adhere to those two coontries, and, consequently, to Chris- 
tianity. That article in the firman of inrestttare given to Bethlem 
separated the Moldo- Wallachiana from the rest of the Christians, and 
aabjeoted them irrevocably to Turkish authority."* Poland renewed, 
in 1609, the capitulations concluded under Mahomet III. She en- 
gaged to prevent the irmptiona of the Cosaaoka into Moldavia; the 
Porte bound itself, on its aide, to preserve Poland from the -ravages 
of the Tartars ; taxation had no righta over the estates of Poles wUo 
died in Turkey, and reciprocally, the Poles should always have the 
right of redeeming their conntrymen from slavery. The capitula- 
tions were equally renewed in favour of the Republic of Venice. 
Lastly, in 1612, the United Provinces of the Low Countries obtained, 
for the first time, a treaty similnr in its tenonr to those which the 
Porto had concluded with France and England, but limited to com- 
merce. The Datoh profited by it to introduce the use of tobacco 
into Turkey. In vain did the mufti endeavour to oppose that inno- 
vation ; the soldiers and the common people rose against his ordi- 
nances, which be was compelled to revoke. 

Of all the Christian ambassadors at Constantinople, the represen- 
tative of Henry IV. remained, under Achmet as under Mahomet III., 
the most influential and the most zealous defender of European 

6. Mitnon of Savary de Breves. — Ii^uenee of JVntice in the East. 
De Slaves, having obtained these capitulations, quitted Constanti- 
nople in ItiOS, and went to viait the churches and Christians of Asia, 
furnished with numerous firmans for redressing the abuses and re- 
pairing the iniquities of the Ottoman functionaries. He then saw 
for himself how insufficient the treaties were, how difficult it woe to 
obtain justice in a state where the underlings had so many means of 
making tyrants, where religions hatreds excused and even prescribed 
iniquities- Although he was accompanied by an officer of the Sultan 
whose duty it was to watch over the execution of the conmianda of 
His Highness, he only obtained after much trouble redress or repa- 
ration of amnltitnde of abuses and injustice ; he was compelled even 
to witness in silence much extortion, in order not to a^pravate the 
position of the Christians after his departure. He was received with 
honours at Jerusalem by bhe Ottoman dignitaries ; but his snito 
was frequently insulted by the populace. After having restored to 
* KogilBiteliaBci, tuiiu i. p. 2S]. 


uiasiON or vs bb^teb. 106 

the Latin CatholicB the cnetody of the holr places, of which they 
had been deprived hj the Greeks, he set sail for Tunis and Algiers. 
He had the Saltan's commands to the cowaira of those two places 
that they should cease from their piracy, that they shonM give np 
the Frenchmen whom they had carried into slavery, restore the booty 
pillaged from the French ships, and allow of French stations to bo 
established on the coast of Barbary. He sncceeded in part at Tanis, 
and ooQcladed with the regency of that town only a slightly advan- 
tageons treaty, but which at least secnred French commerce from 
piracy. From thence, De Br&ves went to Algiers, but met with no 
reception there, the corsairs reniembering that, npon hie complaint, 
three years previonsly, their viceroy had been summoned to render 
account of hie piracies npon the French, and, by the Saltan's orders, 

De Blares, after his return to France, published a memoir npon 
his embassy and the condition of the Turks. The main object of 
that " Disconrse " was to justify the alliance of France with the 
Porte, from the commercial and religions point of view, against the 
somples of timorous Frenchmen, or against the declamations of the 
House of Anstria, which was continnaJly accusing the French kings 
of treason towards Christianity. 

" It was under Francis I.," he remarks in this " Discourse," " that 
we began to negotiate safely with the Tnrks ; and onr traffic was es- 
tablished there in such fashion that it conld hsj'dly be sarpassed, and 
they, on the contrary, had no need of us ; for it is very notorious 
that there are more than one thousand vessels npon the coasts of 
Provence and Longnedoc which traffic throughout the extent of 
the Turkish Empire, and, by that means, enrich not only them- 
selves, bnt many other parts of France receive advantage there- 

" And, although that advantage may be sufficiently great to com- 
pel UB to make use of their friendship, the influence, however, cannot 
be estimated that it gives to the standard and banner of France, 
under which it permits Spanish, Italian, Flemish, and generally all 
kinds of Christian nations to traffic among them with the same free- 
dom as the French | in which our kings have especially cherished, to 
testify to all the Pnnces of Europe that they do not keep up that 
friendship for their own particular interest nor that of their sub- 
jects, but also for the universal good of Christianity, which, by that 
meens, appropriates to itself not only every sort of ilierchandise that 
ma^ be gathered in their empire, but likewise all the products of 
Asia, Africa, and even the East Indies, which may be found abun- 
dantly amongst them, by the convenient route of the Red Sea, which 
carries to Egypt all the best things of Africa and the East Indies ; 
and &ts En^rates, on the other hand, freighted with the wealth of 
Asia, delivers it near Aleppo, the chief town of Syria, where the 
French merchants and those who desire to display our flag load 
their veeeels, and thus distribute their contents throughout Europe. 

" Bat, besides these pressing considerations, the preservation of 



the ChriBtiuL name and of the Catholic religion in their conntty 
will be deemed very important, since it may be hoped that in the 
coarse of time there may be an increase of it, to the damage and the 
entire mia of the Mahometan sect ; for nnder pretext of considera- 
tion for OB, and to give sometJiing for oar friendship, the Grand 
Seignior permite of tiiere being six or seven monasteries in the city 
fmd saborbs of Constantinople, which are filled, some with Franciscui 
friars, others with Jacobins ; and, very lately, the Jesuit fathers have 
established their college ; in such wise, that God is served there with 
the same worship and almost the same freedom that may be done in 
the middle of France ; withont taking into consideration an infinite 
noinber of Greek and Armenian Christians, which, in their most 
pressing necessities, have no reooarse more certain, and seek no other 

Erotection, than the powerfal name of onr kings, which shelters them 
y the ministry and its ambassadors. 

" In fact, all the Tnrkish States are fnll of Christians ; even in 
the islands of the Archipelago, there are five or six bishoprics es- 
tablished, and the bishops nominated by the Holy Father, and the 
greater part of the inhabitants of those islands live nnder the autho- 
rity of the Romish Church, the principal of which are the arch- 
bishopric of Nazos, the bishoprio of Soio, that of Andra and of Syra, 
all of which only subsist by the French name and maintain them- 
Belves with that protection. Egypt also abounds with a great 
number of Copts, who for the most part live under the discipline 
of a patriarch whom the King of Ethiopia recognizes for superior in 

" But when all these considerations are exhausted, whioh of them- 
selves might u^e snch friendship to be sought for, if it were not 
already contracted, what an advantage to the French name, what 
glory to the very- Christian King of France, to be sole protector of the 
Holy Place where the Saviour of the world consented to live and die ! 
What a satis^Ktion to behold in the midst of an infidel State the 
Christian name flourish, to behold in Holy Jerusalem the superb 
temple which Saint Helena there built, in which the Holy Sepulchre 
and the Mount Calvary are enclosed, and that it is served by thirty or 
forty Franciscans chosen from all nations, who pray God continually 
for the prosperity of Christian Princes, particularly for inr King, 
their sole preserver, under the consent of whom they are enabled to 
inhabit Jerusalem, perform freely divine service there and receive 
pilgrims from every nation, who visit the Holy Places in safely, not 
without a feeling of the favour that they receive from His Majesty, 
who procures them that advantage." 

De Breves, in another place, again gives as a reason forthe alliance 
of the King of France with the Turks the right of protection whioh 
he acquired by it over " so many peoples who have neither rest nor 
safety save nnder the authority of nis name ;" and he cites principally 
the Maronites and the Druses of Mount Lebanon. Finally, he ter- 
minates his memoir by saying that the political considerations which 
f^ve birth to the alliance ought to mauttaui it ; and he invites His 


*.D. 1806—1811.1 DECAY or FBSNCH IHFLIJENCB. 197 

Hajeeiy to preaerre it, "in order to tarn iwide tlie arms of his 
enemies by the interrontion of the Turk." 

De Brtves had for his snocesaor Gontaut Biron, baron of Solignao 
(1605). Nothing of importance passed nnder that miniet^, save 
only the commencement of a persecution against the Catholic Priests. 
The Jesnits had estahlishod themselvee in Constantinopie ; with their 
ambition and nsnal activity, they had conceived great projects for the 
regeneration of Catholicism in tho East ; they had alr^dy opened 
schools, commenced preaching at Pera, and they laboured Bnccessfnlly 
to rennite the Greeks with the Church of Kome, when the English 
denonnced them as spies of Spain and alarmed the Divan as to 
their intentions against the safety of the Empire ; they were 
therenpon arrested and imprisoned. On hearing this, Solignac 
ran to the Vizier, claimed the Jesaita as enbjecta of France, 
and obtained their dehverance; hat the Ottoman Minister did 
not ooncesl his repngnance for those priests, and declared to him 
that he preferred to see ten ordinary priests than one Jeeoit in Con- 

Solignac died in 1611, and tmder Achille de Harlay, baron de Sanoy, 
who ffacceeded him, " commenced," says an historian, " the humilia- 
tions by which the authority of the European Ministers was des- 
troyed at Constantinople, and the French alliance nearly broken off." 
That alliance had already tmdei^one two distinct phases : offensive 
and warlike under Francis I. and Henry II., it had been limited to 
relations of good- will and commerce under the last Yalois and under 
Heniy IV. From the outset of Harlay de Sancy's embassy, and 
during sixty years the alliance changed gradnally its character ; it 
wavered, it decreased, it reached a point at which a rnptnre was to 
be feared. But it was so necessary and natural to the two States, 
that, in spite of enormous inenlts, blows, and even open hostilities, 
there was yet, on one dde and the other, during all that period of dis- 
agreement and coolness, a tendency to reconciJiation. Moreover, the 
influence of France in the East, its action upon the Christians dwell- 
ing there, was only moderately weakened. 

Several causes brought abont that change. 

1. The Ottoman Empire, which formerly only Lad relations with the 
Christian Stetes by war, which at first had but a single ally amongst 
the infidels, began to abandon its ieolation, to admit of now alliances, 
to leave, as tho Turks said, the Sublime Porto open to all. Its ex- 
clusive affection for France was changed ; other coonsels than those 
of France were listened to in the Divan ; the powers inimical to 
France made use of the ignorance of the Turks to the disadvantage 
of their old and first allies. 

2. France had originally sought for an alliance with the Ottomans 
to abase the House of Anstria : it was again about to engage in a 
struggle with that House ; but it now regarded the aid of the Turks 
as scandalous and little efficacious ; she had found surer and leas dan- 
gerous auxiliaries in the Protestonteof Germany: also, during the 
Thir^ Teara' War, Richelieu and Masarin made only feeble attempte 



to restore to the aHiance between Prance and Turkey the ohar&cter 
which it had under Francis I. 

3. During almost the whole of the seventeenth century the Otto- 
man throne was onlj oconpied hj princea prondlv barbaric, full of 
blind hatred of the ChristianB, who surrounded themselves only by 
minieters imbued with their prejudices, and often with their ignor- 
ance ; they violated at pleasure, throngh thick and thin, o^inst those 
" infidel dogs," the capitulations, the rights of nations, the laws of 
humanity ; they made war f^inst Christianity withoat political 
object and throngb mere fanatical brutality ; lastly, they anthorized 
the Barbary piracies, the hideous and last form which the spirit of 
Mahometan conquest &s8nnied. 

Another cause of the apathy of Turkey for France was the inca- 
pacity of the French ambassadors aocreditod at that period to the Sub- 
lime Porte, and especially their ignorance of the religion, the laws 
and customs of the Ottomans. The embassy to Constantinople was 
A post full of difficulty, embarrassment, and even of danger : it re- 
quired as much prudence as energy ; for it was necessary, iu using 
unceasingly the greatest moderation, not to show the slightest weak- 
ness, to respect the prejudices of the Turks, especially in questions of 
form and etiquette, and for all that not to yield the least point of 
honour, the smallest prerogative; in all plaints and protests to nego< 
tiate with perseverance, without being tired of delays, refusals, and 
the ordinary disdain peculiar to Ottoman politics ; to know how to 
ncatter money apropoi, since all was venal and corrupt amongst the 
Turks; not to use menace save in the last extremity, since threats 
ooild not be followed up by deeds ; finally, to do everything to main- 
tam the alliance. 

Let us return to Achmet for a momentary glance at his brief reign. 
On assuming the cares of government in adolescence, he showed him- 
self to be good, active, full of noble designs, anxious to redress abuses, 
and desirous that justice should signalize bis rule. But absoluto 
power and the pleasures of the harem rendered null those good incli- 
nations. Incapable of making proper choice of Ministers, he was 
continually changing his viziers. Hot-headed, capricious, eccentric, 
he allowed the inmates of the Seraglio to arrogate to themselves all 
authority, and most of all the Kizlar-aga, chief of the black eunnchs, 
-who kept a court as pompons as that of his master. " One knows 
not, in truth," says an Italian contemporary, "who is the sovereign." 
A power was thus formed in the harem whose interests were neither 
those of the Empire, nor those of the Sultan, but solely of the -women 
and eunuchs ; that is to say, of slaves placed by religion and nature 
out of the province of politics and government. The viziers were 
compelled to submit thereto or renounce their dignities. The harem 
had yet another inflnence : the daughters and sisters of the Sultan", 
-who at this epoch began to espouse the favourites and grandees of 
the Empire, diffused throughout the nation the luxurious habits of the 
Seraglio, In order to satis^ factitious needs the dignitaries sold jus- 
tioSi devMtttted the countnes confided to their admiuistrfttion, and 


*.!.. 1817.] SUMMARY OF BEIOK OF AOHMET I. 199 

did not sbrink from any exaction. Naconh Pacha dared to propoBo 
to the Saltan to parchase of him the dignity of Grand Vizier, and 
when later he had obtained it, he pointed oat to his tnaater, in the 
dockyards of Confit&ntinople, some old dismasted hniks as new naval 
conBtmctiosB, and thereby embezzled enormons sums. The army did 
not escape this general demoralization : the Janisearies, devoting 
themselves with ardonr to industry and commerce, lost their warlike 

character, and no longer had swift foot and sharp eye except to see 
when the cavalrr began to waver and then to fly instantly at full 
speed. The sipahis saw the timars which had become vacant dis- 
tributed amongst faronrites ; so that a given miidjak, that hitherto 
famished a hundred sipahia, conld scarcely bring fifteen, and fre- 
quently there wss not one-tenth inscribed upon the registers.* 
* Bank*, " Hiatoiy of tb« OiDumlii." 




Suom or Hostafba I., Onua IL, Amrura IV., Am Ibuhix I. (1017-1649). 

1. Beigju of Mugtapha I. and Onman. II. (1617-1622). 
Thi nnimportant reign of Saltan Achmet I., with wbom Anstria 
bad concladed the peace of Sitvatorok, was closed by his death, 
22nd of November, 1617. Nothing can more strongly testify the 
snnken state of the Tnrbiah power than that it waa possible to 
raise from a dungeon to the throne Acbmet's imbecile brother, Mos- 
tapba. That prince's captivity of fourteen years bad completely 
stoltified bitn ; bat the iJemas, who hoped to govern in his name, 
gave ont that faia idiocy .was a proof of sanctity. It was one of 
the pastimes of the nnfortnnate Mostapha to fling gold pieces to the 
fishes of the Bosphoras; bat the Kizlar-aga persnaded the Divan 
that the precious metal would be better employed in fnniisbing the 
donatives customary on a new reign. 

The commencement of his reign was marked by serious insnlta to 
the French ambassador. A Polish noble, who bad been confined in 
the " Seven Towers," having escaped from bis prison by the assist- 
ance of De Sancy's secretary, the vizier accused the whole of the 
French embassy of having favoured that flight; be caused the 
ambassador and bis people to be violently arrested, put his secre- 
taries to the torture, aud nont the functionary himself to tie " Seven 
Towers." " Thou art not the first ambassador," said he to De Saucy, 
" who has been lodged in oar prisons, but thou shalt be the first to 
whom the Gehenna shall be allotted." His deliverance could only 
be obtained at the end of four months by means of a ransom of 
15,000 piastres, and leaving as hostage the people of the embassy. 
Moreover, the vizier bename exasperated, in his wild rage, with the 
other ambassadors ; he compelled them to remain prisoners within 
their houses, aud caused a public proclamation to b« made that any 
Mussulman who should find them ont of Pem should conduct them 
to prison ; lastly, he laid arbitrary taxes upon the Christian mer- 
chants. The Court of France, on learning these outrages, recalled 
the Baron De Saucy, and sent a gentleman, H. De Naua, to demand 
satisfaction, with threats of a rupture. But after three months' 
enjoyment of the sceptre, Mustapha bad been led back to his dun- 
geon, and the vizier Btranglsd before the arrival of De Naua In 
fact, a revolt of the Janissaries had deposed the imbecile Sultan 
and replaced him by his nephew Osman, the eldest of the seveu sons 
of Achmet, who was saluted Padischah amidst the acclamations of 
the venal soldiery (26th of February, 1618). The troops gained by 
that change a gratification of 6,000,000 ducats. 


4.(1.1620—1631.] TBB ir&B AOAIHST POLAND. 201 

Until the age of fourteen Oaman bod been brought np less like a 
prince than as a derrieh, and his religions rigoar mnst hare rendered 
the goremment of a cormpt State a difBcalt task to him. He, 
howerer, displaj'ed a spirit and ambition beyond his years. Strong 
find active of body, he soon became inared to all military exercises, 
a bold rider and an nnfailing inai'ksman with the bow ; bnt, with all 
big energy he- lacked the perseverance withont which nothing great 
can be accomplished, while hia meKoness alienated from him the 
bearte of the rapacious Janissaries. 

Immediately upon bis accession, be had hastened to despatch a 
chiaonx to Paris with letters of exonse signed by himself, by the 
Grand Vizier, and the Capndan-Pacha, and to assure the Frencb 
king that in fntare his ambassador should be honoured and reepeoted 
as in the past. Sancy, who persisted in his recall, was charged to 
offer presents te Louis XIII. 

The reign of Osman II. presents no other remarkable event save 
the nnsocceasfnl war against Poland, between which conptry and 
the Porte bickerings had for several yeare prevailed ; and he esteemed 
its conquest so easy that he divided the spoil beforehand. Desolating 
incursions bad been made by the Tartars into Poland, and by the 
CoBsackE into the Tnrkish dominions, which in 1620 ended in open 
war. Poland was then ruled by the Swedieh prince, Sigismnnd III., 
as before mentioned. Caspar G-ratiani, Yoivode of Moldavia, had 
courted the favour of Sigiemnnd by sending to him the intercepted ■ 
letters addressed by Befchlem Qabor to the Porte, complaining of the 
incursions of the Polish Cossacke and freebooters. Qratiani was 
depoeed on the discovery of his proceedinge; hut ho would not yield 
withont a struggle ; he called upon the Poles for assistance, who 
sent him a force of 50,000 men. Against these, posted in a fortified 
camp near Jassy, in Moldavia, Iskander Pacha, governor of Silistria, 
led an army of double their number, competed of Oamanli and 
Tartars ; and on the 20th of September, 1620, a great battle was 
fought, in which 10,000 Poles were slain. The remainder, after a 
useless attempt to defend their entrenched camp, retreated towards 
the Dniester, in the passage of which river most of them perished. 
Qratiani himself had fallen in the retreat. 

It was this success that incited Osman to attempt the oonqnest of 
Poland against the advice of bis Ministers, and even the wishes of 
his army; and in the spring of 1621, clad in a suit of mail which 
had belonged to Solyman the Maanifi^ent, he placed himself at the 
head of 100,000 men. Bnt the march proved difficnlt uid de- 
structive ; the mercenary troops were alienated by Osman's reluctance 
to p^ the customary gratuity ; and it was the end of August before 
the Turks arrived on the Dniester. Here Sigismund had encamped 
40,000 Poles and Cossacks, and 8,000 Germans sent to him by the 
Emperor ; while another army of reserve of 60,000 men, under the 
Crown Prince, lay at Saminieck. A first assault on the Polish camp 
was attended with some success; but the following ones were re- 
pulsed, althongh in the sixth and last the Saltan in person led ono 


202 TUKKBT OLD AND MEW. [1.I1. 1021— 1S22. 

of the Btonniuf; columns. A Polish winter set in early ; men and 
horBBB perished hj thoosands ; a mutiny broke ont ; and Osman, 
after opening negotiations for a peace, began his retreat. On the 
28th of December, 1621, lie entered Constantinople in triumph ; for 
though he had lost 80,000 men, he pretended to claim a victory. 
Bnt his bad buooobs, hia nnpopnlarity with the army, the deamess 
of provisions, and the strictness of his police, which he saperintended 
in person, by visiting the wine-honses and other places of resort, 
soon prodnced symptoms of revolt among the Janissaries. As these 
degenerate troops were averse to the warlike schemes meditated by 
Osman, he resolved to destroy them. The scheme he formed was 
bold and well-designed, and, if sncceBsfnl, might have revived the 
sinking fortnnes of the Turkish Empire. Under pretence of a pil- 
grimt^ to !Uecca, Osman was to raise a large army at Damascna, 
march with it to Constantinople and annihilate the refractory Janis- 
saries ; bnt his preparations, uLd some incaations words, prematwely 
betrayed his intentions. 

On a report that the Sultan's tent was abont to be transported to 
Scutari, the Janissaries (May 18, 1622), associating themselves to 
the Sipahis, rose in rebellion, repolsed with insults their. aga and 
other officers, who had been sent to hear their complaints, and de- 
manded from the mufti a categorical answer to the inquiry, " Whether 
it was permitted to put to death those who ntisled the Fadischah, 
and devoured the substance of the Moslems P " The mufti having 
answered in the affirmative, the mutineers rushed to the palacee of 
the Grand Yiaier and of the Chodsa, who were thought to be the 
anthers of the plan for their destmction ; these Ministers saved 
themselves by flight, but their palaces were plnndered and destroyed. 
On the following day the insurrection assumed a still more for- 
midable aspect. The Sultan having refused to give up the six 
authors of the pilgrimage, though he consented to renounce his 
Dilgrimage itself, an attack was made on the Seraglio ; and in the 

idst of tbe confaeion, a cry of Uustapha Khan for Sultan, echoed 
thousands of voices, ' became the watchword of the revolution. 

le wretched Muslapha, wasted to a xbadow by want of air and 
food, and expecting death rather than a crown, was dragged from 
his obscure dungeon, carried to the throne-room and saluted Padi- 
euhah. Osman contemplating flight, when it was too late abandoned 
his Grand Vizier and Kizlar-aga to the fury of the soldiers, by whom 
they were horribly murdered ; the Janissaries, who would listen to 
no ternis, though large offers were made, occupied the Seraglio, and 
directed all the actiona of the Sultana Yalide, the mother of the idiot 
UnstApha ; and Constantinople was abandoned to plunder and devas- 
tation. Osman, who had fled to the palace of the Aga of the Janis- 
saries, was dragged from his hiding-place, and conducted with abuse 
and derision, first to the barracks of the mutineers, and then to the 
" Seven Towers." On the way thither his faithful adherent, Hnssein 
Pacha, was murdered at his feet. Arrived there, the youthful Sultan 
made a piteous appeal to the rebels, but vainly endeavoured to soften 




them. "For^re me," he implored, Bobbing, "if I have offended 
yon nnwittingly. Testerdaj, I was a aovereign ; to-day, I am 
stripped bare. Let me serve yon as an example : yon likewiBe may 
experience the caprice of fate. My ^as of Sipabis, and yon, the 
seniors of the Janiasariee, my fathers, throngh the imprudence of a 
young man, I have liBtened to bad advice ; bnt wherefore bnmiliate 
me thns P Will yon have nothing more to do with me?" "We 
will have neither your domination nor yonr blood," replied the rebels, 
laying handB upon him. The unfortunate Osman defended himself 
fw some time, till at length one of hie execntioners passed the bow* 
string ronnd his neck and bo despatched him. They sent one of his 
ears to the Snltana Yalide, by whose orders to ber Vizier, Dand 
Pacha, he bad been pat to death Thns perished the first Ottoman 
Emperor whom his snbjects had doomed to assassination. 

2. Beitoration of Mustapha I. — Amurath IV. (162S). 

Once mote set npon the throne, Mnstapha -was daring fifteen 
months the plaything of the soldiety. The mnrderers of Oeman soon 
repented of their crime ; they were, however, the absolnte masters 
of the State, and dJBposed, according to their caprice, of the most 
important posts. Bat those among them who had been opposed to 
the mnrder of the Saltan revolted, and were only appeased by 
making them freqnent distribations of money ; the Sipabis, in their 
tnm, compelled concessions of the public farms, and imposed fresh 
taxes on the timart. At length the provinces of Asia were excited 
to revolt by the Pacha of Erzeronm, and an attempt at revolt by the 
niemaa of Constantinople increased the nniversal anarchy. The 
Janissaries themselves saw the abyss into which the Empire was 
descending, and nom.inated a Grand Vizier, who proposed to depose 
the Snltan, and appoint as his sncceBSor Amnrath, eldest son of 
Achmet. This met with their approval, and, informed of the ex- 
hanstion of the treasnry, they renoanced the accession donative. 
Amnrath was then proclaimed (1623). 

The new Snltan was bom in 1612. His yonth seemed to secnre 
impnnity to the nsnrpations and insolence of the soldiery. In fact, 
daring the first ten years of his reign, the Janissaries and the Sipabis 
continaed to harass and oppress the empire. Daring that time, 
Persia extended its conqneste: Shah Abbas seized apon Bagdad 
(1623), and the Osmanli vainly tried to retake that city. The Pacha 
of Erzeronm persisted in his rebellion antil 1628, when be received 
the government of Bosnia. In the Crimea, the Tartars likewise rose ; 
the Ottomans were defeated and taken in snch numbers that a 
Turkish prisoner was sold for a glass of bo^a (a drink made from 
fermented barley). All these reverses had for their cause the spirit 
of faction and insarbordi nation which reigned in the army. At length 
Amnrath grew weary of the yoke. When he saw the Janissaries and 
the Sipabis break in the gates of the Seraglio, and putto death under 


204 TDRKCT OLD AND NBW. [i.D. 1832 -1688. 

his own eyes his moat faithful Berrants, he comprehended that, to 
escape the fate of his brother Oaman, he had need to terrify the 
rebels by his energy and his audacity. " Tia well," said he ; "if 
God permits, yon shall suffer the effects of a fearfnl vengeance — 
oppressors, who fear neither God nor humble yourselves before His 
Prophet ! " He struck terror amongst them by the mnrder of their 
chief, Redgeb Pacha : the corpse of the traitor being flung forth in 
front of the Seraglio gate (1632). 

From that moment the actual reign of Amurath lY. began. The 
Jftnisaaries and the Sipahis took the oatb of fidelity. The Sultan, 
the Grand Yizier, and the mnfti, declared the reversion of the 
Sipahis to the administrative posts suppressed, and proclaimed the 
promise made by both corps to maintain public order. " Mv Padi- 
Bchah," said one of the judges of Asia to the Sultan, "the only 
remedy against abuses is the scimitar." Amurath remembered that 

The termination of that military anarchy brought back victory to 
the banners of the Osmanli. Shah Abbas having died (1629), Ajnu- 
rath resolved to invade Persia, and placed himself at the head of the 
army. He took Erivan, Tcbriz, and besieged Bagdad (1G38). Enam- 
oured of war, be put on the uniform of a Janissary and worked in 
the tronches like a common soldier. Snch conduct inflanted the ardour 
of his troops, and the garrison, tfaongh numerous, was compelled to 
capitulate; but in the intoxication of victory it was massacred. 
Persia sued for peace, ceded Bagdad, and received in exchange the 
province of Erivan. That war brought the Saltan much glory but 
small profit. 

" It may bo said with truth," remarked a contemporary, " that the 
frontiers of Persia are for the Grand Seignior wbat Flanders is to 
the King of Spain, or the island of Candia to the Yeuetiana. The 
expense there is immense, and the revenue very little ; and it has 
chanced to the TurJca, under these circmnstances, that which they 
have never experienced in any other conquest, the imposaibilitj of 
eatablishing timariots and vacsals whence they might draw troops to 
safeguard the country, and a militia wherewith to recruit the ini- 
perial armies. The want of men, the greater number of whom have 
fled to the woods, and the rest taken refuge in the towns of the 
KiuK of Persia, having rendered the country uninhabitable, the 
Turkish soldiers have refused to accept the timars which they could 
not make available, and in which they would not have had the means 
of breeding horses, in order to draw from them the contingent 
imposed upon all the new timariots for the augmentation of the 
cavalry of the array. The conquered country yielded no impost, 
and Amurath was obliged to pay from his gaznak the numerous 
garrisons, snch as were necessary to be kept up in a conquered 
country upon the frontier of an enemy so powerful and of a doubt- 
ful faith.''" 

* "BeUdODG delli date dgI qoaleBi Tetraova il gaTcmo dell' imptrio TurehmM." 



3. Gkaracter of Amurath IV. — State of the Army. 

Amnrath wae then in all the Tigoar of manhood, and seemed ready 
to renew the ezploite of SolTman. An excellent horBeman, he conld 
Bpring easily from one horse upon another, harl the javelin with 
unerring aim, and bend a bow with Bach strength that the arrow 
sped further than the hall from a fowling-piece ; he thna pierced, it 
is said, sheets of iron four inches thick. But the last of mnrder was 
developed in hia eonl. His mode of hunting indicated that that 
passion esisted in him to the highest degree. He took no pleaeare in 
pnrsaing the game, bnt had it ran down by several hnndrod heaters, 
and delighted only in slanghtering it. In 1637, the number of men 
he had caused to be ezecnted in the space of five years was esti- 
mated at 25,000, and many had perished by his own hand. The ez- 
pression of his coantenance was horrible ; bis pale brown eye gleamed 
menacingly, his face was half hidden by his long chestnut hair and 
thick beard ; and be was never more dangerons than when be knitted 
his frowning brows. It was then that his dexterity in launching the 
javelin and arrow became most deadly. His attendants served him 
tremblingly, and his mates conld not be distiagnisbed from the other 
slaves of the Seraglio, for every one spoke by signs. Harder had 
become no longer a means bat a pleasure to this monster. 

The extreme severity of Amurath tamed the inenbordinate spirit 
of bis rebellions soldiety ; he interdicted their assemblages, in which, 
intoxicated with the fnmea of tobacco and coffee, they passed whole 
days withont other oconpation than that of hatching plots. He re- 
established order in the timors, changed the aniform of the Sipahis, 
and no longer permitted them to indulge their noisy tarbnlenoe in the 
streets. He separated the Jamssanes nnfit for service from those 
who were efficient, and forced the latter to march against the enemy 
in spite of tbeir exemptions. He failed, however, to restore the 
ancient valoor to these troops. The Sipahis, to whom their pay was 
not sufficient, often renounced their pay and service. The Janissaries 
seemed only fit to inspire terror among the Western peoples 1^ 
their aspect and shouts; they no longer exhibited either aknowledge 
of military tactics or couiage> Their aga had set out from Con- 
stantinople one day with the entire corps; he brought back from 
Aleppo only 3,000---all the rest had desert«d by the way. Warlike 
operations were shunned with u much ardour as they were sought 
for formerly. The Ottoman armies then fell back into their primi- 
tive condition, and the timariots appeared again as when the nucleus 
of them was first formed. Neveriiheless, the best even of these timo- 
riot troops, that is to say, those who, cantoned on the frontiers of 
Hungary, were kept efficient by continnal fighting, were still com- 
posed ot bad soldiers. The Christians rejoiced that Heaven, for the 
happiness of the faithful, had only endowed the Turks with a slender 
oapooity. They compared the baring of their order of battle to that 


206 TUEKKT OLD AXD S8W. [i.b, 1C87— IWO, 

of a bull — laensciiig' and dangerons in sppearanca, bni> wludi could 
be oTercome b; intelligence eJod address. 

However powerfnl, however absolute he might appear, Amnrath 
was not the less dominated by the inflnence of the Seraglio. He 
waa the sport of his favoarites and hie mother, whom he relegated 
several times and nselessly to the o1d-paIace wherein to confine her. 
self. Moreover, law and right had little power over him in the sight 
of gold, for which he evinced an insatiable tbirst. He cared neither 
for magnificent tisanes nor precious objects of art ; he attached im- 
portance only to the nnmber of parses. Then every one songht to 
appear poor. The possession of gold and silver ornaments, and the 
wearing of costly vestments, were avoided. Money was hidden, in 
the dread of at once exciting both ruling passions of the Glrand 
Seignior — gold and blood. Thna did Amnratb govern his empire. 
He filled his coffers, no donbt ; he placed his life in safety, and died 
calmly in his bed (1640) ; but the terror which had procured him 
that safety paralyzed at the same time the strength of tbe empire ; 
the sword whiob procnred him riches deprived him of men who had 
been the terror of Christendom.* 

4. Belationt vnth France. 

Under the reign of Amnrath France lost mncb of her inflnenca 
in the EJast. It was the fanlt of the greedy merchants, who went so 
far aa to introdaoe spnrions money, and adventorers who practised 
every kind of malversation, and commonly ended by abjnnng tbeir 
raligion. The government of Lonis XIIL, warned of these abases, 
gave more serioas attention to the affairs of the Levant. Ckinsalates 
were established in Albania, and missions in the Morea, at Athens, 
Scio, Constantinople, Aleppo, Seide, &c. A celebrated traveller, 
Deshayes of Conrmesmin, was sent to visit all the French establish- 
ments ; he went throngh the greater portion of the Ottoman Empire, 
eojonmed at Jorosalem, where he established a Consnlate, and caased. 
the cQstody of the Holy Places of Bethlehem to be restored to the 
Catholic monks, of which they had been deprived hr the Armenians. 

The Connt de Cesy, however, had succeeded to Sancy, and under 
that Minister the unfriendly proceedings towards France recom- 
menced. C^y having failed to obtain m>m the Divan the deposi- 
tion of a patriarch of Constantinople who had adopted Calvinism, 
he was obliged to admit the Republic of Venice to shjre in the 
protection of tbe churches of Oalata ; he could not binder the Sal- 
tan, on the demand of the ambassadors of England and Holland, 
from closing the schools and printing oflSces of the Jesaits, and from 
driving that religious body ont of Constantinople (1628). In vain 
did he threaten to withdraw his embassy ; the Vizier tuld him that 
the long-standing amity between France and Turkey could not de- 
pend upon the cbaetissment of a few spies. And the banishment of 
* VcDctiu OHT*U<r« of 1037, dted b; Buke, pp, 101-101, 


l.l>. 1S29— ISSl.] CKSr, H&RCHETILLE. 207 

the JesDits 'was maintained duing' twelve years. Lastly, Ciey, in 
order to promote Frencli commerce, having nndertaken the farmiog 
of the cnstome dnties upon goods, gave the man^ement of it to an 
Armenian (1629), who incaatioaaly became secnritj for several mer- 
chanta of Marseilles and was made bankmpt. Cesy found himself 
leeponsible for his debts, which amoanted to 100,000 francs, and he 
was aoed thereupon. 

Henri de Oonmay, Connt of Marcheville, was then Beat as a 
BQCcessor to Ciej, (1631), with directions to arrange his afEain by 
paying the debts that he had contracted " for the benefit of com- 
merce " in favoDr of the merchants of UarBeilles. Marcheville was 
a presnmptaoas, ignorant person, and a bully to boot. As he entered 
the Arohipelaf^, hn encountered the Seet of the Capndaa-Pacha, who, 
not knowing him, demanded a salate and sammoned him to come on 
board ; he replied by ordering bis own ship to fire a gun loaded with 
ball at the Tnrkish commander, even ahonting to the Bailors to take 
good aim at the admiral, who was on deck. The French vessel was 
soon Bnrronnded by the Ottoman fleet, and Marcheville brought in a 
fnrions rage to the Capndan, to whom he told bis name and mission, 
declaring that he would have his bead or Fmnce should make war 
npon the Porte. The Turk answered him not a word, and only 
released the ambassador on reaching Constantinople. At the first 
audience he had with the Grand Vizier, Marcheville complained of 
the outrage of the Capndan, but with sunh a transport of rage and 
volley of threats, that the Minister interrupted hmi and dismissed 
him. He then threw aside all prudence and circumspection, and 
showed such contempt for Oriental cnstoms, that he passed for a 
madman, and found himself erpoBed to continual insult. Thus he 
favoured the escape of certain Chriatian slaves; be charged sword in 
hand, in the streets of Constantinople, the Janissaries who did not 
make way for him ; he sent his interpreters before the Divan to make 
such preposterous threats, that, if the somewhat snspicious report of 
the Anstrian resident may be believed, one of those iuterpreters was 
hanged, another empaled, and the son of the ambassador imprisoned. 
All this occurred under the reign of a prince who wound up his 
commands thus : " Do as I have said, or I will ont off your 
head I " Free course was then given to the fanatical fury of the 
Ottomans against the ChriBtians ; the ohnrches of Galata were 
closed; all Uie Franks were disarmed, even the ambassadors ; arbi- 
trary taxes were imposed upon European merchandise. Marcheville 
recriminated against all this violence with as much haughtiness as 
malapertness, and found himself an object of hatred not only of the 
Turks, but of all the OhristiauB ; 'lastly, ho consummated his extrava- 
gances by excitins something like a mutiny against his predecessor, 
whose ^fairs he had in no \ny arranged, and who, havii^ returned 
to Constantinople touching his debts, caused to be seized, by an order 
of the King in agreement with the Sultan, the ships of the mer- 
chants for whom he had become security. The Capudan- Pacha, who 
had not ceased to persecute Marcheville, having Hecome Kaunacan, 


aOO TCBKBT OLD AKD NBW. [i,D. 1S34— leS». 

or lienteoant of the Grand Vizier, took advantage of that tomnlt to 
isBne aji order in the Saltan's name, fgr him to quit the city instantly. 
" That order," he said, " ia addre&aed personally to Marcheville, and 
not to the ambassador of the King of France." He then had him 
thmst into a. caiqne that put him on board a French vessel, which 
was at once towed ont as far as the Dardanelles (1634). C6ay, hia 
predecesBor, was invited by the Divan, and almost constrained, to re- 
sume his ambassadorial fnnctioDS, nntil it pleased the King to order 
otherwise. It was confrmed by the Conrt of France, who accepted 
the explanation of the Eaimacan and detnanded no reparation. He was 
still at Constantinople in 1639, when the King nominated ii.. do la 
Haye-Vantelay to the TnrlriBh embassy. 

Amongst all the damage done to the Franks daring the embassy of 
Marcheville, the most serions was the nanrpation by the Greeks from 
the Latins of the cnstody of the Holy Sepulchre. From timeimme- 
morial, the poBaession of the holy places had been assigned to tha 
Franciscan Brothers nnder the protection of France, when, in 1634, 
the Greeks profited by the hostile feeling of the Ottomans against the 
Europeans to advance their claim to it. The matter was pleaded be- 
fore the Divan with mnch solemnity, and in presence of all the Chris* 
tdan ambassadors ; by force of money, the Greeks carried the day, aod 
every efiort which France made to obtain a reversal of that decree 
&iled during some forty ^ears. That nsnrpation of the Greeks dealt 
a heavy blow to French influence in the East ; for the possession of 
the lu>ly places by the French monks was not an empty prerogative ; 
it was the remnant of French domination in the Levant, and testified 
to its power in the eyes of Christians as well aa Turks. Thon 
chnrohes, those sanctuaries, those places consecrated by the life and 
death of Jesas Christ, were not protected by the kings of France 
solely through religions zeal, but from police consideratious. In 
proportion as one of them was taken out of their custody, the French 
name lost something of its ielat in the East, and the day on which 
the flag of France disappeared from the last Christian dome saw a 
marked diminution of French influence in the Levant. 

5. Depredationi of the Barbary Oortain. 
During the interval that France lost the custody of the Holy 
Bepnlchra at Jerusalem and her ambassador was insulted at Con- 
atajitinoplo, her commerce became abandoned to the depredations of 
the Barbary corsairs. Piracy had taken, in the early part of the 
seventeenth century, the most scandalous development; more than 
a hundred corsair craft stmck continnal terror on all sides, whence 
they carried oS costly booty of all kinds, including cattle and their 
owners. Their ravages and cruelties excited the indignation of the 
whole of Europe, for a captivity among the Barbary pirates had be- 
come a common occurrence to travellers ; a thousand Christians lay 
in phaitiB at one time. The Uediterranean belonged no longer to 


A.D. i6ie-ieia] thi babb&rt cobsaibs. 209 

Cbrist!anity, bat entirely to MaliometaBiein, and to the most bar- 
barons and hideoDB portion of UahometaniBm ; for the corBaire of 
Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli were the rakings together of all tbe 
brigands and adventarers of Tarkey, and their chiefs were most 
frequently Christifln renegades. 

Tbe coasts of France had been respected by tbe corsairs in tbe 
early days of the alliance with the Porte : Bolymau was oTjeyed by 
his African vassalB, and Francis I. had a navy- But, under the sno- 
oesson of Solyman, and under the sons of Kenty II., tbe Barbary 
TOrates rendered themselves almost oompletely independent of tbe 
Porte, and France had scarcely a few galleys in tbe Mediterranean. 
Her southern shores there had their share of tbe ravages ; no mer- 
chant vessel dare longer show itself at sea without being armed 
with cannon and soldiers ; ships and Bailors were carried off from 
the very harbours of Syria, from under range of tbe gans of the 
Dardanelles ; Provence and Langnedoc were daily assailed, and 
everr port and every village soon reckoned some fifty of its sailors 
captives in chains. The inbabitants were compelled to fortify their 
dwellings, to invent day and night signals to give warning of tbe 
approach of the barbarians, to arm even the fishing-boats. Kene* 
gades, established in the towns of Africa, bought at a low price tbe 
pillaged merchandise and sold it again in Europe, chiefly in the ports 
of Tuscany. All tbe writings of the period contain complaints on 
that subject, and relate lamentable tales of captivity. 

The Government of Louis XIIT., moved by these complaintB, made 
earnest representations to the Ottoman Porte ; which ordered the 
Barbary corsairs to cease their brigandage upon French vessels, and 
to deliver np the slaves of that nation ; bnt those orders received no 
attention. It was then decided to negotiate privately and directly 
with the pirates. A Trea^ was concluded on the 21st of March, 
1619, between tbe King of France and the Algerinee, by the media- 
tion of the Duke de Qoise, Admiral of the Levant, withoot the 
Porte disturbing itself about this act of independence of its subjects. 
The Treaty was not executed, and, earlv in the following year, seven 
French galleys were sent in search of the corsairs ; they made some 
prizes and continued their cruising dnring two years ; bnt that force 
was insufficient ; commerce continued to suffer, and the assembly of 
French notables of 1626 supplicated tbe King "to maintain in his 
ports a sufficient number of coast-guard vessels to defend the littoral 

r'nat tbe pirates that infested it." Richelieu had then need of 
whole of his navy against the Protestants ; he procured the inter- 
vention of tbe Sultan, who iasned commands " to bis slaves of the 
Algerine militia that they should have respect for the ships and sub- 
jects of his friend, the Emperor of France." One Simon Napolon, a 
merchant of Provence, was sent to Algiers, with two cannons, taken 
from the Barbary pirates and the Turkish slaves who were in tbe 
French galleys, and on the 19th of September, 1628, a new Treaty 
was obtained from the Algerians by wluoh they engaged to respect, 
for Uie fatuie, French ships only. 


ilO TOBKBT OLD AND NEW. (i.D. 1610—1940. 

That Treaty was also violated ; the barbarians could not conceive 
the idea that they ought to respect the life and poBsesaiona of certain 
in6delB ; and an iuBpection made in 1633 upon the coasts of Pro- 
vence by M. de Sejfniran, by order of Bichelien, revealed the 
ravages of the corsairs and the condition into which the oommerce 
of the Levant had fallen. 

Bichelien would have gladly pat an end to this piracy ; bat he 
was absorbed in the straggle in which he was aboat to embark 
against the Honse of Aastria. However, he famished the coasts of 
th« Mediterranean with twelve galleys ; he despatched to Morocco a 
squadron, commanded by the Chevalier de Bosilly, who recovered 
600 slaves from the corsairs ; he entered npon n^otiations with the 
Knights of Malta to make their island a possession of France, and 
projected with them the destrnction of the Barbary pirates. At 
lasi^ in 1636, when the French Fleet, ander the command of the 
Archbishop Sonrdis, sailed from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean 
to retake the Hydros Islands, which had been seized apon by the 
Spaniards, he gave him the following instractions : — 

" After taking the said islands, the armament shall proceed to sail 
close in to the Barbary shore, frota Tnnis to Algiers, and make a 
demand npon those said cities to deliver np the French slaves 
detained there to the prejadice of the Treaties of Peace which they 
have made with the King, oSoring to restore the Tnrks who are at 
Marseilles, or, failing which, war will be declared against them, and 
all the men and vesseTu of the said cities taken or barned." 

The necessity of keeping the sea against the Spaniards prevented 
Sonrdis "from going," as he himself wrote, "to Tarns and to 
Algiers, to make them recognize the flag of France by the months 
of her cannon." The Algerines continned their piracies with so 
mnch snccees, that in two years they captnred eighty vessels carry- 
ing the French flag. In 1640 a new sqaadron was fitted oat, but it 
encoantered the fate of the first, being dispersed by a storm. The 
following year proved oqnally anlncky, and n^otiatioos entered 
upon with Tnnis led to no resnli 

Soch was the nntoward state of the relations between France and 
the East when Louis XIY. ascended the throne ; it was reserved for 
him to aggravate them by errors that had a fatal infinenoe npon 
the destinies alike of Torkey and of France. 

6. Tbrahim I. (1639).— TTor against Venice.) 
Ibtahim I. had succeeded his brother Amnrath lY. He made no 
expeditions into Asia, and, after the example of his brother, 
humoared the Hoase of Aastria ; he enjoined even Kakoczy, Prince 
of Transylvania, to discontinue war against the Emperor and to 
break with Sweden. He showed himself more warlike towards the 
Cossacks, who had seized npon Azof dnring the preceding reign, and 
he recaptured that place from them, whion was already coveted by 


A.D. 18«— 16i7.] WAR AGAINST TEKICB. 211 

the MwBcovitea. All the efforts of the Ottoman power were 
directed against the R«pnblic of Venice. 

In 1644, Borae Maltese galleys captured a Tnrkish vesael bonnd for 
Mecca, and in which were one of the 'women and a eon of the 
Saltan. They were taken to Candiag where the Venetian comman- 
der had the impradence to receive them. On learning this, Ibrahim 
gave way to snch farions anger that at first he resolved to extermi- 
nate alt the Christians in the States ; then, npon the representation 
of the Mufti, the Europeans only ; next, npon the remonstrances of 
his Ministers, the Cfttholio priests. The order for these massacres 
was even given, and its revocation was a matter of such difficnlty, 
that the Franks dwelling in Constantinople believed themselves, 
dnring fifteen days, doomed to certain death. The Snitan then sent 
for the Christian Arabsssadors, and declared that he held them 
responsible for the outrage committed, and that their masters onght 
themselves to avenge him npon the Knights of Malta and the Vene- 
tians ; next he imprisoned them in their honaes, ordered the offices 
of the Frank merchants to be closed, and laid an embargo npon all 
their ships. The ambassadors of England, Venice, and Holland 
represented to the Snitan that not one of their compatriots be- 
longed to the Order of Malta, which was composed almost entirely 
of Frenchmen ; and the wrath of Ibrahim was abont to expend 
itself against France, when the Grand Vizier became desirous of 
profiting by the occurrence to attempt the conquest of Candia, the 
lost Greek possession of the Venetians. To this end he made great 
preparations, and, without declaring war, a fleet of 348 sail landed 
50,000 men in that island, the acquisition of which was destined to 
cost the Ottomans twenty-five years' fighting. 

Chania was taken almost without a blow being stnick (1645). 
The Venetian Fleet having arrived too late to defend that place, 
avenged itself by devastating the coasts of Morea, the isle of Tenedos, 
and the plain of Troy (1646). Bnt several towns of Crete capitn- 
lated, among others the important place of Betimo. The lurks 
failed before Candia, the capital (1647). At the same time they 
attacked Dalmatia, but had no success there. 

Venice had asked aid from all the Christian Powers. The Catholic 
world was stirred np by the insnlts of the Turks ; and the religions 
zeal that then animated France fonnd vent in cries for war against 
the infidels. Mazarin beheld with complacency the peril of the 
Venetians, with whom the French were in rivalry for the commerce 
of the Levant ; bnt he was unwilling that the Turks, whose friend- 
ship for France bad so strangely cooled, should succeed in dominating 
the Mediterranean by the possession of Candia. Pursuing his wily 
policy, he resolved to maintain openly the Ottoman alliance, to 
allow French commerce to profit by the embarrassments of the Vene- 
tians, and at the same time to hinder the success of the Tnrks by 
underhand hostility which shonld make them repent of their bad 
condact towards France, and should satisfy Catholic opinion. He 
aent to Constantinople an Ambassador Extraordinary, M. de Var- 

p 2 


212 TURRET OLD AND WBW. i.i>. 1648. 

ennes, to offer the Divan the mediation of Frsnce; the mediation 
'waB hanghtily rejected. Ge then offered to the Yenetiaae the co- 
operation of the French Navj ; bat he limited that co-operation to 
three fire-shipn, yet on aach conditions that the Senate refnsed 
them. Afterwards he sent to Venice a subsidy of 10,000 crowns, 
hnt secretly and in hie own name. The following year he further 
gave nine ships, bat without crews, and which were to fight ander 
the Venetiao flag, conjointly with nine other vossels famished by 
Spain. Finally, he allowed the Senate to recruit soldiers in France ; 
and that permission was so largely used, that, dnring tweuty-five 
ye««' struggle, and although France was herself engaged in the 
Thirty Tears' War, more than 50,000 Frenchmen, urged either by 
religious zeal or by love of adventure, accepted the pay of Tenice, 
and perished under her fiag. That aamber is confirined by the 
registers of the Bepablic. 

The glory of subduing Candia was not reserved for Ibrahim's 
reign ; the vices of that prince, rather than the courage of the 
Christians, retarded the capture of the city. Worn out by ex- 
cessive debauchery, he was incapable of directing the war and of 
pushing it vigorously. The favourite Sultanas devoured the revenues 
of the State and disposed at will of every appointment. The army 
grew weary of this shameful tyranny, and the spirit of revolt, Bup- 
preased under the preceding reign, re-awoke all the more terrible 
that the Imperial power had been so debased. The Janissaries 
deposed Ibrahim, and the principal dignitaries of the Empire caused 
him to be strangled (164£). His son Mahomet IV., scarcely Seven 
years old, succeeded him. 

Elian or If about IT. uMm 

1. Jntolenee of (Rs Janisaariei; revolt* in Asia. — War in Transyl- 
vania, Bervia, and Moldavia. 

Thb reign of Mahomet IV., which lasted forty years, may he divided 
into three periods ; the first extending from the death of Ibrahim to 
the appointment of the Gruid Vizier Knpruli Mahommed (1648- 
56) ; the second, daring the administration of the two first E!apruli, 
from 1656 to the Treaty of Peace with Poland (1676) ; the third, 
from the death of Ahmed Knpmli, to the deposition of the Sultan 
(1676-87). The first period ie filled with seditions and reversea; 
in the second, Ahmed Eupruli re-esiabtished the a^iirs of the 
Empire; then the troubles recommenced, and the Ottoman power, 
shaken within and without, tottered to ita decline. 

After the murder of ihrahim, the Porte aoderwent anew the 


A.0. 1810—1681.] IHBOLBNCB Or TBI JAHISSABIES. 213 

dominatioiL of the soldiery. Tlie JaDisaariea, at first satisfied with 
their work, repressed ao insurrection of Itchoglans and Sipahis ; bat 
they made the yonng Saltan pay dearly for their insolent guardian- 
ship. Uore tlum onoe, daring the war against Venice, they com- 
promised the honour of the Crescent by their revolts, in presence 
even of the enemy. In 1649, they Tefnsed to continae the siege of 
Gandia, and the Seraskier Hossein was constrained to discontione 
Hm operetions. In 1651, a new sedition cost the life of the grand- 
father of Uahomet IT. Five years after, the Janissaries and Sipahis, 
irritated at the delay in the payment of their arrears, were seen to 
reassemble upon the hippodrome, the ordinary theatre of their 
iasnrreotions, and to clamonr with load eateries for the death of the 
members of the Divan. The Saltan obeyed the call : the lord* of thu 
hi^odrome (at-meidani-aghslari) handed him a list of proscriptions ; 
he delivered into the hands of the ezecotioner his dearest servants, 
and the whole administration was overthrown (1656). Encooraged 
by the example of the army, the inoorporatioa of handicraftsmen 
rose also and oansed the Grand Yixier to be deposed. Finally, 
revolts broke out in the Asiatic provinces : Ahmed Pacha, governor 
of Anatolia, was overcome, taken, and slain by the rebels (1659). 

Fortunately for the Tarka, Germany, eihansted by the Thirty 
Tears' War, which the treaties of Westphalia had just bronght to 
a close (164B), did not think aboat reconqaering Hnngary ; France 
was troabled with the Fronde war (1649-52), and had not yet signed 
peace with Spain; the Saltan therefore had only to combat Venice. 
Bnt, so long as anarchy prevailed within, he obtained no advantage 
without the realm, in spite of the isolation in which the Christian 
Powers left the defenders of Candia. The Admiral Honcenigo even 
obtained in the Terr Strait* of the DardaneUes a complete victory 
over the Turkish Fleet, seized npon Tenedos, Samothracia, and 
Lemnos ; and, by a strict blockade of the Hellespont, sncceeded 
almost in famishing Constantinople (1656). 

Such was the situation of the empire when Kapmli Mahonuned 
was raised to the post of Grand Vizier. His first care, on his 
entrance into power, was to restore order and discipline. A military 
mutiny having broken out, he suppressed it by capital punishments ; 
four hundred bodies were, it is said, flang into the sea. He hanged, 
at the same time, the Groek patriaroh, accased of treason. 

The war against the Venetians was vigorously resumed. Mon- 
cenigo lost his life in an Indecisive battle fought near the Dardanelles 
(1657); the isles of Tenedos and Lemnos were reconqnered ; but 
these snocesses were in part compensated by a victoi^ which the 
squadron of the Bepnblic obtained near Milo (1661). 

A Swedish emlMsay having oome to demand from the Forte an 
alliance offensive and defensive against Poland, Rakoczy, Prince of 
Transylvania, joined his solicitations to those of the Kins of Sweden. 
Eupmli rejected those propositions, and caused tbe iSimsylvanian 
deputies to be imprisoned in the Seven Towers, because their master 
had leagued himself, without the aathorization of the Divan, with 


214 TURKEY OLD AND NEW. [a.d. 1607—16^9 

the Swedes and the GoBsacks. Bakoczj poreisted not the less in 
attacking Poland ; and, with that yiew, he concluded a treaty witli 
the Voivodes of Wallachia and Moldavia. The Poiea defeated him ; 
the Porte deposed and drove him out (1657), as well as the Voivode 
of Wallachia, Constantino I. The Sultan put in place of the latter 
the Greek Mihne, son of a locksmith, and Constentine went into 
Poland only to die. " With him," says a Moldavian historian, " ended 
the family of the Bacsaraba, from which Wallachia had drawn almost 
all its princes during 417 years, from 1241 to 1658. The House of 
Basaaraba gave to that conntry, besides several princes of secondary 
talent, four great Voivodes : Marcea the Great, the founder of the 
army ; Bodolph the Great, the Eefonuer of the Clergy; Michael the 
Brave, the hero and conqueror; and Matthew I., the l^slfttor of 

Bakoczy, dethroned by the Sultan, did not abandon the govern- 
ment of Transylvania without a straggle; he defeated, at Lippa, 
the Pacha of Pesth (1658) ; but he was defeated in turn by Kupruli, 
and so1icit«d the new Yoivode of Wallachia to ally himself with 
him. Mihne, in fact, meditated turning his arms against the Turks ; 
but he wan denoonced by the bojards. " The sabre of the Saltan 
is very much longer than, oura," said those degenerate Wallachians. 
Mihne, in order to obtain the pardon of the Porte, followed the 
Turks in Transylvania. Bakoczy, overcome, was replaced by Acha- 
tins Barcsay, who received investiture from the Stutan, under con- 
dition of paying a tribute of 40,000 dncats (1658). However, the 
fate of Transylvania was reserved for Wallachia. Mihne concealed 
for some time his projecte of revolt. By degrees he increased his 
army and borrowed money from the principal banking-houses of 
Constantinople; at length he commenced open hoatilities. After a 
massacre of all the boyards devoted to the Osmanliy, he attacked 
Tergowitz, took it by assault and put the Tarkiuh garrison to the 
edge of the aword. Thence, he marched towards Giurgevo and 
Btaila, carried those two places by main force, slaughtered all the 
MnsBulmans found therein, and seized upon theirproperty. He was 
not contented with driving the Turks beyond the Danube: renewing 
his alliance with Bakoczy, he sent 10,000 Transylvanians and 10,000 
Wallachians against Ghika, Yoivode of Moldavia. Ghika was over- 
come near Jassy. There the successes of Mihne terminated. Knp- 
mli ordered the Tartars to enter Moldavia, -whilst the Turkish army 
invaded Wallachia. The Wallachians and Transylvanians lost a 
bloody battle upon the banks of the Baglai ; Mihne sought safety 
in the mountains, and Ghika became master of the Wallachians 
(1659). "The Wallachians were accustomed to receive without 
murmuring the princes whom the first Turkish boatman, raised to 
the rank of Grand Vizier, was pleased to send them. They kissed 
the yoke that oppressed them. So complaints, no resistance ! They 
received masters from the shores of the Bosphorus or the centre of 
Albania; they acknowledged them as their voivodes, prostrated them, 
selves in the dnst at their feet and adored the hand that smote them. 



The nation had fallen into decadence; it had lost its nationality, 
and, in conseqnence, its independence. The WallachiaaB, in the dajs 
oi Uicha«l the Brave, rejected the Greeks even as aimple officiale m 
their ^vemment ; the WallaohianB of 1650 accepted with indiffer- 
ence either the outcasts of the Fanar and of Albania, or locksmiths 
or oyst«r merchants ; they soffered and were silent. Ko strong voico 
was raised to remind Turkey of its want of faith, and demand the 
rig hts secured to Wallachia by the ancient treaties."" 

Whilst Tartars and Turks put Wallachia to pillage, the Count de 
Souches, the Imperial general in Hungary, stripped the Ottomans of 
some portions of territory under pretext of protecting the frontiers 
of the empire against the incnrsions of the Tartars, Sidi-Ali, Pacha 
of Bnda, complained of these encroachmente; upon the evasive 
answer of the commander of the German forces he attacked Gross- 
Wardein. Treason opened for him the gates of that fortrees (1660). 

The war continued against Venice; it was commenced against 
Anstria ; it was very nearly breaking out between France and 
Turkey, thanks to the imprudence of M. de la Haye, the French 

2. SiplomaHe Rupture with France. — Death of KupruH I. 

At the commencement of the reign of Mahomet lY., says the 
traveller Chardin, the State was governed by the women and the 
ennuchs, who filled up the highest poste at their pleasure. Nearly 
every month a fresh Grand Vizier was appointed, who, after a few 
days' administration, was deprived not only of office but of life. The 
French ambassador, De la Haye, seeing these frequent changes, 
thought that, during the minority of the Sultan, matters would not 
be otherwise, and that thus the customary visit and presents made 
to each new Grand Vizier were thrown away. When Kupmli re- 
ceived the seals, the ambassador thought that the fortune of the 
former would not be more favourable than that of his predecessors ; 
but he judged erroneously, and a serious rupture resulted from his 

As soon as Kuproli had entered upon his office, each dignitary niade 
his visit to him with the customary presents, among others the foreign 
Ministers, with the exception of the French ambassador. The latter 
wEts repeatedly enjoined to do the same, and it was even pressed upon 
him ; but the desire of sparing his nation the cost of a present kept 
him back from it ; nevertheless, seeing that Kupruli was establishing 
himself at Court upon the ruin of several grandees, and that, ac- 
cording to all appearance, he would be for some continnance Grand 
Vizier, he at length went to see him and made his present. Truly, 
it was something more than a visit and a present thrown away ; for 
the Vizier, indignant at the negligence and little consideration shown 
* Koealuitcbuo, " Birtorj of Wallachia," He, tvm. i. p. 299. 


216 TDBEBT OLD UID NEW. - X.D. 10S9— 1660. 

towards Iiim in that important janctnre, had conceived the design 
of avengii^ himself npon him, and eren apon the whole French 
nation. That was the trne Bonrco and origin of &e untoward corre- 
spondence that ensued between France and Turkey daring the entire 
ministry of that Vizier, and even afterwards ander the ministry of 
his son, who ancceeded him. So that the obdoracy of the Porte 
and the divers insults offered to the French during some twenty 
years mnst be attributed originally to a perwinal slight, notwith- 
atanding the reasons upon which they were founded in the sequel, 
of which the chief and most just were the enterprise sigaiust Gigeri 
and the snccour given by the Emperor to the Venetians. 

Eapruli soon found an occasion for giving vent to his resentment. 
It presented itself in such wise that he conld not have wished for a 
better. From the commencement of the war against Candia, France 
had secretly assisted the Venetians, and De la Haye was expected to 
keep up a clandestine correspondence with the Venetians, ftnd make 
them acquainted with the designs of the Turks. Ke had written to 
them advising that they should not yield to the demands of the 
Divan, giving them to understand that they ought to hope evei^- 
thing from the protection of Louis XIV., and that his master wonld 
not be the mediator of a peace disadvantageous to the Christians. 
Kupmli, having been apprised of this correspoudeuce by a renegade 
who delivered up to him the despatches to the ambas^dor, written 
in cipher (16S9), became greatly infariatod, being naturally passion- 
ate and sanguinary ; and ordered De la Haye to repair to Adria- 
nople, where the Court then was. The ambassador, being ill, sent his 
sou in his stead. The Vizier received him hanghtily, and ordered hini 
to decipher the letters. The latter replied that " the secrets of the 
King, his master, must be kept." Eupmli Sew into such a rage, that 
he shouted to his ehiaoux, "Strike that dog I " And the latter 
msbing upon young De la Haye, maltreated him ; and afterwards 
threw him into a dungeon in the great tower of Adriano^e. " That 
cannot be suffered," said the Vizier, "from the ambassador's envoy, 
although he be his son, which would not be endured from the 
ambassador himself." The secretaries and the interpreters of the 
embassy were menaced with torments and even death. 

De ta Haye, the elder, hastened to Adrianople. The Vizier required 
of him in vain to decipher the letters, characterized his conduct as 
treason, and quitted the city to carry on the war in Transylvania, 
ordering a strict watoh to be kept over the ambassador, and leaving 
his son in prison. It was only after bis return from the war that he 
permitted him to return to Constantinople (1660). 

At the news of this event, Mazarin, anxious to prevent a rupture, 
despatched a gentleman named Blondel with a letter from the King, 
which demanded amends and the dismissal of the Vizier. Kuprali 
received that envoy supercilionslv, complained of France, which 
gave sncconr to the enemies of uie Porto, and threatened to send 
away De la Haye ignominiously. Blondel, unable to obtain an audi- 
ence of the Sultan, returned with his letters. On his arrival, Mazarin 


A.D. 1661. 1 DKATH OF EnEBULI. 217 

recalled De 1ft Haye (1661), and entmeted tbe oare of the atbirs of 
France at GonBtantinople to a merchant named Boboly, vho remained 
in charge till 1665. 

The rapture seemed complete ; England, Holland, and Anatria 
nrged France to make war, and their ambassadors at Constantinople 
exaggerated designedly the inanlte the French had received. But 
Hasarin, who had recently by the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) 
marked ont for France the policy which he thonght would give him 
the domination of the West, refused to involve himself in an im- 
politic straggle with Turkey. He refrained, therefore, from an open 
rupture with the Ottomans, who were embarrassed with their two- 
fold war in Candia and Hungary, bnt sent 1,000 Frenchmen to 
Candia, and protected the recruiting of numerous volunteers for the 
Venetian army ; lastly, he prepared to give aid to the Emperor 
against the Ottomans. 

Masarin and Eupruli both died in the same year (1661), after 
having both exercised a veritable tutelage over the sovereigns of whom 
they were the Ministers, and resuscitated the power of the States they 
governed. Mazarin had to conquer tb^Fronde ; Kupruli repressed 
the Janissaries, stifled an insurrection in Asia Minor, and pacified 
Upper Egypt. The first-named, finishing the work of Richelieu, 
abased both branches of the House of Anstria, and af^nuidized 
Fittuce on the East and South; the latter prepared the fall of 
Candia, refastened the links of vassalage which bound Transylvania 
and the Dannbian Principalities to the Ottoman Empire, and com- 
menced against Austria a war catcalated to place Vienna in peril. 
But if he may be compared in some things with Mazarin, Euprnli 
still more closely resembled Jtichelieu alike by his enei^ and his 
cruelty. He caused the death, it is said, of more than 30,000 persons. 
On his death-bed, before expiring, he advised the Sultan to withdraw 
himself from the control of the women ; not to shut himself up in 
the Seraglio ; nor to allow the troops to become enervated by idleness, 
and never to choose a too wealthy Minister. Mahomet IV. requested 
of him, as a Isat service, to indicate the person whom he cornddered 
the most fitting to replace him. " I know none," replied the Grand 
Vizier, "more capable than my son Ahmed." So, Ahmed Enpruli ' 
inherited the functions and authority of his father (1661). 

3. War in S%ngary. — Intervention of France. — Battle of St. Gothard. 
— Treaty of Yatvar. 
The Grand Vizier bequeathed to his son the termination of two 
wan. Venice and Austria in vain entered upon negotiations. 
Ahmed Kupruli cressed the Danube near to Gran, and laid siege to 
Keuhieusel. The capture of that fortress, which was the bulwark of 
Hungary, entailed the submission of the adjacent strongholds. At 
this time the Tartar hordes ravaged Hungary, Moravia, and Silesia, 
and carried nearly 80,000 Christians into slavery. 


218 TURKEY OLD AND MKW. [a. D. 1663. 

The Emperor Leopold was abandoned to his own forces; the States 
of Germany, which found themselves, subsequent to the Treaties of 
Westphalia, and especially since the League of the Rhine, nnder the 
protection of France, were unwilling to afford him any assistance. 
In order to save Hungary, Alexander VII., a Pontiff devoted to the 
Honse of Austria, conceived the project of a coalition of all the 
Christian States against the Turks. After the overtnre that was 
made to him, Louis XIV. sent an ambassador to Rome to represent 
to the Popethe reasons that ought to deter France from entering 
Buoh a League, " such as the protection of religion in the Ottoman 
dominions, the interests of French anbjeota in the oommeroe of the 
Levant; lastly, the particnlar com plaints of Louis XIV. against the 
Emperor; nevertheless, the very-Christian King rose above those 
reasons ■ he would enter into the League, and urge upon his allies of 
Germany the necessary arguments to induce them to join it." The 
" Great Monarch," in ftict, and the League of the Rhine concluded a 
Treaty by which both parties were bound to place on foot 30,000 men 
each to march i^inst the Turks. But the Emperor, at the antici- 
pation alone of such lai^e forces, grew uneasy at the sorry part he was 
^acting in Germany in face of the Protector of the League of the 
Rhine; and through bis advice the Pope grew cold touching the 
coalition. Louis XIV. was irritated at the reception given to his 
offers—" offers which were such," wrote his Minister Lionne, " that 
any other Pope would have publicly rendered thanks to Heaven for 
them • after all," added he, " it is yet more His Holiness's affair than 
oure-'itwill be sufficient for His Majesty, for his own satisfaction 
and his discharge towards God, the having made every advance in 
relation to this League that a king, the eldest son of the Church and 
principal defender of religion, could -make in a peril imminent to 

The successes of the Turks continued. The Emperor and the Pope 
amin asked for saccour from France, but only in the shape of money, 
Louis XIV. offered 24,000 of his own troops and 24,000 of his 
German allies. The Emperor refused them, saying openly that, with 
Buch an army, the King of France would be more the master of the 
Empire than himself. Louis XIV. offered an army less by one-half. 
At length it was agreed to send into Hungary 6,O00 Frenchmen and 
2^000 men of the Rhine Le^ue, commanded by the Duke de la 
FeuiUade and the Count de Coligny. A subsidy of 200,000 crowna 
was given to the Pope for the war ; but a renewal of the project 
of a coalition was ut^ in vain. " It is a noble design," wrote 
the French ambassador from Rome, " which has vanished in 

Whilst the French and the auxiliaries of the Rhine Lengue 
marched towards Hungary, Hohenlohe, the Imperial general, and 
Zriny, Ban of the Croats, seized upon Presnitz, Babocsa, and Baris, 

and burned the town of Fiinfkirchen with more than 500 villages. 
The Count de Strozzi obtained also some successes, but he perished 
in a skirmish upon the banks of the Muhr. The celebrated Monte- 
Dot zed by GoOglc 

i-n. 166*.] BiTTLB Of BT. OOTBARD. 219 

cncnlli sncceeded him in the commaQd, and arrested the meDaoing 
tide of MnBBulmaii invasion. 

In 1664, Montecncnlli waa enabled to take the field with greater 
chance of soccesB ; and thoagh the first operations of the campaign 
were in favour of the Torks, he at length stopped their advance 1:^ 
the memorable battle near St. Gothard, a Cistercian monasteTj on 
the borders of Hnngaty and Stjrria. Knpmli-Ahmed had advanced 
as far OS the Baab ; thrice he attempted to cross that river, and 
thrice he was repulsed. In the last combat, foaght near the village 
of St. Gothard, Montecncnlli having given the nord " Death or 
Victory^," the Christians, contrary to their nsnal practice, charged 
withont waiting to be attacked ; the Tnrks were routed and thrown 
into a disorderly flight, in which nearly 26,000 of them were slain or 
drowned in the Raab (Ist of Angnst, 1664). The 30,000 auxiliaries 
of France and Germany decided the snccess of that battle. It is 
related that, when the Grand Vizier saw the French gentlemen 
rnshing forward in their ribbon-decked hats and white perukes, he 
cried out, " What are those ^onng girls ?" But, in the twinkling of 
ui eye, the ranks of the Janissaries were pierced by those whom the 
Ottoman historians call the " men of steel ;" and those who escaped 
from the defeat repeated long afterwards, in their warlike exercises, 
the cries nttered by the French on rnshing into the milie : " Aliens ! 
aliens ! Tne 1 tne !" 

Bnt instead of pursning the advantage, which seemed to open the 
road to the most eztensive conqneste, the Imperial Cabinet surprised 
all £nrope by seizing the opportunity to make peace with the 
Porte. On the 10th of August, only a few days after the battle of 
St. Gothard, a Treaty was concluded at Yasvar for a twenty years' 
truce. This Treaty di&ered widely from that of Sitvatorok, concern* 
ing which Kupmli could not endure any allnsion to be made. By it, 
Transylvania waa to be evacuated by the Imperialists and by the 
Tnrks. Apafy waa acknowledged by tjie Emperor and by the Snltan 
as Prince of that country, but remaining tributary to the Porte. Of 
the seven Hungarian " comitats " sitnato between Transylvania and 
the Theisa, three were to belong to the Emperor : the four that had 
been seized upon by Rakoczy to remain to the Ottomans. The Snltan 
kept Novigtad and Nenhoansel. Thus the Emperor abandoned tothe 
larks almost all their conqnests, and, moreover, made the Saltan a 
pretent — in other words, paid him a tribute — of 200,000 florins. 

4. Hogtilitiea againtt the Barhary Piratet. 
The troops sent by Lonis XIV. to the aid of the Emperor retamed 
to France after the ratification of the Treaty of Vaavar, but the 
French squadrons at sea continued to cmise in the Mediterranean 
for the deetruction of the Barbary pirates. It were long to enume- 
rate the combatB with tlie corsairs fought by Beaufort, d'Hocqnin. 
court, Doqnesne, Tonrville, and d'Estrces ; the capti 

and bnming 


220 TUUKBY OLD AND HEW. [a.I>. 1664— 1S66. 

of their regsela ; the expeditions directed Bgwost their towns ; and it 
wonld take longer Btill to enomerate the attempts made to indnce 
them to respect the rights of nations, the negotiations entered apon 
with them, the treaties signed and broken bj them. It is incredible 
to what an extent the Oovermnent of Louis XIY. made advances, 
submitted to insalts, promised adTantages, in order to aSord some 
eeonritj to maritime commerce and force the Barbaresqnes to form 
some idea of civilization. It was Colbert who constrained his royal 
master to abasehis pride before the necessities of Eastern commerce. 

The Government of Lonis XIV. was not satisfied with sending 
expeditions against the Barbaresqaes, it was desiroas of having a 
military establishment npon the coast of Africa, as the Spaniards had 
one at Oran. After having made, with the Order of Malta, the 
alliance projected by Bicheliea, and which placed at its disposal the 
entire navy of the Knights, it despatched, under the command of 
the Dnke of Beaufort, a fleet of thirty sail, which steered for Djigelli 
or (Hgeri. 'iliat small place was seized upon, and a fort bnilt there, 
the rnins of which are still to he seen. Bat then discord having 
ensned between the troops on land and the sea force, the AJgerines 
profited by it to retake the town, and compel the French to retreat. 
In spite of this check, the enterprise against Gigeri created a great 
sensation. "It is a sample," said a contemporary journalist, "of 
what the infidels have to fear and the Christians to hope for." " It 
excited," says the Chevalier d'Arvieux,* " endless murmurs throngh- 
out the Ottoman Empire, in Syria, and in Egypt. . . . The Turks 
and the Moors cried for vengeance. They said openly that all the 
Franks who were in the Empire must be exterminated. Those -who 
entered the harbours of Syria were loaded with insults and threatened 
with vengeance, both in their persons and their possessions, for the 
losses which the capture of Qigeri had entailed. The English, the 
Dutch, and other Franks who were in the seaports kept aloof 
from ns, and took care to say that they were not Frenchmen, and 
that they had taken no part in the capture of Qigeri. We were 
warned on all sides that we stood in an extreme danger, and that 
there was a likelihood that the Tnrka wonld make us experience the 
fnij of another Sicilian Vespers." 

The Government of Lonis XIV. had hoped that the expedition 
against Gigeri, the battle of St. Gothard, the snooour given to tbe 
Venetians, wonld indnce tbe Ottoman Forte to make reparation, and 
to seek for a renewal of the alliance ; bnt the Divan concealed its re- 
sentment, affecting a careless and haughty impertnrbabililT'; it appeared 
neither to be moved by the de«wture of the French ambassador, nor 
to perceive the hostility of France, nor to fear a rupture ; it con- 
tented itself by replying to the aggressions of its ancient »Uy by 
crippling her commerce and persecuting the Christians in the East. 
Matters hod come to that point that the alliance mnst be renewed or 
entirely broken off. "War has been made in Enrope," wrote d'Ar- 

• *> lUmoino," torn. ML p. S. 


i.p. 16e4-IBe6.] FOLICT OF COLBZBT. 221 

Tienz to Lonle XIV., " for mnch less reasons, and I do not think it 
can be said that we are trnlj at peace with the Qrand Seignior, if 
that alliance be not renewed upon the same footing as though nothing 
had ever taken place between toot Majesty and him." Colbert 
inheriting Mazarin'B ideas, looked upon a war a^iuBt the Tarks as 
a catastrophe to be avoided at any price. In his opinion, it would 
turn aaide France from its tme intereata in the East, rain a portion 
of her commerce, lannch her upon an unknown path, and which 
oonld not be hers. He farther forced Louis XIY. to humble himself 
before that fatal necessity, and despatched to 'Constantinople' two 
Secretaries of Embassy to inqarre whether the Porte wonld. be dia- 
poaed to lenew the capitulations, if it wonld i«ceive with honour a 
new ambassador, and had no repugnance to see the younger M. de 
la Haye exercise those functions. Kopruli, feigning to forget O-igeri, 
St. Gi>thard, and Candia, replied that the friendship of the Forte 
for France was of too long standing to be changed by the insensate 
conduct of an ambassador, and he promised a fair reception to M. de 
la Haye. 

The latter was in nowise the functionary capable of reconciling 
tiie two Powers ; against it, besides the antecedents of his father, 
was his rancorous and passionate disposition, which made him hated 
even by his fellow-countrymen. He arrived in Constantinople in 
1666, and "from the first," says Chardin, " he conducted himself with 
as mnch hanghtiness as might be expected from a firm-minded Minis- 
ter who sustains the character of ambassador of a powerful ^d 
formidable King. In the visits which he paid to the members of the 
Divan, be spoke only and incessantly of the grandeur of the King 
bis master, and the power of his arms. This very mnch displeased 
the Vizier, who im^ined that it was aa intentional insult offered to 
him and the Qi-and Seignior in his own Court, and, with that pre- 
poaaession, he treated the ambaaaador with a contempt outrageous 
enough." In an audience he gave him, he received him with much 
disdain, not looking at him, or rising from his place; when at length 
he turned round to speak to him, it was to reproach him for the suc- 
cour that France had sent into Hungary and to Candia ; then he 
dismissed him, 

De la Haye, whom his compatriots accuse of the malignant pro- 
ceedings of the Porte against France, supported that affront uncom- 
plainingly ; but as soon as he had quitted the palace, he sent to 
tell the Vizier that he certainly wonld not reckon the rencontre that 
had jnst taken place between them as an andience given by the 
^ime Minister of the Grand Seignior to the ambassador of the most 
puissant monarch of Christendom ; that he demanded of him a fresh 
audience, but on condition that he should be received therein with 
all the homage due to the master whom he represented. The Vizier 
granted the audience, with the condition imposed upon it; but, by a 
caprice of bmtal barbarity, he received the ambassador as for the 
first time. De la Hnye, highly indignant, reproached him both for 
d for hia want of ^th, and he declared to him that, if 


222 TUEKKT OLD AKD HKW. [i,D, 1896—1667. 

he did not make him reparation, he had orders to hand back the 
capitalations and retnm to France. The Viaier in tnm flew into a 
rage and replied hy an msnlt. The amhaarador took from the hands 
of his interpreter the cupy of the capitulations, flung them to the 
Vizier and roHe np to take hia departure. Thereupon it is said (bnt 
the report alone of the Anatrian ambassador mentions these details) 
that, the Viaier having treated him as a Jew and a dog, he placed 
his hand upon the hilt of hia sword, when the chiaoux rushed npon 
him, struck him with a stool from which he had jast risen, and gave 
him a box on the ear. That which appears certain is that on going 
out he WHB arrested and detained for three days in one of the cham- 
bers of the palace. During that interval, the Vizier deliberated with 
the Mnfti and the Capndui-Pacha npon that imbrogho and the war 
which might ensue. The Grand Seignior being informed of what 
had happened, commanded Euprali to reconcile nimeelf with De la 
Haye. The latter, knowing that the Court of France was dissatis- 
fied with his conduct, lent himself to all the arrangements; and it 
was determined that the two preceding aadiences should be considered 
as null ; that the ambassador should give no account of them to his 
master, and that, in a third audience, he should be received by the 
Grand Vizier with the customary ceremonies and honours. The 
audience took place ; Kupmli overwhelmed De la Haye with kind 
attention, politeness and presents; but a good understanding was 
not re-established between the two Ministers, aad Fruice and the 
Porte continued, whilst preserving a friendly exterior, to annoy each 
other secretly. 

De la Haye was ordered to demand the renewal of the capitula- 
tions and ^edom for the French to trade with India by way of 
Egypt and the Red Sea. These demands were refused. The Geuoese, 
who traded in the Levant under the French Sag, had made use of 
the name of France to obtain from the Grand Seignior the liber^ of 
trading directly with his subjects; they had been refused. Then 
they addressed themselves to England, and, under her protection, 
obtained capitulations analogous to those of the English and the 
Dutch. Lonis XIV. ordered De la Haye to demand the revocation 
of those capitulations, as being a violation of the Treaty by which 
the Porfe bound itself not to receive into Turkey any European 
nation save under the French flag. The Vizier replied to him ; 
"Tliat the Sublime Porte was open for withdrawal as well as arrival; 
that the King of France had no right to wish to hinder the Grand 
Seignior from making peace with old enemies and acoording them 
capitulations when they came to demand them of him ; that it ought 
to suffice His Uajeety being acknowledged by the Porte as Padischah 
and as the first prince of Christendom, without pretending to pre- 
scribe in any way respecting other nations." De la Haye recrimi- 
nated in offensive terms against the bad faith of the Ottoman Court ; 
and reverting to the kind of favour which the Grand Seignior con- 
ferred on the King of France by treating him as the first Christian 
prince: "That title," said he, "my master is indebted for to God 


1.1.. 1668— 1667.1 BIBQE OF CANDIA. 223 

alone and to his victorious arms." The treaty made with the 
Genoese was maintained. 

The Conrt of France was irritated at all theae insults, and 
avei^ed ittielf for thent hy giving fresh succour to the Venetians. 

5. France tuccours Candia. — Capture of that place. 

The war in Hangary had created a diversion from that of Candia. 
When the Treaty of Vasvar was signed, Knpmli-Ahmed resolved to 
terminate bj a decisive blow the long-pending contest between the 
Ottoman £mpire and the Bepublic of Venice. Embarking in May, 
1666, he coasted along Asia Minor and arrived on the 3rd of Novem- 
ber at Canea. His presence reanimated the ardonr of the Turks, 
wearied by a war of twenty-two years, and the trenofaes were opened 
tinder the walls of Candia the 28th of May, 1667. The besieged sus- 
tained the attack of the Qrand Vizier with an incredible obstinacy ; 
and the Torks exhibited a no less fierce animosity. But as fast ae 
they carried or destroyed some portion of the ramparts, new fortifi. 
cations arose in their rear; it might be said, according to the ex- 
pression of an historian, that the city only shut itself np closer be- 
fore the befii^rs. Kuprali, in that caomaign, lost 8,000 men. 

The followinK year, a troop of 1,200 French gentlemen, amongst 
whom were to be found some of the most illustrious names in the 
French monarchy, crossed the Mediterranean ander the flag of Malta, 
and entered Candia nnder the command of the Dnke de la Feoillade. 
These volnnteers, animated by that wild and irrepressible valour 
which has frequently coat France as many defeats as victories, 
thought that it would be sufficient for them to make a sortie to effect 
the deliverance of Candia, and they demanded that it should be 
made. The governor, Morosiui, whose garrison was exhausted, re- 
fused. Thereupon they declared that they would make the sortie by 
themselves, nnassisted. In fact, aided only by the Knights of Malta, 
they sallied out, headed by La Feoillade, who had a whip in his 
hand, and six monks carrying a crucifix ; they spread a panic in the 
Turkish camp and slew some 1,200 of them ; but surrounded very 
soon by thousands of the foe, they retreated, leaving a hundred of 
their band dead or wounded, and, discouraged by that unfortunate 
adventure, they re-embarked. 

The renown of this chivalrous affair entailed upon the ambassador 
fresh insults and npou the French morchants in the Levant fresh ex. 
tortious. Louis XIV. becoming weary of all this, ordered De la 
Have to retnm to France, and despatched four vessels commanded by 
M.Salmeiras to bring back with him all Frenchmen willing to re- 
turn. The ambassador informed the Kaimacan of this measure, 
telling him that he was only waiting for the French squadron and 
the eongi of the Porte. The Kaimacan inquired of the ambassador 
whethei* be had a successor. De la Haye replied that the King of 
France would no longer keep an embassy at the Porte, because that 
dignity had not been considered nor respected there as it ought to 


224 TtRKBT OLD AN1> NEW. {i.D. 1608—1660. 

be ; that he would leare a merchaat to reside there, until reparation 
had been made for the InBnlte offered France for long years past. 
The Divan took time ere they gave the conj^ asked for, in accord 
■with De la Haye, who wished to retain his appointment. But a re- 
port ran that Loaia XIT. was preparing a formidable sncconr for the 
deliTerance of Candia, and that he had even decided upon open war 
gainst the Turks. The Grand Vizier became alarmed at this, and 
pressed the siege of the city with forces exceeding 100,000 men. 

In fact, Lonis XIV., driven to extremity by the insult* of the 
Porte, and wishing to make a parade in the eyes of ChriBt«ndom of 
bis religions zeal, was preparing a sncconr for Candia (January 1669), 

composed of twelve battalions of infantry, 300 cavalrY and a detach- 
ment from the King's household of 200 gentlemen volnnteers, in all 
6,000 men, whom a Turkish historian calls " 6,000 swine having evil 
designs." That small army, commanded by the Duke de Navailles, 
was embarked in twenty-seven transports escorted by fifteen ships of 
war under command of the Duke de Beaufort ; it hoisted, in order to 
keep np the appearance of neutrality, the standard of the Church, 
and had for its van-guard fourteen pontifical galleys. The first divi- 
sion, 4,500 strong, arrived in June, 1669, when Candia was reduced 


A.D. 106>.] CAPTOBI OF CAHDIl. 225 

to the laat extremitiefl ; the mnaketeera of the King's household would 
not disembark dnriiur the night, bat I&nded in open daylight nnder 
fire of the Torks. Next day, and nithont 'waiting for the remainder 
of the army, a sortie was determined npon ; bat Navaillee, desirona 
of making it with iaa troops alone, refased the soldiers that Uorosini 
offered to give him. The sortie was a vigorons one, the front line of 
the Turks being hurled back and terror spread throngh their armji 
when an ezplosion of some barrets of gunpowder, which took place in 
the r&nks of the French, threw them into coBfusion Etnd compelled a 
retreat. They left 500 men upon the field of battle, and amongst 
them was the Duke de Beaufort. 

The second division arrived; but discouK^ement wagalreadymani- 
fest in the royal army, which had recognized that the plaoe was no 
longer defensible. However, the French Fleet joined itself to the 
Venetian Fleet in order to attack the Turkish camp, and cannonaded 
it for an entire day, without other result than the loss of a French 
ahip, which blew up during the combat. Then Navailles, diasatiafied 
with the VenetianB, reimbarked with his small army (21st of Aogust) 
and returned to France. He was blamed by Louis XIV. for that 
TH-ecipitouB retnru, and exiled from Court. The departure of the 
French was the signal for the snrreuderof the town. Morosini capi- 
tnlated, and at the same time signed a peace with the Turks (Sep- 
tAmber 6, 1669). The Republic lost the island of Crete, with the 
exception of three ports : Carabusa, Suda, and Spina-Longa. 

" HiatorTi" says Ton Hammer, " mentions no stronghold the con- 
qneet of which cost so much treasure, time, and efforts as that of 
Candia. Twenty-five years passed in Gghting for its possession, and 
dnring that time it had snstained three sieges, the last of which was 
prolonged for three whole years. The Turks had attempted fifty-six 
times to aasaolt ; they had pushed forty-five subtenattean attacks. 
The besieged exploded 1,172 mines ; the Turks firing three times as 
many. The Venetians lost 50,000 men; the Turks above 100,000." 

Dearly as this victory had cost the Empire, the Sultan and his 
Court manifested the greatest joy at it. KnpruU-Ahmed shared 
with bis companions in arms the glory of the success. " All," said he 
to them, "all of yon have contributed to that conquest with all your 
■oul and all your strength. May your faces shine with refulgence in 
both worlds! May the Padishah's bread be honestly earned by you I 
I shall represent before the eyes of onr sublime master the grandeur 
of your services, and my attention shall be given to the bMtowal of 
rewards according to your several ranks." The Sultan ratified the 
promises of the O-rand Vizier, and lavished upon him the most 
signal proofs of his favour. It had been thongbt that Caudia waa 
the shoal against which the Ottoman power wonld be dashed to 
Thus Kupmli remarked after the capitulation : " The 
h hare had pity upon na !" 

bv Google 


6. Fresh dUagreement with France. 

The sqaadron of Dalmeiras Itad arrived, but De U Hay e bad not 
taken hb departure. To maintain himself in his of&ce he laboured 
eecretly and meanly to restore a good nndentanding between France 
and the Porte, and he deceived hia own Coort by tellinir it in his 
letters that ho was treated with all cnstomary respect. Finally, he 
allowed the sqaadron of Dalmeiras to set sail again for France, and 
went himself to Larisaa, where the Ottoman Conrt was then sojonm. 
ing, nnder pr8t«2t of taking leave of the Snltan ; there he man- 
cenvred in sach wise that he decided the Uivan to send an amb&aaador 
to Paris with a letter from the Saltan, in order to renew friendly 
relations between the two States. .That mission was confided to a 
mouteferrika (officer of the gnards) named Soliman, to whom the 
Porte granted only 2,000 crowns for his jonmey, and vhich was 
defrayed secretly, it is said, by the money of De la Haya He 
embarked on board a French vessel, arrived in Paris, was ireceived 
in solemn audience at St. Germain, and presented to the King (5th 
of December, 1669) his master's letter. " Yon know," said the 
Snltan, " that for a period very long past the Emperors of France, 
yonr predecessors, had contracted that ancient alliance with the aare 
and firm family of the Ottomans, that they have lived up to the 
present time so happily in such alliance, friendship, and sincerity 
that the nations and peoples have always enjoyed repose and tran. 
qnillity. That good understanding was increased to snch a degree, 
that, having snEFered neither any alteration nor change, it might be 
said that it had been established for the peace of the whole world, 
for the regnlation and ordering of the affairs of men . . ." And 
he complained of the recall of the ambassador, " who has always 
been," said he, " nnder the pennaneot shadow of cor justice, with 
honour, whilst your subjects and merchants entering the havens of 
onr empire have enjoyed all the protection they required, and 
nothing has happened that should alter in the slightest degree the 
good faith, the friendship, the affection and the sincerity which have 
existed between uB for so long a period." 

Louis XIV, was satisfied neither with the Sultan's letter nor with 
the qnality and manners of his envoy, a coarse and vulgarly haughty 
individual, who expected that amends wonld be made, and received 
only vague and illusory words. The majority of the courtiers forced 
him to a rupture. "TTie Turks," said they, "are arrogantly prepos- 
sessed with the idea that their country is indispensably necessaiT' to 
everybody ; they are imbued with the vanity that the Forte is the 
asylam and the resource of all the princes on earth ; their supersti- 
tion leads tbem to believe tfaat all the Christian nations ought to 
be subjected to them ; and they do not scruple to tell ua, whenever 
we complain of their injustice, that, should any one of us quit their 
country on one of his eyes being knocked out, he wonld return next 
day in order that they might tear out the other also." 



" It BeeiDa," wrote d' Arvienx to Louis XIV., " that if yonr Majeetj 
would bo treated as on an equality with the (>rand Seignior, that the 
latter shonld not be allowed to send an ambassador to France who 
cannot answer for the treatment that ours should receive at the 
hands of the Grand Seignior ; affairs wonld then go on mach better. 
That, however, appears impoBsible, if it be considered that it is not 
at all the cnstom of the Tnrks to keep ambassadors in residence 
amongst their confederates. The Ottoman Emperors receive gra- 
cioasly all those whom the Christian princes send there, provided 
they have presents to offer, and that thej find their account in the 
propoeitions which they come to make. In that way they consider 
it an hononr and a singular grandeur to be sought by all, and to 
seek the friendship of none." 

Lonis, who was then in all the pride of youth and power, felt 
inclined to follow such counsels, although they might lead to war. 
Bnt Colbert represented to him that the saperiority which the 
Sultans affected over the Christian princes was rather a form com- 
mon throughout the East than a reality : that it had no effective value, 
as events daring the alliance had proved, since the Turks had rather 
been in the service of France than France in the service of the 
Turks ; that it woald not be wise for the Bake of a few words to put 
at stake an alliance which had been a Htnmbting-block for the House 
of Anstria, and which was envied by all their enemies. Louis yielded 
to these reasons ; and it was decidoii that a fresh ambassador shoald 
be sent to the Porte to replace De la Haye, whose intrigues had 
become known ; that a company for the Levant should be formed 
with twenty of the most notable merchants of Paris, Lyons, and 
Marseilles ; that a school for French dragomans should be established 
at Constantinople, Ac. At the same time, the commerce of those 
oonntries was regnlat«d by special legislation ; the consnls were for 
the most part unknown or foreigners ; they were almost all replaced, 
and very severe instmctiona were given them that they should keep 
themselves in constant correspondence with the ambassador, to ren- 
der him an account of the commerce of their port, of the number 
and quality of the French and foreign merchants, &c. The police of 
the consnlates and their chanceries was regulated by a very minute 
ordinance. The ambassadors were forbidden to levy fines upon the 
French merchants, in virtue of ordinances which they themselves 
drew up. Finally, very severe orders were given to the military 
marine for the escort atid the protection of merahant vessels. 

7. The Embaisy of Nointel. — New OapitulaUotu. 
The new ambassador was the Marquis de Nointel (16?0), a learned 
magistnte and skilful antiquary, who had already travelled in the 
East, and who received from Colbert the most detailed and sage 
instmctions. He was to demand the renewal of the capitulations 
with the following alterations : that the customs duty shonld be 



228 TURKBT OLD AND NBW. [a.d. 16SB. 

rednood from fire to three per oent. ; that the King of France ehonld 
be recoguized as the unique protector of the Catholics of the East ; 
that French merchandiee coming from. India ehonld hare free past»ge 
by the Bed Sea and acroBS Egypt. This lattor demand excited above 
all Colbert's aolioitade, who devoted to the proBperity of French 
commerce an attention as active as it wu enthasiastic. He regarded 
Egypt as the tme rente to India, and he deeired thereby to min the 
trade of the English and the Dntch in Asia. " We mnst endeavonr," 
he wrote to Nointel, " to make a Treaty with the Orand Seignior, 
by which it wonld be permitted ns to have at Alexandria or at Qrand 
C^iro vessels that might receive the merchaDdise that other veBsela 
would bring by the Red Sea from Aden to Suez ; which would 
shorten the voyage to the East Indies by more than 200 leagnes." 

Nointel arrived at Constantinople with a squadron of men-of-war, 
which entered the harbonr without saluting the Seraglio and in 
order of battle. The populace and the Ottoman sailors uttered 
fnriouB cries, and a collision was probably aboot to take place, when 
the Sultana-Valide reqaested the commandant of the squadron to 
give the salute for herself ; and immediately the four French ships 
were dressed from stem to stem with every kind of banderole, silken 
and embroidered banners, and to shouts of Vive le roi! saluted the 
Seraglio with all their gnna. This conduct displeased the Divan ; 
and, when Nointel, after having made a pompous entry into the 
oity, which excited fresh displeasure, had set forth the object qf his 
mission, be was coldly received. Kupmli -Ahmed treated his demand 
as exorbitant; affected to believe that the ambassador exceeded his 
instructions, and required that a letter from the King should for> 
mally stat« the nature and extent of the claims of France. Also, 
when Nointel had his solemn audience of the Sultan, he savr in the 
manner and the words of his Ministera the desire to defy him. When he 
vaunted the puissance, the riches, the armies of his master: " Tes," 
replied the Visier, " the Emperor of France is a great monsroh, but 
his sword is yet new." As Nointel recalled the antiquity of the alliance 
between the French and Turks: "Tee," said the Vizier, "the 
French are our best friends, but we find them eveiywhere amongst 
oar enemies." Lastly, on Nointel remarking that His Majesty had 
mrticularly at heart the passage by the Bed Sea ; " Can it be, said 
Kupruli, " that an Emperor so great as yours has so much at heart a 
mere mercantile matter P " However, the negotiation went on ; bnt 
Nointel endeavoured in vain to place the affaire under the Sultan's 
eye, for it was thought in France that the personal resentment of the 
Vizier was the sole cause of the rupture: he oonld only treat through 
the mediation of the Greek Panajotti, first dngoman of the Porte, 
all ponerful with the Divan and the enemy of France. It was pro- 
posed to renew simply the ancient capitulations. He refused with 
some ill-humour, and uttered some threats. The Vizier replied that 
" His Highness did not enter into treaty nor into commeroe with the 
other poteutatea of the world, having no interest to dispute with 
them ; that Uiese kind of capitulations were a grace and a favonr 



whioh the Grand Seiguior granteii to his confederatea ; that His 
Majesty onght to be contented with them as accorded ; finally, that 
the advantages gnaranteed to foreigners hj the Sublime Porte had 
never been conceded to violence, bnt to gentlenesB, and that, if he 
wonld not adhere to the renewal of the capitnlationa, he might 
withdraw into France." 

At these tidings Lonis XIY. flew into a great te^, and " it was 
deliberated," says Cbardia, "whether the Porte shonid be broken 
with, or whether no notice shonid be taken of a treatment so nnrea- 
Bonable. However, in order to undertake nothing lightlj in an affair 
of that importance, M. d'Opp^de, first president of Aiz, was ordered 
to aesemble at Marseilles all the Lev&nt merchants and others well 
acquainted with Turkish afCairs, and to take their opinion npon that 
which many persons gave the Oonnoil to nnderstand : that France 
might cease to trade with the Levant, at least dnring several years, 
aad that it might easily do by sea so mnch harm to the Tnrks that the 
Qrand Seignior, to arrest it, wonld be constrained to grant the King 
all that His Majesty demanded. The opinion of the assembly was 
that those propositions were valid, that there was in Provence enongh 
of the Levant merchandise to snpply France with it for ten years, 
and that, if the King sent only ten ships into the .^gean Sea, and 
particnlarly into the Dardanelles, famine wonld in a vei^ short time 
DO felt in Constantinople, and there would be a rising in favour of 
the French. 

AJl seemed disposed for war ; a fleet was prepared, destined to 
sail for Constantinople to obtain, by force, the renewal of the alliance, 
and whioh shonid seize npon the chief islands of the Archipel^o, 
in order to secnre protection in fotnre. The spirit of the crnsadea 
■ revived; severalesB^swere published npon theopportnnity of driving 
the Turks ont of Europe, and Boilean only expressed the gener^ 
belief when be said to the King: 

" Je t'attends dans six mois anx bords de 1 'Hellespont." 

That wae the popular opinion, and it was also the thoaght of men 
of genins, even among the Protestants. 

'fiie report soon spread at Constantinople that the King of France 
was arming 60 vessels and 30,000 men at Toolon : the Turks wert 
filled with terror, the French announcing with bravado that they 
were going to bum Constantinople, seize npon the islands of the 
Archipel^o, and drive the Ottomans out of Enrope. But, at that 
moment, Louis XIV. was preparing to avenge himself npon the 
Dutch, and it was deliberated in Council which war should be under- 
taken. That of Holland was the question of pre-eminence on the 
Ocean ; that of Turkey the queetion of pre-eminence on the Medi- 
terranean ; the insults of the Ottomans were real, those of Holland 
very nearly imaginary ; bnt the first were little known, about the 
latter a great stir had been made : so, war with the Dutch was decided 
upon. Bat it was resolved that it should be made in such a foshion 
that the rebound should make itself felt in the East and render the 
Ottomans more tractable. 


230 tDRKKY OLD AMD NBW. [^s. 1071. 

The Uiniater of Lonis ZTV., Lionse, irrote to Kapmli, " fhat the 
EmjMroF of France was astonished that he refused to give credence 
to DIB ambassador; that the Forte had never bronght in donbt the 
truth and fidelity of the proposals of the French ambaeaador ; that 
Hia Majesty would not explain himself through any other chanael 
than that of M. de Nointel ; that, if the Grand Seignior refnsed to 
give him credence and to treat him with the honoar dne to the envoy 
of the first Christian Monarch, the King orders his ambaasador to 
embark in the vessel which carriea that letter to Constantinople." 
The Yizier relent«d, negotiations were recommenced, bat carried on 
slowly, confasedl^, and with an ill -disguised malevolence. Nointel 
did not become disheartened : he had received from Colbert orders the 
most precise to maintain peace at any price- It reealted in an under- 
standing with one another so far as the diminntion of the cnBtoms 
dnties, npon the restitntion of the Holy Places, npon the recognition 
of the King of Fr&nce as protector of the Christians in the £aat; 
bnt, upon the famous prerogittive attached to the flag of France, 
Knpnili declared " that it waa accorded to the English, the Datch, 
the Venetians, Qenoese and subjects of the Konse of Anstria that 
foreigners who should come into Turkey under their own banner 
shonld be treated like them ; and that he could not deprive them, of 
the privilege." The negotiations were broken ofi several times ; 
money was offered in vain ; all depended upon Panajotti, who was 
sold to Austria and to England. 

At length all the Levant rang with the news of the conquest of 
Holland. The French raised their heads, eialting the power of the 
Qreat King and threatening the Tnrks with his vengeance ; the 
Sntch were dismayed, whilst the English rejoiced in their min. 
The Divan became alarmed to snch a degree, that it caused the - 
capitulations to be drawn up immediately, even upon the memoranda 
of Nointel, and which it sent to him formally signed (5th of June, 
1678). The Sultan announcedthatresult toLonisXIV. in apompoua 
letter full of professions of affectionate friendship. 

In the new articles of the capitulations no question was raised of 
the paasage to India by the Aed Sea; the negotiation had succeeded 
with the Pacha of Egypt, to whom waa given two per cent., as a 
transit duty, for all the merchandise that went from Snez to Alex- 
andria; the Snltan had ^proved of that arrangement; bnt the 
Unfti and the Iman of Mecca were opposed to it, under pretext 
that the Christian vessels which would navigate the Bed Sea might 
insult or cany away the tomb of Mahomet ; moreover the English 
ambassador alleged at the Divan that the French bad the project of 
seizing npon Egypt^ and thus the affair miscarried. However, the 
Oovemment of Louis XIV. did not lose sight of it : the proof exists 
in two memoirs of M. de Maillet, consul at Cairo in 1692, who sought 
the most likely means of lenewing the negotiation, and who, in 1706, 
went into Abyssinia to enter upon commercial relations with that 
country and facilitate the oommnnications of the French colonists of 
Bourbon and Madagascar with Suez and Egypt. 


4.D. 1078.] NBW CAPITULATIONS. 231 

Thus waa Te-^otabliahed between France and Turkey tlie alliance 
whicb, after having been an intimate one nnder Francis I. and 
Heniy 11., beoevolent nnder the last Taloie and Henry IV., had 
come to a veritable rapture at the commencement of the reign of 
Lonia XIV. 

Thanks to the sympathy of the Catholic papulation for " the very- 
Christian King " and the reconciliation of Mahomet lY. and Lonis 
XIV., France recovered her former preponderance in the Levant. 
The alliance of the Turks with Fiance had been, in its origin, wholly 
one of policy, and destined to abase the Honse of Anstria; tinder 
the Bnccesaora of Henry II., it had not retained that character, and 
had been solely directed to the interests of commerce and religion ; 
from 1605 to 1673 it had andei^one nnmeroas violations and had 
been, so to speak, snspended. The stra^le against the House of 
Anstria being the knot of the entire policy of Lonia XIV., and the 
pivot npon which all the events of his reign tamed, the alliance of 
France with the Porte, when it had been restored nnder the relations 
of commerce and religion, tended to retake the character which it 
had nnder Francis I. ; bat then the miserable disagreements that 
had separated the two States dnring seventy years began to beat- 
fruit. If the two allies conld only nave sincerely understood one 
another, if they could have actively joined their arms in an nniqne 
and definite object, they might have obtained almost without obstacle 
the domination of Bnrope, at the epoch when the House of Anstria 
was id decadence, when England waa sailing in tow of France, when 
Russia, as an European Power, did not exist. But, on one side, the 
ignorant and fanatical pride of the Osmanlis only inspired them 
with a passionate, blind and brutal policy, in which they obstinately 
insisted to march alone, without taking any account of the state of 
Europe, in defyine the counsel and exhortations of their allies, full 
of contempt for tiie interests and poliir^ of the Christians ; on the 
other hand, the Catholic idea of Louis XIV,, which made him com- 
mit so many errors in his policy with regard to the West, did not 
mislead bim less in his policy with regard to the East; hating the 
Ttu-ks to the extent of desiring their dostmction, he disliked a direct 
alliance with them ; he looked upon them as instruments ; he only 
sought to profit by the diversions operated by the Ottoman forces on 
the side of Germany. From that time the two allies were seen to 
act almost constantly isolated against their common enemy; France 
to lay down arms when Turkey began war, and Turkey to conclude 
peace when France entered upon a campaign. That great error has 
had the most fatal inflnence npon the destinies of the two States; 
it has not only prevented the ruin of the Honse of Austria, but pre- 
pared the greatness of Russia, brought aboat the decadence of the 
Ottomans, and thrown France upon a policy fall of difficulty and 
danger, in which she still struggles at the present time. 




FkOM imt Camuu of Cunu to thi Piici or Ciuutim (1066-1699). 

1. Staie of the Ottoman Empire after the Capture of Candia.— 8ub- 
miuion of the Cossacki. — War in Poland. — Treaty of 1676. 

Thb Ottoman Empire, nnder the admmistratioii of Ahmed Kupmli, 
had rwained the height of its power. " If j'on consitler," aays on 
English historian of the time, " its origin, its progress, and its 
nnintermpted saccese, nothing is more admiAble or more astonish- 
ing; if you contemplate its grandenr and its aplendoor, nothing 
more magnificent or more glorious ; if yon consider its power and 
its strength, nothing more terrible or more dangerous. Intoxicated 
with the dranght of constant fortune, the Ottoman looks only with 
contempt on the other nations of the earth."" In reality, the 
Ottoman Empire, which comprehended at that epoch forty govern- 
ments and four tributary oonntrieB, then encircled in Europe all 
Greece, Illyria, Usesia, Macedonia, Pannonia, Thrace, and Dacia ; 
the Kingdoms of Pyirhus and Perseus ; the States of the Treballi 
and the Balgarians ; in Africa, the Kingdom of the Ptolemies, with 
the totritory of Carthage and Numidia; in Asia, the Kingdoms of 
Mithridates, Antiochns, Attains, Prusias, Herod, and Tigranes; 
those of the obscure sovereigns of Cappadocio, Cilicia, and Com&- 
gena ; the territories of the Iberians and the Scythians ; and a por- 
tion of the Empire of the Parthians. Without reckoning the Oroek 
Republics and the l^rian Colony, there were twenty kingdoms in- 
cluded in those forty goTemmeuts, from the Syrtes to the Caucaens, 
and to the countries watered by the Hydaspes. 

The Tolontary submission of the Cossacks helped still further to 
increase for a time the limits, already so vast, of the Ottoman domi. 
nation. The Cossacks inhabited the Ukraine, sitnat«d between Little 
Tartary, Poland, and Koscow. That country extended for about a 
hundred leagues from north to south, and nearly as far from east to 
west. It is divided into two almost equal portions by the Borys- 
thenes, which traverses it from the north-west to the south-east. 
The most northern portion of the Ukraine is cultivated and rich ; the 
most southern, which is situate near the 48th degree of latitude, is 
alike one of the most fertile oud the most desert countries in the 
world; bad government stifles there the good with which nature 
desires to benefit man. The inhabitants of these cantons, neighbours 
of Little Tartary, neither plant nor sow, because the Tartara of 
Budsiao and Precop, the Moldavians, all brigand people, would come 
and ravage their harvests. The Cossacks l^ve always aspired to be 
free ; hut, being enrronnded by Muscovy, the States of the Grand 
* EnoUs, prefitee to tbg " Hiiloij of tlia Tarki, " 



Seignior, and Poland, it was necessary for them to seek a protector, 
and conseqaently a master in one of those three States,* So long as 
the TartEiTs and the Turks menaced the liberty of Enrope, the mili- 
taiy institation of the Cossacks was nsefnl and politic ; thej were 
npon the Borjsthenes what the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem 
had been in the Isle of Bbodea ; bat when the Ottoman Porte had 
taken rank among the European Powers, and regular alliancea were 
made with it, it became neoeasarj to pnt a stop to the hostilities of 
the Cossacks ; their incursions were nothing more than brigandage. 
The Kings of Poland, therefore, were urged to repress them. Ths 
tronbles of Russia still occapied for some time their vagabond 
activity, but when it became necesBary to be at peaoe with their 
neighbours, their torbalent race finding the domination of Poland 
irksome and galling, they endeavoured to secure the protection of the 

The Ottomans were still occupied with the siege of Gandia when 
Doroezensko, hetman of the Cossacks, went to offer to Mahomet lY. 
the Suzerainty of the Ukraine. The Sultan gave him the investi- 
ture with the title of Sandjak-Bey. On hearing this, the neigh- 
bouring peoples became uneasy, fearing to be exposed by that alliance 
to all the inconveniencee likely to be its natural result. The Cossacks 
inhabited a marshy country, intersected throughout by defiles. The 
Poles and Muscovites having until then lived on good terms with 
them, and derived great service therefrom, not only on account of 
their situation, but more especially because, being fond of brigandage, 
they overran t^e Ottoman frontiers, their new alliance would make all 
these advantages revert to the Turks. The King of Poland was only 
too conscions of this. It was of the laat importance to retain these 
old friends or subjects, and to hinder them from throwing themselves 
into the arms of the Osmanli. Thus, before the Turks had had time to 
ensure the obedience of the Cossacks, a Polish army was sent into 
their country, and as they had still many partisans there, thej pene- 
trated aa ^ astbey chose, and lived in it at their discretion. Maho- 
met ly. might have regarded this proceeding as an infraction of 
treaties, etad made it a pretext for declaring instant war against the 
King of Poland ; but he thought it more reasonable to essay in the 
first instance the power of remonstrance. He sent a letter to the 
King, therefore, which concluded in these summary terms : " If jou 
refuse to submit yourself to our mandate, and you are disposed to 
sustain your injustice by arms, our law denounces by our mouth 
death to your person, desolation to yonr kingdom, the slavery of yonr 
people ; and all the world will impute these calamities solely to your 
wickedness and obstinacy."! 

The King of Poland having refused to obey this t 

was declared, and the Snitan placed himself at the head of his army. 
Setting out from Adrianople on the 5th of June, 1672, he crossed the 

* VotUirs, '' Hutoi7 of Ch&riM ZII." i. 4. 

t "DwProgrti ds 1& pnimnOB Kuno," p. 113. 

t Cutfrnir, t«iii. iii. p. 138. 


234 TUBXET OLD ASD KBW. [jl.d. 167S— 1S74. 

Danube, trarerBed Moldavia, and enc&mped near Cbocrim, on the 
banks of the Duiester. The Tartars of the Crimea, led by the Khan 
Selim Gherai, here effected a junction with the Tnrks. In Angnat 
the Mussnlmana oroased the Dniester, and sat down before Eaminiec 
That place, which seemed impregnable, capitulated at the end of ten 
days. The city of Lemberg was taken shortly after. The Kii^ of 
Poland, ill consternation, sued for peace, bat only obtained it on dia- 
gracefnl conditions by the treaty of Bncsacs (18th of September, 
1672). By that treaty " He gave up Podolia to the Ottomans, the 
Ukraine to the Cossacks, bound himself to pay an annual tribnte of 
20,000 ducftta and promised 80,000 crowns for the redemption of 
Lembei^. By way of compensation, the Tartars engaged to make no 
more irmptions into Poland."* 

The Poles, excited by the Pope and the German Emperor, refused 
to ratify the treaty of Bacsacs. The Grand Chancellor wrote to 
Ahmed Knpmli, " that the King of Poland, having andmitted to 
conditions of peace withont the consent of the Republic, it declared 
them null, and wonld pay nothing, resolved to suffer a thousand 
deaths rather than the inbmy attached to the name of tributary." 
Uahomet lY. again placed faimBelf at the head of his troops, and 
retook the way to Poland. He was prevented by John Sobieski, 
General of the Repnhlic, who crossed the Dniester, and, seconded by 
the Wallachians and Moldavians, defeated the Ottamans at Choczim, 
and pursued them as far as the gates of Eaminiec. The news of the 
death of Michael, King of Poland, recalled him to Warsaw ; he then 
received the reward for bin services that he had just rendered to 
the Republic and Christianity ; the Diet proclaimed him King (1673). 

The Porte did not learn without perturbation the election oJf Sobi- 
eski. Conquered by him when be was only one of the generals of the 
Aepublio, what had they not to dread from his ambition, now that 
the title of King gave him the power and the confidence to under- 
take everything r But soon the Polish nobility, more jealous of its 
liberties than of the national glory, took umbrae at Sobieski's pro- 
jects, and feared to give themselves a master if they left much longer 
all the forces of the State reunited in his hands. In vain did the 
Kii^ propose to set on foot an army equal to that of the Turks. 
Under pretext of economizing the money of the public treasury, 
the Diet refused to raise fresh troops, whilst the Sultan collected his 
soldiers from every quarter and demanded reinforcements from the 
Tartars of the Crimea. 

On the approach of the Turks, the Poles abandoned the siege of 
Kaminiec (1674). To secure the submission of that place the Snitan 
forced all the Christian inhabitants to quit it ; he transported thsta 
beyond the Dannbe and the Balkans, and assigned them landa in 
the province of Kirk-Kilissia ; th^ were replac^ by 2,000 Sipahja. 

France beheld with regret the war waging between Poland and 
Turkey — a war only profitable to the Bouse of Anatria : the Bishop 

* Von Hammer, toil), iii. |>. WO. 


A.I>. 1676.] CHIUCTBB or ABMID EUPBCLI. 235 

of M&raeilles, ambasBador of Lonis XIY. at Warsaw, vainly endea- 
voured to negotiate peace ; his proposals were not listened to. The 
Tartar Khan had more enccees ; he acted aa mediator between 
Sobieaki and Mahomet IT. A treaty was signed at Daond Pacha, 
near Constantinople (27tb of October, 1676), by which Kaminieo and 
Fodotia remained to the Porte, aa well as the Ukmine, with the ex. 
ception of some towna. 

2. Death of Ahmed Kupruli (1676) ; Kara Mtutapha mcceedt him. — 
Warurith Ruttia.— Peace of Badzin (1681). 

A few days after the conclnsion of that treaty Ahmed Knpmli 
died, having scarcely reached hia forty-first year. He had borne 
daring fifteen years iJie heaviest bnrthen of the Empire. " He was a 
man of tall stature ; he had large and well-opened eyes, fair com- 
plexion, and in manner wis modest, gracious, and fnll of dignity. 
fie did not show himself blood-thirsty like his father, always com. 
bated oppression and injustice, and raised himself bo firmly against 
cormption, cupidity and all personal views, that presents, itistead of 
disposing him in favour of a request, induced him to refnse it. Hia 
expansive and penetrating mind, his happy and ready memory, his 
sore and firm judgment, his sound understanding and just common 
sense conducted him to the truth by the shortest way. He spoke 
little and with reserve, after mature reflection, and always with a 
perfect knowledge of things. The science to which he had at first 
devoted himself, and which launched him in the career of legist, 
always followed him as faithful companion in the ranks of the army, 
uid as far as the banks of the Baab and the Dniester, as amidst the 
ruins of Candia. The glory of Ahmed Eupruli was assured t^ the 
wars of Hungary, of Crete, of Poland, by the conquest of Neuhffl. 
osel, Candia, and Kaminiec, by the peace of Yaevar, that of Candia, 
and the treaties of Bucsacs and Daoud-Pacha. Dnring three lustres, 
he knew how to a^^ndize and paciff Turkey. After Sokolli, ho 
was, beyond doubt, first among the Ministers who have directed the 
Ottoman Empire.* 

He had for successor his brother-in-law, the Ejiunacau Kara Mug- 
tapha, who maintained himself in powerdnringseven years (1676-83). 
The accession of that unworthy heir of the Knprnlis marked the 
commencement of the period of decadence. Puffed np with pride, 
he displayed the most scandalous ostentation ; hia harem contained 
more than 1,500 concubines, and at least as many female slaves to 
attend upon them, with 700 black eunuchs; his horses, dogs, aud 
hawks for hunting were to be counted by thousands. Constanti- 
nople, Adrianople, and Belgrade owed, it is true, to his vanity some 
useful edifices — mosques, fountains, baths, and schools ; but to meet 
tS\ those expenses Kara Mnstapha had need of enormous sums, 
* VoD HunmBT, torn. iii. p. 163. 


236 TUBKBT OLD ASD NEW. [^D. 1077—1681.' 

which he proonred by the most shamefat means and the most cmel 
extortions. He bargained with the European ambassadors for the 
renewal of the capitnlations and even for andiences with the Sultan ; 
he sold gOTemments, dignities, justice; finally, we shall see Trhat 
dreams of ambition be hoped to realize by the aid of his treasnrea. 

Kara Mnstapha manifested no more talent as a general than pro- 
bity as an administrator. Daring the last -wax against Poland, Doro- 
azensko, hetman of the Cossacks, bad offered his aid to the Forte ; 
bnt tbrongh deSance or disdain the Tnrks bad rejected his proposi- 
tion. The hetman, either ont of piqne or revenge, submitted him- 
self, with all his people, to the protectorate of Knssia. On hearing 
this, Mahomet TV. drew from the prison of the Seven Towers 
Georges Kiemielniskr, son of an old hetman, and nominated him in 
the place of Doroszensko. The Cossacks refused to recognize the 
antbori^ of Kiemielniski. The Forte was then compelled to have 
recoorse to arms; 40,000 men traversed Moldavia and Podolia, and 
advanced upon Cebryn, which place they had orders to besiege. At 
the same time the Tartars harried np from the Crintea. The Cos- 
sacks and Bnssians, to the number of 60,000, were entrenched near 
Cebryn; in order to binder the junction of the two hostile armies 
they put themselves in motion, fell npon the Tartars, and cut them 
in pieces. The Turks, terrified, recrossed the Bug (1677). 

The Divan was ready to enter npon ne^tiations ; but Kara 
Mnstapha energetically opposed that course; and, ss the Russians 
demanded the cession of the Ukraine es far as the Dneister, the 
Snltan listened to the warlike counsels of the Grand Vizier. Kara 
Mnstapha himself took the command of the expedition ; 30,000 Tar- 
tars sent by the Ehan of the Crimea, and 4,000 Cossacks collected by 
Kiemielni^i, joined with the Ottomans in the attack npon Cehi^n, 
They only took it after a long and aangninary siege (1678). To that 
ivas limited the snccess of that campaign. The retreat of the Turks 
almost resembled a rout : continually harassed 1^ the Bnssians, who 
lay in wait for them at all the difficult passes, they lost a great por- 
tion of their artillery and baggage. The war dragged on it« length- 
ened course till 16B1. At last a peace was concluded at Hadzin, 
through the mediation of the Khan of the Crimea. 

The mere record of the wars between Bussians and Turks, which 
have succeeded one another since 1677 at short intervals, is infinitely 
less instructive than the series of treaties settling the relations of 
Snltan and Czar. It is only in the face of these documents that we 
can clearly read the true objects of Bnssia, the pretexts which have 
been put forward as her objects, the tenacity of her pniposes, and 
the degree in which she has advanced towards their fulfilment, or 
has been forced to recede from it for a time. 

When the Bnssians and Tnrks first came into conflict, in the last 
half of the seventeenth centnry, it is not too much to say that they 
were two hordes of barbarians. Bnt the Turks were barbarians on 
the decline. Their old ener^ was nearly spent, the snperiority in 
armament which had been the secret of their conquests was lost. 


4.n. 18T7.] WAS WITH HDNQART. 237 

their politioftl system was eaten through with internal oormptioii, and 
the elements of strength which it had contained were taming into 
Boarces of weakneas. The Roesiaus, on the other hand, were jost 
beginning to be conscions of the impnlses which centnnes before 
had ponted the Tarks over Western Asia and Eastern Europe. They 
were annk in barbarism and squalor, and they professed GhriatianitT 
in the most snperBtitions form in which it had ever been clothed. 
Bnt accident placed some men and women of genins at their head, 
and their ChriHtianitj, though altogether Talaele8s for moral pur- 
posee, gave them a point of oontsot with Western Europe which has 
proved of the greatest advantage to them. 

3. War in Hungary. — Policy of Louie XIV. — Siege and 
jftelief of Vienna, 
The Porte wonld not probably have consented to treat with Bossia 
if its attention had not been called to another quarter by the affairs 
of Hungary. In that countiy the discontent oaased by the oppres- 
sive Government and the fanatical persecution of Protestantism by 
the Austrian Cabinet had gone on increasing. At length the 
Anstrian domination had rendered itself thoroughly odious to the 
Hungarians. To hinder the progress of Protestantism, the Emperor 
Leopold, in the excess of his Catholic zeal, sent to the galleys a great 
number of preachers and ministers ; and to all the evils of religious 
persecution were added the violenoe and devastations of the generals 
and the German administrators, who treated Hungary as a conquered 
province. The Hungarians in vain invoked the charters which con- 
secrated their nationsJ liberties. To their most legitimate complaints 
Leopold replied by the infliction of punishments; he sparad not 
even the families of the most illustrious ; several magnates perished 
1^ the hands of the execotioner. Such oppression was certain to 
bring about a revolt. In 1668 a conspiracy had been formed against 
Leopold by certain Hungarian leaders, which, however, -was dis- 
covered and frustrated ; and it was not till 1677, when the young 
Count Emmerich Tekeli, having escaped from prison, placed- himself 
at the head of the malcontents, that these disturbances assumed any 
formiJable importance. The Hungarians adopted his motto, 'pro Deo 
et patria; and Tekeli, who possessed much military talent, and was 
an uncompromiBing enemy of the House of Austria, having entered 
Upper Hungary with 12,000 men, defeated the Imperial foroee, cap- 
tar«d several towns, oconpied the whole district of the Carpathian 
Mountains, and compelled the Austrian generals. Counts Wurmb and 
Leslie, to accept the truce he offered. The Emperor, enlightened by 
these reverses, at length comprehended the necessity for reforms, and 
towards the end of 1681, at the Diet of Oldenbnrg, did justice to the 
claims of Hungary. These concessions contented a portion of the 
nagnatea and weakened the party of independence ; moreover, the 


238 TDRKBT OLD AND HEW. [i.i.. 1682—1883. 

treaty of Nim^j^en, recently conclnded with France, allowed the 
House of Aostria to employ aJl her forces against therebele. In this 
conjonctnre Tekeli turned for aid towards the Tarks, making an 
appeal to Mahomet TV. ; and after the conclnaioa of the Tnrkieh and 
Bnssian war in 1681, Kara Mnstapha determined to asaiBt the insnr- 
genta openly, their leader offering, in exchange, to acknowledge the 
Bnzerainty of the Porte. Tekeli sought also ancconr from France. 
Loais XIY. gave him sabeidiee, solicited the Saltan to send an army 
into HongaTj, and caused an alliance between the Hnngarians, Tr&n- 
gylranians, and Wallachians to be concluded against Austria (1682) 

The truce concluded in 1665 between Austria vid Turkey had not 
yet expired ; the Porte could not therefore support Tekeli without 
violating the faith of treaties; but conside rations of that nature bad 
bat little influence over the minds of the Grand Vizier and the 
Bnltan; the war party carried the day. The Governor of Bnda 
received orders to support Tekeli, who took the title of King. Count 
Albert of Caprara, Envoy Extraordinary of the Emperor, arrived 
shortly after at Constantinople to claim the maintenance of the truce. 
Kara Uustapha fixed the conditions of the peace thus : Austria 
should pay to the Porte an annual tribute of 500,000 florins ; Leo- 
poldstadt and Gutta should be demolished ; the island of Scbutt, the 
fortress of Muran, and several other places should be pat into the 
hands of Tekeli ; alt Hungarians should re-enter into possession of 
their belongings and privileges ; a general amnesty should cover all 
the past. The Austrian envoy returned to Vienna (August, 1682). 
8ome days after, the Saltan, as a signal for war, caused the horse- 
tails to be set up in front of the Seraglio, and great preparations 
were commenced which spread terror through Germany. Leopold 
now despatched a spleadid embassy to Constantinople in the hope of 
renewinfT the Treaty of Vasvar, hut without avail ; the Turks only 
increased their demands. 

Early in the spring of 1683 Sultan Uahomet marched forth from 
his capital with a large army, which at Belgrade he transferred to 
the command of Kara Mnataphft. Tekeli formed a junction with 
the Turks at Essek. In vain did Ibrahim, the experienced Pacha of 
Buda, endeavour to persuade Kara Mnstapha flrst of all to subdue 
the surrounding countiT', and to postpone until the following year 
the attack upon Vienna; his advice was scornfully rejected, and, 
indeed, the audacity of the Grand Vizier seemed justified by the 
scant resistance he had met with. He talked of renewing the con- 
qoeits of Solyman : he assembled, it is said, ?00,000 men, 100,000 
horses, and 1,200 gnns — an army more powerful than any the Turks 
had set on foot since the capture of Constantinople. All of which 
may be reduced to 150,000 barbarian troops without discipline, the 
last conquering army which the degenerate race of the Osmanli pro- 
duced wherewith to invade Hungary. 

Hostilities commenced in MajNih, 1683 ; for the Turks, who had 
not been accustomed to enter upon a oampaign before the summer 
season, had begun their march that year before the end of winter. 


1.IK 1S88.1 JOHN 80BIISKI. 239 

Some prompt and easy Bnccesses exalted the ambition of Eara Mns- 
tapha ; and, in spite of the contrary advice of Tekeli, Ibrahim Pacha, 
and several other personages, he determined to besiege Vienna. He 
accordingly advanced direct upon that capital and encamped under 
its iralls on the 14th of Joly. It was jost at the moment that LoniB 
XIV. had captured Strasbonrg, and at which his army appeared 
ready to cross the Bhine : all Enrope was in alarm, believing that an 
agreement existed between France and the Porte for the conqoest 
and dismemberment of GTermany. Bat it was not so. The Turks, 
irithout giving Fraiice any previous warning, had of themselves made 
their invasion of Hungary ; Louis XIV. was delighted at their sno- 
cess, but nevertheless disposed, if it went too far, to check them, in 
order to play the part of Saviour of Christendom, 

It -was fortunate for the Emperor Leopold that he had upon the 
frontiers of Poland an ally of indomitable coarage in King John 
Sobieski, and that he found the German princes loyal and prompt on 
this occasion, coctrary te their custom, in sending him snccour. 
Moreover, in Duke Charles of Lorraine he met with a skilful general 
to lead bis army. Consternation and confusion prevailed, however, 
in Vienna, whilst the Emperor with his Court fled to LioK. Many 
of the inhabitante followed him ; bnt the rest, when the first 
moments of terror had passed, prepared for the defence, and the dila- 
torinesB of the Turks, who amused themselves with pilla^ng the 
environs and neighbouring cbateanx, allowed the Duke of Lorraine 
to throw 12,000 men as a garrison into the city ; then, as he was 
unable with, his slender force to bar the approach of the Turkish 
army, he kept aloof and waited for the King of Poland. 

Leopold solicited snccour on all sides, and the Pope made an appeal 
to the piety of the Kine of France. Louis XIV., on the contrary, 
was intriguing throughout Europe in order that the Christian 
princes should not quit their attitude of ropose, and he only offered 
to the Diet of Batisbon the aid of hia arms on condition that it should 
recognize the recent usurpations decreed by the famous Chambers of 
Beunion, and that it should elect his son King of the Bomans. He 
reckoned, if it should accept his offers, to determine the Tarks to 
retreat and to effect a peace which, by bringing the Imperial Crown 
into his house, would have been the death-stroke for Austria. All 
these combinations miscarried through the devotedness of the Poles. 

When Leopold supplicated Sobieski to come to his aid Louis XIV. 
tried to divert him from it ; he reassured him upon the projects of 
the Turks by a letter of the Sultan, he made him see his ret^ sue. 
miee in Austria, Brandenbourg, and that power of the North which 
the Dnteh gazettes had begun to call His Suetian Majesty ; he re- 
minded him in fine that the House of Austria, saved by the French 
on the day of St. Gothard, had testified its gratitude to them by 
diowing the victors to die of hunger and by envenomiug their differ- 
ences with the Forte. But it was all useless ; hatred of the infidels 
prevailed, uid the Polish squadrons hurried to the deliverance of 


240 TURKEY OLP AND NEW. [i.t>. 1688. 

Coant Radiger de Stahrenberg was made commandant of the city, 
aod showed himself alike bold and energetic in everything that oonld 
contribute to its defence. The Torkiah camp encircled Vienna and 
its Bnbnrbs, spreading over the country all round to the diatence of 
six leagues. Two days afterwards Kara Mustapha opened the trenches, 
and his artillery battered the walls in order to make a breach. Great 
sSorts, moreover, were made in digging mines, with the design of 
blowing up bastions or portions of the wall, so that the city might be 
carried by assanlt, wherein the Turks hoped to find an immense 
booty. Bnt the besieged made an obstinate defence, and repaired 
daring the night the damage done on the previons day. During 
sixty days forty mines and ten counter-mines were exploded ; the 
Turks delivered eighteen assaults, the besieged made twenty-fonr 
eorticH. Bach inch of ground was only obtained by dint of a hard 
and long struggle, in which an equal stubbornness both in attack and 
defence was exhibited. The hottest fighting took place at the Label 
bastion, around which there was not a foot of ground that had not 
been steeped in the blood of friend or foe. However, by degrees the 
Turks gained a few paces ; at the end of August they were lodged 
in the ditches of the city ; and on the 4th of September they sprung 
a mine nnder the Bourg bastion ; one-half of the city was shaken 
thereby, and a breach was rent in the bastion wide enough for an 
assanlt to be delivered, but the enemy was repnised. Next day the 
Turks attacked it with renewed courage, bnt the valonr of the 
besieged baffled the assailants. On the 10th of September another 
mine was sprang nnder the same bastion, and the breach was so wide 
that a battalion might have entered it abreast. The danger was ex- 
treme, for the garrison was exhausted by fighting, sickness, and in- 
cessant labonr. The Count de Stahrenberg despatched courier after 
courier to the Dake of Lorraine for sucooar. " There is not a moment 
to be lost, monseignenr," he wrote, " not a moment ; " and Tienna, 
exhansted, saw not yet her liberators arrive. At length, on the 14tb, 
when the whole city was in a stupor in the immediate expectation of 
an attack, a movement was observed in the enemy's camp which 
announced that succuur was at hand. At five o'clock in the after- 
noon the Christian army was descried surmounting the Hill of Kableu, 
and it made ite presence known by a salvo of artillery. JohnSobieski 
had arrived at the head of a yaliant army. The electors of Saxony 
and of Bavaria, with many princes, dukes, and margraves of Germany, 
had brought with them fresh troops. Charles of Lorraine might 
then dare to march against the Moslems, although he had yet only 
46,000 men. 

The army of Sobieski reached Klosteraenbourg, Koenigstetten, 
Saint-Andra, the valley of Hagen and Kiriiog, where it effected its 
junction with the Austriana and the Saxons who had arrived thero in 
passing by Hoeflin. On Sunday, the 15th of September, in the 
earliest rays of a fine autnmnal day, the holy priest Marco d'Aviano 
celebrated mass in the chapel of Eahlenberg, and the King of Poland 
served him during the sacrifice. Afterwards, Sobieski made bis son 



koeel down, and dabbed him. a knight in remembrance of the great 
occasioQ on which he woe going to be present ; then, tnming towards 
his ofBcers, he reminded them of the victory of Choczim, adding 
that the trinmph thcj were abont to achieve nnder the walls of 
Vienna wonid not only save a city, but Chrietendom. Next morning 
the Christian army descended the Hill of Kahlen in order of battle. 
A salvo of five cannon-shot gave the signal for the fight. Sobieski 
commaoded the right wing, the Dnke of Lorraine the left, nnder 
whose orders served Prince Engene of Savoy, then ^ed nineteen. 
The Elector of Bavaria was in the centre. The village of Nanssdorf, 
aita&ted npon the Danube, was attacked by the Saxon and Imperial 
troops which formed the left wing, and carried after an obstinate 
resistance.' Towards noon, the Kingof Poland having descended into 
the plain with the right wing, at the head of his Polish cavalry, at. 
tacked the innnmerable sqaadrons of Turkish horse. Flinging him. 
self npon the enemy's centre with all, the fniy of a hnrricane, he 
spread confusion in their ranks ; bnt his conrage carried him too far, 
he was sarronnded, and was on the point of being overwhelmed by 
nnmbers.- Then, shonting for aid, the German cavalry, which had 
followed him, charged the enemy at fall gallop, delivered the Kii^, 
and soon pnt the 'fiu-ks to flight on all sides. The right wing h^ 
decided the victory ; by seven o'clock in the evening the deliverance 
of Vienna was achieved. The bodies of more than 10,000 infidels 
strewed the field of battle. 

Bat all those combate were mere preludes to the great battle which 
must decide the fortune of the war. For the TnrkiBh camp with its 
thousands of tente could still be seen spreading around as far as 
eye conld reach, and its artillery continned to play npon the city. 
The victorious commander-in-chief was holding a council of war to 
decide whether to give battle again on that same day, or wait till the 
morrow to give his troops an interval of rest, when a messenger came 
with the announcement that the enemy appeared to be in full flight ; 
and it proved to be the fact. A panic had seized the Turks, and 
they SaA in disorder, abandoning their camp and baggage ; and soon 
even those who were attacking the city were seen in full flight with 
the rest of the army. 

The booty found in the Turkish oamp was immense : three hundred 
pieces of heavy artillery, five thousand tents, that of the Qnmd Vizier 
with all the military chests and the chancery. The treasure amounted 
to fifteen million crowzts, the tent of the Vizier alone yielding four 
hundred thousand crowns. Two millions also were found in the 
military chest ; arms studded with precious stones, the equipments 
of Kara HustApha fell into the hands of the victors. In their Sight, 
the Mussulmans threw away arms, baggage, and banners, with the 
exception of the Holy Standard of the I^phet, which, nevertheless, 
the Imperials pretended to have seized. The King of Poland received 
for his share four million florins ; and in a letter to his wife, the sole 
delight of his soul, his dear and well-beloved Mariette, he speaks of 
that booty and of the happiuesB of having delivered Vienna. " All 


212 TCRE7T OLD AND NtW. [a.u, 1SS3. 

tbe enemj'a camp," he mote, " with the whole of his artillery and 
all his enormons richea, have fallen into oar hands. . We are driving 
before ns a host of camels, mules, and Turkish prieonerS." 

Connt Stahrenberg received the Ein^r of Poland in the ma^ificent 
tent of the Grand Vizier, and greeted him as a deliverer. Next day 
Sobieeki, accompanied by the Elector of Bavaria and the different 
commanders, traversed the city on horseback, preceded by a great 
banner of cloth of gold and two tall gilded ataveB bearing the horse- 
tails which had been planted in front of the Grand Yizier's tent, as a 
symbol of supreme command. In the Loretto chapel of the Angns- 
tins, the hero threw himself upon his faoe before the altar and 
chanted the Te Deum. " Vienna was delivered ; the flood of Otto- 
mans, that had beaten against it« walls one hundred and fifty-four 
years previonaly, had returned more fariously, more menacing still, 
against that dignified protectress of European oivilization, but, thia 
time, it had been repelled never to return thither again.* 

Thna vanished the insane hopes of the Grand Vizier. If Demetrius 
Cantemir may be believed, Kara Mustapha had desired to capture 
Vienna to appropriate it to himself, and found in the West an em- 
pire of which he would have been the sovereign. " That subject," 
says the historian, " who only held his power from the Sultan, despised 
in his heart the Snltan himself ; and, as he found himself at the head 
of all the disciplined troops of the empire, he looked upon his roaster 
as a shadow denuded of strength and aabstance, Trho, being very 
inferior in courage to him, could never oppose to him an army like 
that which was under his command. For alt that concerned the 
Emperor of Germany, he appeared still less to be feared : being a 
prince bare and despoiled so soon as he should have lost Vienna. It 
was thus that Sara Unstapha reasoned within himself. Already 
he cEksts his eyes over the treaanrea which he has in his possession ; 
with the money of the Sultan he has also bronght his own ; all that 
of the German princes is goin^ to be hia ; for he believes that it ia 
amasaed in the citj^ he ia beaieging. If he needs snpport, he reckons 
upon the different governors of Hungary a« devoted to hia intereats; 
theae are his creatures, whom he has put into their poata during the 
seven years of hia vizierate, not one of those functionaries dare offer 
an obatacle to the elevation of hia benefector. Ibrahim Pacha, bey- 
lerbey of Buda, keepa him in auapenao by reason of the infiuence that 
hia fame gives him over the army and over Hnngary ; he must be won 
over before all else, as well as the chief officers of the Jenissaries and 
the Sipahia. Ibrahim shall be made King of Hungary. The different 
provinces comprised in that kingdom shall be divided into timar» for 
appanage of the Sipahia, and all the rest of the soldiery shall have 
establishments in the towns, aa ao many new ooloniea; to them shall 
be assigned the lands of the old inhabitants, who will be driven out 
or reduced to slavery. He reserves for hiroself the title of Sultan, 
hia share shall be all Germany as far aa the frontiers of France, with 

* Ton Hwnusr, torn. liL p. 120. 



Trsnsf lyanin and Poland, which, he intends to render subject or at 
least make tribntary the year following." Sncb are the projects that 
Cantemir attribnt^s to Kara Mustapha ; the intervention of Sobieaki 
caused these chimerical plans quickly to vanish. 

The Emperor Leopold, who returned to Vienna on the 16th of 
September, instead of expressing his thanks and gratitude to the 
oommanders who had rescued his c&pital, received them with the 
haughty and repulsive coldness prescribed by the etiquette of the 
Imperial Court. Sobieski nevertheless continued hia services by 
pursuing the retreating Turks. Awakened from his dreant of self- 
exaltation, the Grand Vizier retook the road towards TurkOT, direct- 
ing his steps to the Aaab, where he rallied the remnants of his army. 
Thence, he marched towards Bnda, and attacked by the way the 
Styriau town of Lilienfeld ; he was repulsed by the prelate Matthias 
Ealweia, and avenged himself for that fresh check by devastating 
Lower Styria. He crossed the Danube by a bridge of boats at Far- 
kany ; bnt the Poles vigorously disputed the passage with him, and 
he again lost more than 8,000 men taken or slain by the Christiaus. 
Shortly after, the fortress of Gran opened its gates to Sobieski. The 
Grand Vizier barbarously put to death the officers who had signed 
the capitnJation ; he threw upon his generals the respousibility of 
his reverses and thought to stifle in blood the mnrmnrB of" his 
aconser^ The army marched iu disorder, as though struck with a panic 
terror. Kara Mnstapha wished that a Jew whom he despatched to 
Belgrade should be escorted by a troop of horsemen. " I have no 
need of an escort," replied the Jew ; " 1 have only to wear my cap 
in the German fashion, and not a Turk will touch me." 

The enemies of the Grand Vizier, however, conspired to effect hia 
rain at Constantinople : and the results of the campaign justified 
the predictions of the party of peace. Hahomet IV., enraged at 
these disasters, sent his grand chamberlain to Belgrade with orders 
to bring back the head of the vizier {1683) ; it was, in ftict, brought 
to the Sultan in a silver dish. 

To Kara Mustapha succeeded the KaHmacan Ibrahim Pacha. The 
latter did not accept without hesitation the charge of governing the 
Empire amidst the perils that threatened it' on all sides. In fact, a 
great league called the Holy Alliance had just, thanks to the terror 
which the siege of Vienna had inspired, been formed against the 
Ottomans : it was composed, besides Austria, of the Venetians, Poles, 
and BuBsiaufi. The Emperor Leopold had found the Venetians quite 
disposed for war ; he won over Sobieski, who was still deaf to the 
instanoee of France ; finally,, he armed the Russians by soliciting 
them " to open the Black Sea and march upon Byzantium : Greece 
and Asia," said he, " awaited them." The Porte muat then have re- 
pented of the insulting proceedings which had made them lose the 
sympathies of France, and which had boeu just repeated against her 
new ambassador. 

bv Google 

of Cai 


4. Pmver of France in the Mediterranean. 
I the victories of Stromboli, Agonata and Palermo, where 
no destroyed the fleets of Holland and Spain, Bince the battle 
jape St. Vincent, since its alliance with the Order of Malta and 
the Stoics of Italy, finally, since the renewal of capitnlations with 
the Porte, the French flag had dominated in the Mediterranean. But 
there wae an obstacle to tiiat domination — piracy. The Barbary cor~ 
sairs had profited by the war of 1672 to violate the treaties ; the 
Snlt^ in vain recommended them to respect the vessels of bis ally ; 
the King of France vainly menaced them with total destmction ; 
French ships were insnlted, pillaged, carried away from the very 
shores of Provence. Then a war of extermination was recommenced 
against the African pirates, and the French sqaadrons were solely 
engaged in hunting them ont in every qnarter. One of theee expedi- 
tions was on the point of bringing aboDt a disagreement between 
France and the Forte. 

Dnqnesne, porsning eight vessels belonging to Tripoli, learned that 
they had taken refnge at Chios, and went to attack them in the 
harbour oF that island (1681), Th^ Tnrkish commandant ordered 
him to respect the territory of the Snitan, and, npon his refusal to 
dear ont, nred npon his ships. Dnquesne then bombarded the fort 
md laid it in rains ; and his cannon-balls carried devastation also 
into the town, where they destroyed two mosqnea; he only ceased 
firing at the prayers of the inhabitants, and on condition that it 
shonld be referred to the Grand Seignior. The Capndan-Pacha 
hnrried thither with forty-two pille^s. Dnquesne declared to him 
that, if he did not compel the Tripohtains to make their snhmission 
to France, to carry ont the capitnlations concluded with the Porte, 
to deliver np their French slaves, he wonld bnrn the eight vessels 
belonging to Tripoli, the town of Chios and the Ottoman Fleet. The 
Capadan-Pacha desired to negotiate ; bat meanwhile the Court of 
Constantinople was in the greatest agitation : the Snitan declared 
that he would inflict vengeance for the insult perpetrated on the 
mosques of Chios, although he should demand it throaghout the 
universe. The French ambassador then was the Marquis de Gnille- 
ragaes, who had succeeded to Nointel in 1678, and who, for the last 
three years, had been qnarrelling with the Vizier npou a question of 
etiqnette. He was ordered to appear before that Minister, who de< 
clared to him that he had only one means of saving his own life and 
that of all the Franks ; which waa to offer a heavy sum of money in 
reparation of the damage cansed by the French cannonade. The - 
ambassador replied that the Snitan was just and the King of France 
powerful ; that, therefore', he regarded himself and his compatriots 
as being in perfect safety ; and he refused to sign a document by 
which he would bind himself, in the uame of his master, to make 
ezcnses to the Snitan and to give him pecuniary reparation. He was 



threatened with ImpriBOiuneiit in the caatle of the Seven Towers. 
His answer to that threat was: "It I enter therein, I will not go 
oat thence, nnlees Che King my master come himself to open tne 
doors for tne." He was kept prisoner in one of the apartmente of 
the Vizier. 

Dnqneane, however, arrived in the Dardanelles with ten vessels, 
and sent to inform the Divan that if violence were offered to the am- 
bassador, and if the disputes abont etiqaette which existed between 
him and tlie Vizier were not adjuated to the entire satisfaction of 
France, he wonld proceed to fetch M. de GnilleragiieB ont of Constan- 
tinopla The Vizier then propoBed to the ambassador to arrange the 
affair hy making, in hiB own name personally, a present to the Saltan. 
Ghiilleragnes consented thereto, Dnqueene being constrained by orders 
from the French Court, which was ignorant of these events, to sad. 
denly qnit the Archipelago. After several months' negotiations, in 
which the Ottoman Ministers nnveiled their base cupidity by miser- 
able discnssions npon the value of the present, the ambassador was 
received in solemn audience by Mahomet IV. He offered him in his 
own name, and withont making it a question of the Chios affair, a 
present of jewels and famitore of the vaJne of 15,000 livres, and 
obtained in compensation the adjustment of the disputes abont eti' 
quette to his entire satisfaction, with all the firmans he demanded, 
whether for the merchants or for the missionaries. The Porte made 
a great fuss abont this inBigniScant reparation. " It is a brilliant 
penormance," said the narrative which it ordered to be circnlated, " of 
which the people speak with the greatest delight. The report of it 
has spread into Persia, Armenia, to the Indies. Onr friends, the 
tributaries, and the nations under the law of the Messiah have been 
informed touching it." Those same nations hod tried to prevent a 
reconciliation. " Never," said the same narrative, " has there ap- 
peared so much e^eme as on thepartof the Christian ministers against 
Dim of France. The Venetians, the Dutch, and all the rest have ex- 
cited, as much as it has been possible, the hatred of his Highness 
against the French, making every effort to engage us in a rupture 
with them ; but the much- enlightened Vizier has contented himself 
with the reparation of the ambassador." 

Duquesne had been recalled to France to prepare the vengeance 
which the Grand Monarque desired to inflict upon the Algerines. He 
appeared before their city with a fleet composed of sixteen ships, fifteen 
galleys, and five bomb-veeselB. bombarded it during several days, but 
was compelled to withdraw iu consequence of the bad Beason. He 
returned the year following, bombarded Algiers again during two 
months, and destroyed it almost entirely. The inhahitAuts, in con* 
eteniation, sued for peace. Duquesne rejected all their propositions 
until they had delivered up all the Christian slaves, restored the 
French cannon left at Gigeri, and paid 1,200,000 piastres for the 
expenses of the war. Then an embasey, composed of the principal 
Algerines, went to Versailles to implore pardon of Lonia XIV., and 
swore to reepoot henceforth " the capitalations of the Grand Seignioi' 


246 TUBKKir OLD AND HEW. [a.1.. 1681—1686. 

and the treatdee made with France to tbe advantage of the French 
merchanta " (25th April, 1684). 

Tripoli had the same fate as Algiers, Dmqnesne threw 5,000 bombs 
into it (1686). Tnnie haatened to sne for peace, and faithfully kept 
it. The Bqaadroa of Ch^teaii-KeDaod blocked all the ports of Mo* 
Tocco, and caused sach losses to it« navy that the Saltan sent an 
embassy to Louis XIV. to solicit from him a treaty of friendship and 
commerce. Lastly, piracy was pnrsned even against its indirect aoz- 
iliories at. Genoa. That Bepnblic, sold to ttie enemies of Franoo, 
famished vessels to the Algerines and Spaniards It had repudiated 
in the Levant the protection of the French flag; it was a lively 
insult to the porta of Marseilles and Toulon : Genoa was piteously 
bombarded. Then France entirely dominated the Mediterranean. 

5. War agaimt the Soly Alliance, — DepoHHon of 
Mahomet IV. (1687). 

In that situation, the Porte was menaced by the Holy Alliance — a 
league against the Tnrks under the protection of the Pope, and 
formed by the Emperor, the King of Poland, and the Bepublio of 
Venice, and it was resolved to procure, if possible, the accession to it 
of the Czar of Muscovy. The Yeuetians were induced to join the 
League in the hope of recovering their former possessions, and de- 
clared war against the Sultan. The war which ensued then, called 
the Holy War, lasted till the Peace of Carlowitz in 1699. Venice in 
this war put forth a strength that was little expected from that de- 
clining State. Many thousand Germans were enrolled in her army, 
commanded byMorosini, and by Count Ktinigsmark, a Swede. 

Thus threatened on all sides, the Porte drew near again to the 
French Cabinet, overwhelmed its ambassador with honours and kind 
attentions, satisfied all its demands concerning commerce, the Holy 
Places, the missions ; but its pride hindered it from soliciting directly 
the alliance of the monarch who had just bombarded Algiers and 
Tripoli ; it contented itself with asking his mediation to obtain peace. 
On the other hand, Louis XIV., who was still under the illusions of 
the trace of Ratisbon, desirous of inducing Leopold to change that 
trace into a lasting peace, dare not manifest his sentiments in favour 
of the Tnrks, and he contented himself with exciting the Poles to 
abandon the Holy Alliance, and the Hungarians to persist in their 
revolt. The result of these errors was at first that the Ottomans, 
attacked upon all their frontiers, experienced nothing save defeats; 
the consequence was, that Louis XIV. commenced the war when his 
allies of the East were unfortunate, and had already sued for peace 
to Austria. 

The Pnke of Lorraine, however, invaded Hungary, the Venetians 
attempted the conquest of the Morea, Sobieski menaoed Moldavia. 
In order to resiat this triple attack, the Divan placed on foot three 



The Bnke of Lorrune seized apon Wissegred, and, some dajs after, 
upon Waitsen, as the reeult of a brilliant victory ; Peath capitnlated. 
The Tnrkii, defeated a second time near Saint Andre, retired to Bnda. 
That city, heroically defended by Ibrahim Pacha, arrested the march 
of the ImperialiBts. The besieged attributed their deliverance to a 
miracle : twice they thought they saw the Prophet hovering, at the 
hoar of piayer, above their ramparts. During the siege, the Duke 
of Lorraine defeated the Seraskier Suleiman Pacha; and, at the 
same time, the Generala Traattmansdorf and Leslie, conqoerora of 
the pachas of Bosniaand Gradiska, captured, in Croatia, Veroviz and 
some other fortresses (1663). 

The following year, the Tarks retook Waitzen ; bat they foiled 
before Baab and Wissc^^rad ; Ismail Pacha, beyierbey of Boamelia, 
retired before General Hansler. In the campaign of 1685, the Dnke 
of Lorraine besieged NenhEeasel, and carried it by aasanlt, after 
having raised the blockade of the fortreBS of Gran, whilst the Count 
of Herberst«in devastated the territory of Licca, Corbavie, the valley 
of Udwina, and that Leslie burned Esaek ; lastly, the Tnrks aban- 
doned the towns of Waitzen and Novigrad, and Tekeli fell back 
before Geneial Schnltz, and was, by order of the Grand Yizier, con- 
fined in the Seven Towers. 

Meanwhile, the Venetians made some progress. The Proveditore 
Pietro Valiero was forced to raise the siege of Sign ; hnt the Chris- 
tians in the mountains of Dalmatia, Albania, and the Morea rose, 
joined their arms to those of the Bepnblic, defeated their beys, and 
sent their heads to Venice. The islajids of St. Manra and Frevisa 
fell into the power of the Christians. In 1685, Moroaini invest«d 
Coron and seized npon it, after having beaten the troops that had 
come to sncconr that place. He sent to the Senate a standard 
and two horse-tails, which were suspended as a trophy in a church at 
Venice. With the aid of the Kainotes he took Zemata, Galamata, 
and other fortresses ; then, quilting the Uorea, he made a descent into 
Albania. Koeuigsmark nnited with him, the following year, in oon- 
qnering a great portion of Greece. They both took Navarino, Modon, 
N'apoli de Bomania, Arcadia, Patt-as, Lepbnto, Corintlt, Misitra, 
Athens, Ac. The marble lions, vrhich seemed to defend the entrance 
to the Pirtens, were sent to Venice and placed before the gates of the 
Arsenal. The grateful Bepnblic caused to be placed in the gi-eat hall 
of the Dc^'s ^ace the bust of Morosini with this inscription; The 
Senate to iSorotim, th« Peloponenarch, from the Life (1686). 

The war was pushed with little vigour on the side of Poland, 
Sobieski tried in vain to draw into his ^liance Conetantin Cantemir, 
Voivode of Moldavia; he was conquered by that prince near Bojau. 
The Seraskier Suleiman Facha having obtained some other successes, 
Mahomet IV. confided to him the seals of the Empire. 

Baised to the Grand Yizierate, Suleiman did not realize the hopes 
of the Ottomans. He showed much activity, but he had not the 
talent necessary in order to struggle against the Dnke of Lorraine. 
That illnstriouB general commanded an amy of 90,000 men. All 


248 TUKEBY. OLD AKD NEW. LD. 1SS8- 10S7. 

Europe was represented in his camp by offloera who wielied to train 
in his school, and who thought it an hononr to fight under the com- 
mand of each a maeter against the barbarians ; German, French, 
English, Spanish, and Italian nobles were to be seen aronnd him. 
He befc&n the siege of Bnda on the ISth of June, 1686 ; the Goyer. 
nor, Abdi Paitha, refused to capitulate, and conrageonsly sustained 
two formidable assaults ; bat, in a third attack, he perished npon the 
breach with more than 4,000 men, and the Imperialists, penetrating 
into the town, enveloped it in blood and fire (Sept. 2). Bnda, the 
capital of Hungary, had belonged to the Turks during forty-five 
years : it was the ranipart of Idamism, the pivot of the Holy War, 
the key of the Ottoman Empire. The capture of that city involved 
the surrender of a great number of other places. Suleiman Pacha 
established his winter quarters at Belgrade, and tried to negotiate a 
tmoe ; he soon recognized that peace was not possible, save on dis- 
honourable conditions, and redoubled his enei^iee to recommence the 
campaign. The Sultan imposed forced contributions throughout the 
Empire, and, by way of example, gave 500 purses out of his own 
private treasure, The Viiier, having assembled 60,000 men and 70 
pieces of cannon, encountered the Christian army near Mohacs ; a 
great battle took place in that locality, already celebrated by the 
disaster of the Hungarians ; but, this time, the Ottomans succumbed ; 
they lost 20,000 men vrith their artillery and baggage (Aug. 4, 1687). 
The reduction of Transylvania completed the measure of the Duke 
of Lorraine's glory and the discouragement of the Turks ; they then 
abandoned Essek, Vaipo, and fourteen strongholds in Bclavonia, 
Palota in Lower Hungary, and several placed in Croatia. 

At the same time, the Bnasiana attacked the Tartars, and the 
King of Poland invaded Moldavia : he put it to pillage, and wa« 
only driven out of it by famine. The following year ne besieged 
Eaminiec ; but, the Turks and Tartars arriving with superior forces, 
he was constrained to retire. 

The French ambassador, GullleiagnoB, having died in 1685, had 
for successor Qirardin, who died in 1686. To Girardin sncceoded 
Chateannenf, who had instruotiona to instigate the Porte to con- 
tinue the war against Austria, and to make peace with Poland. The 
Poles slackened, in fact, hostilities ; but the moral support, given by 
Louis XIV, to Mfliiomet TV. did not suffice to arrest the invasions 
of the Imperialists : against the Duke of Lorraine the Ottomans had 
need of effective and real succour ; Louis, whom the league of Augs- 
bonrg already threatened, did not know the proper moment at which 
to begin an inevitable war, and gave the Anstrians time to consum- 
mate the defeat of the Turks. If he had drawn upon the Rhine the 
forces of the House of Austria, the Ottoman Empire, saved by Uiat 
diversion, might have sustained the struggle with advantage ; 
reduced to his own resources, the Sultan experienced nothing but 
reverses ; and the reverses, joining themselves to famine, bixiught 
sedition in their train. Tnrkey, raised up again momentarily from 
her decadence by the Knprulis, saw a renewal, inwardly, of the 



deplorable ezcesses of military anarohy, '^rhen ehe had lost outwardly 
the prestige of her anus, and that, not being strong enoagh to 
reeiat alone her enemies, she waited in vain for the support of 

After tlie nnfortimato HnngaHan expedition, the JanisBaries and 
the Sipabis mntinied againat the Grand Vizier, Snieiman Paclia, who 
tried to appease them hy offering them money and provieionB ; but bis 
weakness encouraged the revolt ; he was snmmoned to give op the 
standard and the seals. To escape himself from that ontbnrst of 
violence, he secretly reached Pet^rwardein, and thence he reMured 
to Belgrade. After bis flight, the Boldiers elected a Oiand vizier 
and addressed to the Saltan a solemn petition against Snieiman; 
Uahomet, terrified, granted their demands and sent them the bead 
of his old Minister. Bat the soldiery, once set in motion, could not 
longer be stopped ; it ntarched apon Constantinople to depose the 
Saltan himself. Everything was to be feared from its fury. The 

Kaimacan Kupmli Unstapha sacrificed the Emperor to save the 
Empire. He signified to the Saltan, by the nlemas, the will of the 
nation and of the army, " Let the will of Allah be accomplished !" 

said the dethroned monarch, and, satisfied with preserving his life, 
he allowed himself to be shut np in the Seraglio, whence they drew 
forth his brother to sncceed him (November 8, 16S7). Mahomet IT. 
died disr^arded five years afterwards. 

6. Soliman II. — Continuation of the War. — Vvtierate of 
Ki^>rvli Muetapha. 

Soliman H. had lived dnring forty-six years in the most absolute 
secInsiDn, wholly devoted to the stndy of law and religion. The 
news of his elevation to the throne stmck him with terror, " In 
the name of the immortal Creator," he exclaimed, "wherefore come 
yon thns to disturb my tranquillity P Leave me, I conjure you, to 
pass in peace in m.y retirement the short span of life remaining to 
me ; I vras bom only to meditate upon what concerns the life 
eternal." It was repre6ent«d to him that the determination of the 
viziers, the nlemas, the army, and the people could not be revoked ; 
that to remit the sovereign power to the bands of Mahomet would be 
to expose the State to the greatest peril. " I would fain resign it- 
self to the necessity, but I dread my brother," was his reply. He 
was dn^^ed almost hj main force from his apartment as far as the 
throne-room. There he looked aronnd on all sides, trembling from 
head to foot, and muttering that the sight of his hrother would be 
enough to cause death. At length, after having undergone pari- 
fication, he consented to receive the homage of the nlemas and the 
great dignitaries. 

This revolution bad scarcely been completed, when the Grand 
Tizier Siawusch entered Constantinople at the head^of the rebel- 

Dot zed by GoOglc 

250 TURKRT OLD AND HEW. [a. D. 1688. 

lions soldiery, for the revolt bad not j^t been appeased. The Janis- 
saries and Sipahis indeed became now more turbnlent than ever. 
Tbej demanded that the donative nsnal on the accession of a new 
Sultan should be inci«aaed, and that all snoh Ministers and placemen 
as they disapproved of should be banished. Soliman ordered the 
aocession donative to be distribnted amongst them, and appointed 
two chiefs of the rebels to tile govemmente of Bonmelia and Djeddft. 
That was Gert«e not the way to establish order. Some of the visiers 
having attempted to resist their demands, a fearful riot enaned, the 
Sipabis and Janigsaries massacred their agaa, the palaces of all the 
ministeiti were stormed, plundered, and bnmt ; and even the Orand 
Yizier Siawnsch himself fell by the hands of those who had electod 
him. He defended himself for awhile with the utmost energy, but 
snccumbed at last to numbers, his body being torn into shreds. The 
assassins then penetratod within the haivm of the slain vizier, seized 
his wife and sistor, ont off their noses, hands and feet, and after- 
wards dragged them naked through the streets. Their slaves 
Buffered similar treatment at the bands of the brutal soldiery. 
Aftor these horrible exploits, the rebels spread themselves through 
every quarter of Constantinople, massacring and pillaging as they 
went. To arrest their fniy, the ulema plsuited the sacred standard 
of the Prophet at the Seraglio gate, and called npon all faitbfal 
Hnssnlmans to aid them in the suppression of the revolt. The 
Janissaries and Sipahis were only thus at length controlled l:^ the 
people rising f^inst them (February, 1688), and order was gradually 
restored by the confinement of the soldiery to their barracks. 

All those revolts turned to the profit of the Anstriana The aged 
Ismael Pacha was now entrusted with the seals of the £mpire, and 
with the conduct of a war which seemed to menace the Osmanli 
Empire with deetruction ; for the campaign of 1688 was still more 
disastrous to the Turks than the preceding one. In Hungary, Caraffa 
Bubdned Erlau, Lippa and Munkacs, valiantly defended by the. wife 
of Tekeli ; in Bosnia, Oradiska was abandoned by its garrieon ; 
Comaro took Knin in Dalmatia, and Morosini seined upon Tbebes- 
Tbe following year, the Ottomans, overcome by Teterani and by the 
Margrave Louis of Baden, further lost several important places in 
Hungary, Sclavonia and Bosnia ; Belgrade surrendered to the Elector 
of Bavaria. But, in Greece, Morosini failed before Salonica and 
before Negropont, this last siege costing him a third of his army ; 
the plagae ravaged the camp of the Venetians and carried off Count 
Ecenigsmark. On the side of Poland, the Tartars obtained some 
enocesses; they devastated Volhynia, revictnalled Kaminiec, and 
advanced as far as Lemberg. 

These latter advantages were far from compensating the reveroea 
experienced by the Kussnlmans in the vijley of the Danube. 
Humbled by these reverses, the Porto, for the first time, resolved to 
negotiate, and was disposed to make very ample concessions. The 
Emperor, elated by his successes against the Turks, dreamt of 
nothing less than putting an end to the Turkish Empire in Enropa 



and Affecting the nnion of tbe Greek and Latin Chnrcbee. The 
Porte accredited to the Emperor Zalfikar Effendi and the Greek 
MaTTocordato. Ten months passed in discnesionB withont result : 
Anstria, Venice, and Poland proposed inadmissible conditions. 
" However," says Cant«mir, "the Tnrlcs woald have accepted the 
peace, even at that price, if the very Chmtian snn had not commn- 
nicated a ray of its light to the pale crescent already on the eve of 
waning, and had not prevented, by the diversion of itA arms, the 
ohacnrity which the German troops were abont to spread there. 
Then the King of France declared war against the Emperor, and 
cansed to be recalled to the Bhine the forces that were trinmphing 
on the Dannbe, However, not wishing t« draw apon himself all the 
weight of the war, he made the Saltan nnderetand, by hia ambassa- 
dor the Uarqnis de Chateaonenf, that he had 400,000 men ready to 
enter into action, and that, the year following, he would penetrate 
into the heart of Germany." 

Hostilities recommenced ; bnt the affairs of the Empire were con- 
dncted by an incapable Yizier, Mnstapha of Bodosto, and the Torks 
experienced nothing bnt defeats ; they were beaten at Eostanitza in 
Croatia, at Balondjina in Servia, lastly at NiBsa. That place was 
taken, with Widdin and several other towns. The Impenalists ex- 
cited Servia to insnrrection, on one side they descended npon Uskionp, 
menacing Macedonia ; on another side they attacked the defile of 
Dragoman, in which they were repnised. " Tetone more campaign," 
said a Knpmli, " and the enemy will encamp onder the walla of 
Constantinople." These reverses, it is tme, were compensated by 
some advantages against other enemies : thns the Tartars defeated 
the Rnsdan General Qalitzin ; the Poles were repnleed from Kaminiec, 
and Morosini changed into a blockade the siege of Malvoisia. In 
spite of these snccesses, the Empire seemed threatened with min ; a 
solemn divan, held at Adrianople, resolved to confide the salvation of 
it to a third Knpmli. 

Knprali Mnstapha showed himself worthy of bearing the name 
ihat his father Mahomet Knprali and his brother Ahmed Knpmli 
had made illnstrions. The Germans were almost masters of the 
rentes to Constantinople, and the Venetians dominated in Greece. 
To the coalesced Christians the Ottoman Empire had only wom-ont 
troops to oppose ; money was wanting for the victualling and pay, 
notwithatandingthe increase of taxation; disorder reigned everywhere, 
in the administration as in the army. The Giand Vizier nndertook 
a general reform, and accomplished it in a very short time withont 
having reconree to the terrible means his father had employed. 

He begui by filling the treaanry chests, in order to seonre the 
obedience of the soldiers and provide for the necessities of the war. 
"Before entering into action," says Cantemir, "Knpmli thonght 
that it was advisable to take a review of the finances, desiring only 
to pour into the Sultan's coffers money legitimately raised from the 
people. He found the finances in as mnch confusion as were other 
matters ; for, in time of peace, the viziers and great fnnctionariea 


252 TUBk'EY OLD AND NEW. [a.D. 16aO~-lS9I. 

Bqnanderad tree«tire reckleesl; ; they gave, or rather sold, to Home 
exemption from tribute, and they taxed others beyond their means. 
In time of war, the defterdars practiHed extortion, and invented a 
tboasand onerous systems of raising money ; the people were racked 
in ao many ways that a choms of mnrmnrs arose against those ini- 
qnitona oppressions which cried to Heaven for vengeance. The 
Vizier applied himself, therefore, wholly to reform snch abuses. He 
csnsed to be returned into the treasury all the enms that had been 
diverted by his predecessore, by the pachas, by the clerks or farmers 
of taxes ; lastly, he made new regulations for the levy of imposts, in 
order to establish a kind of eqnality between those taxed. He ordered 
that the Eharadj shonld have three classes : those among the rich 
were taxed at ten leoninee a head ; those of lower condition at six ; 
those of the lowest at three. He caused to be restored to the treasury 
the foundations or depdts of money that devotion had formerly be- 
queathed to the mosques. The Mufti regarded that usurpation as 
sacrilege ; he replied that the wealth destined to religious uses ought 
to be employed in wars of religion ; that such was their true applica- 
tion, and that the interest of Mnssulmana demanded that it should 
be made use of for the maintenance of those who defended the 
sacred edifices, rather than to nourish enemies and robbers." At the 
same time, Kupruli regulated the monetary circulation ; he caused 
the superfluous gold and silver vessels of the Seraglio to be melted, 
and generously gave to the State all his own plate, which he replaced 
by vessels of copper, 

When he had, by all these measures, secured the payment of the 
troops, he addressed them in a firman calcnlated to raise the conrage 
of the most disheartened. " Since it has pleased His Highness to 
honour me vrith the dignity of Vizier, I have resolved to confide," 
said •he, " the command of the army against the Germans only to 
myself. I declare that I will not receive any soldier enrolled by 
force ; the service ought to be undertaken of good-will ; it is good- 
will alone that God regards, and it is more meritorious than actions. 
But I must place before the eyes of all followers of the Mahometan 
religion the obligation of the precepts of God and His Prophet, which 
command that martyrdom should not be shunned, and success not 
despaired of when arms are taken up for defence of the law, and 
for the extirpation of infidels. Thus every Mussulman who believes 
himself bound by conscience to follow that law has only to come and 
enrol himself, if he is resolved to snfier all things for hie faith. He, 
on the contrary, who doubts or fears to expose himself to martyr- 
dom, or even who has indispensable affaire which may excuse him in 
the sight of God, the latter, I say, may in all liberty remain at home; 
there, living inoffensively, he will render himself equally agreeable to 
God, and endeavour to obtain by his prayers the success of the Im- 
perial arms ; and, when even he may be of the military profession, 
not only he shall neither be sought for nor punished, but even the 
Sultan will yet extend to him bis favour, and he will receive bis pay, 
as if he was in the army." 


A.D. 1890—1891.] - VIHIKRATS OF KUPBOLt K09TAPHA. 263 

This fimum prodnoed all the effect that the Grand Yizier had ex- 
pected from it t it aroneed the people and the soldiers, especially in 
Asia. The Mnasnlmans aasembled in crovrdt), stimnlated at once by 
the point of hononr and by tbe religions sentiment : no one desired 
to be looked npon as a coward or an infidel, and Eupmli had very 
soon an army more nnmerons than those which his predeceaeors had 
collected by dint of threats and severity. 

Whilst appealing to the religions sentiments of tbe Massnlmnns, 
Enpmli treated the Christian subjects with mach hnmanity. By 
his niiami-dschedid (new r^nlation), be expressly forbade all vio- 
lence towards them, and ordered that tbe troops traversing the 
Christian provinces shonld pay for ^sin and all provisions in ready 
mcmej, at a reasonable price, and tuways by consent of tbe vendor. 
The Christian historian Cantemir, who was almost bis contemporary, 
remarked in him a surprising degree of equity and wisdom which 
made him look npon all tbe subjects of tbe Saltan " with impartiality 
and witbont regard to difference of religion." Thos be granted to 
tbe Christians of Constantinople permission to rebnild their ancient 
chnrches. Some conntry folk having preferred a similar reqnest to 
him, be hastened to sign their memorial. The ofGcer charged with 
the drawing np of the firman, making nse of tbe old form, specified 
ihat the chnrch sboold be restored with tbe same wood, stones and 
lime of the ancient building. " They are fools who invented that 
formnla," exclaimed Kapmli, " and greater fools still are they who 
follow it ! These people desire to repair their temple ; if it is bo 
dilapidated that to repair it is impossible, let tbem bnild a new one. 
All that we need care abont is, that tbey do it at their own expense, 
and not with money of the Mnsanlmans ; and provided that they 
|My their tribute r^nlarly, the rest does not concern na.'' Tbns the 
Qreeks often remarked, "Knprali has bnilt more chnrches than 

The Grand Visier did not confine himself to the alleviation of the 
condition of the rayabs by protecting them against the violence and 
&naticism of the OttonianB ; he was tbe first statesman in Turkey 
who had laid down tbe principle of free trade and tbe suppression 
of all prohibitive measures. When be was advised to r^ulate sales 
and purchases he replied : " The Koran contains nothing thereon ; 
sale and purchase ought to be left to the free will of both parties." 
That wise policy was especially profitable to the Christians and to 
the Jews, to whom tbe Turks al»ndoned almost wholly tbe concerns 
and benefits of commerce. Judicial reform was not less useful to the 
rayabs. " Justice," says an historian, " was nearly everywhere venal ; 
false testimony was in some sort publicly authorized. Tbe Grand 
Vizier discharged those who were weighted by bad practices, and 
without regard of persons he set tbe law again everywhere into 
vigorous action ; and he was soon able to say with a legitimate pride : 
' See what tolerance produces I I have augmented tbe power of the 
Padischah, and I have caused his government to be blessed by people 
who detested it.' " 


254 TUSEBT OLD ANS NEW. [a.I>. 1690—1661. 

His humanity preserved the Morea to the Empire, and contribated, 
more than the force of arms, to bring back that province into obe- 
dience. He appointed a Q-reek, Liberins Geratchari, prince of the 
Hainotes. That which ni^ed him to this nomination was the example 
of Koldavia, where the Turks had not had the andermoBt part ae in 
the other provinces ; a palpable proof that a Christian governor was 
more fitting than a Massnlman to keep to their allegiance a people of 
the same religion aa himself. Besides that, Liberias had made him- 
self acceptable to him hj another argument : he had depicted the 
Venetians as tjrante of the faith, affirming that t^eir zeal to impose 
the Bomish religion npnn the Oreeks of the Uorea made them long 
for Ottoman domination; a prince of the Greek church conld not 
therefore fail to bring them, back to submission.* In fact, irritated 
by the persecutions of the Catholics and influenced by the amenity 
of the Grand Yizier, the Greeks of the Peloponnesus and of Attica 
abandoned the party of the Venetians, which they had at first warmly 
embraced; the Mainotesof themselves retnnted under the domination 
of the Porte. 

To the successes obtained in Greece by a conciliating policy Kup- 
ruli If ustapha knew how to add other victories, more disputed, more 
costly, and not less necessary for the safety of the Empire. Whilst 
the Khan of the Crimea, Selim Gherai, checked the insurrection of 
the Serbs and defeated, in the plains of Kossovo, a corps of the 
Christian army, he himself captured from the Imperialists Dragoman, 
Nisea, Widdin, Semendria, and lastly Belgrade, after twelve days of 
siege. Meanwhile Tekeli, aided by the Voivode of Wallachia, entered 
Transylvania by the defile of Tcersbonrg, destroyed near Zemoscht a 
corps of the German army, and took prisoner General Hausler ; in 
recompense, he was named Prince of Transylvania. 

The Ottoman arms were leas fortunate against the Venetians, who, 
in Dalmatia, seized upon Valona, and, in the Morea, on Napoli da 
Halvoisia ; the Turks, nevertheless, took their revenge npon t^ field 
of battle, and made 3,700 prisoners, whom they slaughtered (1690). 
A few months afterwards Soliman II. died (June 23, 1691), aud was 
succeeded by his brother Achmet II. 

7, Reigns of Achmet II. and Muilapha II, — Peace of Oarlountz. 

The new reign was disastronsly inangurated by a sanguinary defeat 
and by the death of the great man who governed the Empire. Kup< 
ruli Mustapha met the Imperial army, commanded by the Margrave 
of Baden, near Salankemen, the 19th of August, 1691. The Turks 
were completely defeated ; 28,000 perished ; amongst the dead was 
the Grand Vizier. Such was the end of the third Supmli, of that 
intelligent, courageous and humane statesman who was regretted 
alike by rayahs aud Turks ; the people preserved his memory nnder 
the title of Knpruli the Virtiioiu. 

I. iv. p. 26. 



After hie death, tlie Div&n, discouraged, listened to the propositioiiB 
of the Enf^lish and Dntch ambassadors, who offered their mediation 
between the belligerent Powers. Knpmli, without acceding to the 
demands of Lonis XIY., who was desirona that they sbonld not 
acknowledge William of Orange as King of England, had followed 
agiiinst the Hoose of Anstria t^e iitspiration of the CoartoC France. 
The English influence prevailed with the new Grand Vizier, Ali 
Paoha; bat Austria set forth claims so -exorbitant, that, in spite of 
the capture of Qrosswardein bj the Imperialists, the attempts to 
make peaoe failed completely. In 1692 and in 1693 the war was 
confined to the revictnalling of Belgrade, to slight skirmishes ia 
Dalmatia, and incnrsions of the Tartars into Poland. The following 
campaign was more serious : the Tnrka in vain besieged Peterwardein ; 
tiiey experienced some checks in Poland and Dalmatia ; in the Archi- 
pelago the Venetians seized npon the island of Chios (1694). A 
short time afterwards Achmet II. died (Febmary 6, 1695). 

His snccesioT, Mnstapha II., an energetic prince, announced, at 
Bis accession, bis intention of governing by himself and of pushing 
the war vigorously. Having determined to take command of his 
armies, he crossed the Dannbe, captared several places and began hia 
career by a coarse of victories. In Hunea^, be carried by assanlt 
Lippa and defeated near Imgos General Vetersni ; the Germans, 
taken between two fires b^ the Turks and the Tartars, conld not stand 
long against very superior forces ; Veterani wounded, was taken and 
beheaded (September 22, 1695). The Tartars invaded Poland, and 
only stopped their march when under the walls of Lemberg. The 
Ciar Peter I. raised the siege of .Azof, after the loss of 30,(X>0 men. 
At sea, the Ottomans, under the leadership of Uezzomorto, an old 
Tunisian pirate, defeated the Venetian fieet in two battles and recon- 
quered the island of Chios (1695). 

The success of that campaign revived the enthusiasm of the Mns- 
Bnlmans. Voluntary gifts provided pay for the army, and certain 
wealthy persons even eqnipped at their own cost a body of troops. 
The battle of Olasch gained by tbe Snltan, the incnrsions of the 
Tartan in Poland after the 'death of John Sobieski, tbe checks given 
to the Venetians in Dalmatia, compensated the loss of Azof, which 
the CtaF besieged during two months with 60,000 regular troops 
and clouds of Kalmucks and Cossacks (1696). 

But in the following year fortune changed face. Prince Eugene 
of Savoy, bred in the school of the Dake of Lorraine in the Kun. 
garian war, was placed Inr tbe Emperor at the head of the Austrian 
army. After a series of skilful marches and countar-marches, he 
fell npon the Turks at tbe fords of the Theiss, near Zenta. 20,000 
Ottomans were left on the field of battle ; 10,000 perished in the 
river y the Grand Vizier was slain, and tbe Sultan put to flight. A 
few days afterwards the conquerors entered Bosnia (1697). 

The Empire was in great peril, and it was once more a Knpmli who 
was summoned to save it. Mnstapha gave tbe standard and tbe seals 
to Kupmli Hussein, nephew of Kupruli Mahomet. The new Grand 


256 TUBKBY OLD AND NEW. [^D. 1S9T— LS99. 

Viaier, by clever expedients, provided for the most preasing needs, 
and the Ottoman army being enabled to pat iteeU ag&ia in motion, 
the Anstriatts reoroesed the Save and took ]np their winter qnartera 
in Hnngaiy. 

Meanwhile Lonis XIT., eihansted by the atmggle which he had 
Boetained against one-half of Eni:ope, was at that moment meditating 
the desirableDBss of peace. Of this he apprised the Divan, and 
offered his intervention to obtain its admission to the negotiations 
he was about to open. That offer met with a decided refnsal from 
the Snltan, who hoped to recover the provinces which he had lost 
dnring the war; and, moreover, he diatmatod the ambassador who 
made those pt-opositions on the part of France. That functionary 
was U. de Feriol, who had sncceeded Ohateannenf. Badly instracted 
in the usages of the Porte, notwithstanding the seven campaigns he 
had made with the Tnrks, he had offended the Ottoman Court by his 
conceitedness of manner, and had insetted the drand Seignior by 
presenting himself at an andienoe wearing a sword at his side. 

Thongh Lonia XIV. had signed the Treaty of Byawyck (1698), yet 
he now advised the Divan to continne the war, urging that the peaoo 
which he had jnst conclnded was only a trace, and that the 
approaching demise of Charles II. of Spain was aboat to re-open a 
Btrn^Ie in which Frajice woald deploy all her strength against the 
Honse of Austria. The Porte was dissatisfied with the conduct of 
the French King, whom it regarded as abandoned by the other Powers 
of Europe. It hstened to the solicitations of William of Onmge, 
who won over by dint of gold, it was said, the members of the Divan 
to accept the mediation of England and Holland ; and, finally, it 
made overtures of peace to Austria. Louis XIY. remonstrated with 
the Divan upon the error it was about to commit : representing that 
" Turkey conqnered could only obtain peace nnder conditions upon 
which depended its very existence ; for the Tnrks, in all their wara 
with the Christians, had never receded ; and should they now do ao, 
the prestige attached 'to their power would be dissipated." He 
therefore advised the Porte to |)rolong the war until France could 
take ap arms again; and he engaged not to lay them down until 
Turkey had recovered Hungary and aU her lost provinces. But 
these representations of the great monarch were transmitted by 
Feriol, a man in whom the Divan had no confidence, and even re- 
garded as imbecile ; moreover, the ambassadors of William had made 
tiiemselves masters of the chief ministera, either through intrigue or 
fear. Louis XIY. was answered that France made peace at her own 
time and will, and that the Porte would do the same. Thereupon 
n^otiations were opened through the mediation of England and 
Holland, which Feriol tried to traverse. " He set every engine to 
work to that end," says Cantemir, " but he did not succeed. The 
Divan ended even by inviting him not to give himself needless 
trouble ; that peace was determined upon, and peace would be made." 
And it was, in fact, signed at OarlowifeE (1699). 

By that Treaty, Turkey ceded to Leopold Hungary and Tnmsyl- 


A-D. laee.] the fuoe or caulowitz. 257 

Tania, with its natural bonndaries, from Podolia to Wallachia, rft- 
Berring onlj the territory between the Theiea and the Marosk. In 
the STrminm a conventional line was traced, marted ont by a seriea 
of ditches or atakee, from the conflnence of the Theias with the 
Danube to the month of the Bosant in the Save. From that point 
the course of the Save forms a Batumi frontier, continued onwards 
Wthe TJnna. Poland recovered Kaminiec, Podolia and the Ukraine. 
BuBsia retained Azof. Venice oulj gave up the conquests made by 
her to the north of tlie Gmlf of Corinth, and almost the whole of 
Dalmatia; she evacuated IJepanto, bnt only after destroying its for- 
tifications. All the tributes paid by the Christian Powers to the 
Ottoman Porte were abolished. 

The loss of Hungary and Transylvania, of the Morea, Dalmatia, 
Podolia, the Ukraine and Azof, was the first li^reat gap made in the 
Ottoman Empire. From that moment it ceased to be formidable to 
Europe. It found itself mixed up in all the affurs of the West — 
that Power which had owed its greatness to its isolation ; in fine, in- 
stead of being dominated by the advice of its old and close ally, it 
had to snbmit to the influence of ambitions neighbours or interested 
friends. Ite decadence could no longer be arrested ; the Roesiana, 
by acquiring an entrance to the southem seas, had just commenced 
their European existence. 

" The peace of Carlowitz," says Hammer, " restrained the Turks, 
on the side of Poland and Hungatr, within the limits of the Dniester, 
the Save, and the Unna. That IVeaty proclaimed significantly the 
decadence of the Ottoman Empire, which, suspended for awhile by 
the iron arm of Amurath III. and the sanguinary remedies of the 
elder Knpruli, could not be arrested afterwards ly the politic wisdom 
of the Qrand Tizier of the latter's family, nor hidden from the e;es 
of the world by the hosts of undisciplined soldiers thmet forward 
Inr the Porte in it« distress. A century elapsed between the submis- 
non of Hungary to TurkiBh tyranny, and the establishment of the 
nieami-dsehedid ( ' equitable reparation ' ) by the wise and virtuous 
Mustapha Kupruli for the relief of the rayahs." A century more 
passed before that renovated institution, under the reign of Selim III., 
was vigorously applied on a more extended scale. If the example of 
the third Knprnli, in his measures of humanity on behalf of the 
Christian subjects of the Empire, had been followed up by the Grand 
Viziers, his successors; if the system of equitable reparation which 
he had cooceiTed, and which tended to restore order and economy in 
the public administration, had been carried into effect, the existence 
of Turkey would not have been compromised. At the present day, 
by the irresistible effect of time, which changes all things, and which 
inevitably brings about eveiTwhere progress as inevitable as necessary, 
the Mahometan dominator has no other alternative than of renonn- 
cing his power over the Christians, or of exercising it with more 
gentleness and moderation, aocording to the dictates of interest and 




■ tmum or Ciuowns to tm.TwAum oi Jimt (1S9B-I792). 

Fioii tMM Puoi ov Oauowtti to TBI Fuoi OF FuuBowm (lfl90-171S). 
1. Adtninittratum of Kupruli Huuein. — Sepotition of 
Miutapha II. 
Ik the new sitnation whicli the Peace of Carlowitz had placed the 
Ottoman Empire, Knprnli Huasem, snrnamed the Wite, compre- 
hended the necessity of reforms, and followed, with regard to the 
Chmtiaii subjects, the example of Knprnli the Virtuout. Immedi- 
ately after the signatnre of the Peace of Carlowitz he granted to the 
inhabitants of Servia and the Banat exemption from the capitation 
tax for the current year; in Ronmelia he forgave the rayahs & 
million and a half of contribntions in arreara ; in Syria he gave them 
freedom of pastun^ for their fiocks. 

His attention was not confined to the Christiaafl. At the same 
time tliat he strove to recall faithful Mnsealmans to the study and 
practioe of their relinon, whilst respecting the rights of the 
Christians, the O-rand v izier re-establiahed order in the finances) 
revised the mnster-rolls of the Janiasariea, provided for the equip* 
ment of the navy, and undertook, sometimes at his own expense^ 
Bometinies at the cost of the State, great works of public utility i 
canalB, bridges, aqnedacts, moeques, schools, markets, barracks. Ao.; 
the strongholds ot. Belgrade, Temeavar, and Nissa were also put into 
a good state of defence. Knprnli Hoaaein was a generoos and mag- 
nanimons man, a great politician, and a frieud of learned men; he 
was prematurely lost to the Gmpire. .Kevolta which were quickly 
auppresaed, in Arabia, Egypt, and the Crimea, having troubled the 
end of his administration, he snconmbed under the iotrignes of the 
mufti, was deposed from power, and died a few days after his dis- 
grace (September, 1702). 

After the death of Kupruli the disorders reoommenoed. His suo- 
oesaor, Dallaban Pacha, a brutal and ferocious Serb, attempting to 
violate the treaty of Carlowitz, was strangled. The next Grand 
Vizier, Nami. a partisan of peace, endeavoured to finish the wt^k of 
Knprnli ; but he displeased the ulema and the Janissaries ; an insur- 
rection broke out; the troops sent to repress it frateroised with the 
rebels. The Sultan Mustapha II. was deposed, and ceded the throne 
to his brother Achmet III. (1703). 



b, Google 


2. Aekmet III. — Diminution of French influence. — OommencemeTii 
of Russian preteTisiont. — Charles XII. at Bender. 

The rdgn of Achmet III. (1703-1730) may be divided into two 
periods. OnriiiK the first (1703-18) power passed from baud to 
Aamd ; the Orand Viziers sacceeded each other with deplorable rapi* 
dity ; the Ottoman Empire, after a few years of repose, became 
engaged in a series of qaarrela with Russia, Yeuioe, and Austria. 
The second is wholly oconpied with the ministry of Ibrahim, which 
also gave em.ployment to the militajn'' activity of the Turks, but 
which tnms to the side of Persia, and seeks for enemies more easy 
to conquer than the Christinas. 

Since the treaty of Carlowitz the party of peace had prevailed in 
the Divan. When Lonis XIV. began the great struggle of the 
Spanish succession he gave orders to Feriol to demosBtrato to the 
Porte that the opportunity was decisive for avenging itself for its 
past defeats, and for resuming its old position ; that Spain and Italy 
having fallen to the House of Bonrbon, doubled the advant^es and 
resources of the Freuch alliance; that there was nothing to fear 
from the renewal of the Holy League of 1665, for the Yeoetians and 
Poles desired to remain neutral ; finally, it was only required of the 
Tnrks that they should enter Hungary, which was still in revolt, 
and allow the Tartar Ehan to attack the Russians. But the sanguL. 
nary troubles which marked the close of the reign of Mnstapha II. 
rendered all negotiation at first impossible, and, when they were 
appeased, tiie Sultaa Achmet, immersed in the pleasnres of the Sera- 
Rlio, ofastixmtoly refused to miic himself up in a war in which he saw 
Uiat the only profit to be derived from it by the Tnrks was by allow- 
ing the infidels to slaughter one another. When France experienced 
reverses she renewed her solicitationa by pointing out to tbe Divan 
the danger and disgrace of its absurd repose. It was altogether 
useless : the bad snccesa attending the French arms proved injurious 
to her representations, and the overtnres of her ambassador were 
thwarted victoriously by the intrigues and money of England and 

The reeult of the neutrality of the Porto was at first that France, 
constrained to distribute widely her maritime forces for the defence 
of the numerous possessions of Spain, lost her sway over the Medi- 
torranean, where she allowed England to establish herself, and conse- 
quently saw her influence in the East shaken ; afterwards that 
Turkey, already divested at Carlowitz of the pristine terror her arms 
inspired, continued to lose in peace her political importance ; lastly, 
that, during that kind of suspension of the Turko-French alliance, 
Russia profited by the war of the Spanish succession, in which all 
the Western Powers were engaged, to follow up her projects of con- 
quest over the Ottoman Empire. 

The Greek Chnroh, so fatal to Europe and to oiyilieation, had in 
ita extreme decrepitude given birth to a last and pitiful abortion of 

B 2 


260 TCRKXT OLD AND KBW. [*.d. I70S — 1?09. 

the siege of Byzantium, the BrnsBian Church, which scarcely received 
in birth a feeble breath of evangelical life, and which never availed 
itself thereof save in the political iiitereat« of the temporal power 
which kept it in servitude. Its pretension, from the most remote 
times, was to renmte to her all the nationn which held her creed ; 
therefore, of inheriting the religions power of Constantinople, and of 
re-establishing the Eastern Empire to the profit of the Czars of 
Moscow. Peter the Great possessed as yet only a barbarian Stat«, 
without porta, armies, or finances; he had before him Sweden, 
Poland, Turkey, which interdicted from Bassia a Enropean exis- 
tence ; in fine, he did not yet hold an inch of gronnd upon the shores 
of the Bhick Sea. He was already intrigning throughout Oreece, 
stirring up the peoples of Slav race, opposing secretlv the inflnence 
of France over the Oriental Christians, and nndermining the Otto- 
man Empire. Thus the Greeks, who had preserved in slavery all 
their hatred of the Latins, tamed themselves hopefully towards the 
barbarians of the North, whom they regarded thenceforward as 
their liberators, from whom they received secret presents, and whose 
agents they welcomed. " The Greeks," says the English historian, 
Bycaut, who wrote in 1670, " hold the Muscovite in great considera- 
tion, and have more friendship for him than for the other Christian 
princes', they commonly call him their Emperor and protector; and, 
according to all their prophecies, ancient and modem, he is destined 
to be the restorer of their chnrch and of their freedom." " Tb^ 
flatter themselves," says Tonmefort, who travelled in the Archipelago 
in 1700, " that the Grand Duke of Mnscovy will some day extricate 
them from the miseir in which they now are, and that he will 
destroy the Empire of the Turks," " They are persuaded," says the 
Jesuit Sonciet, missionary at Thessalonica in 1708, " that the Czar 
will deliver them one day from the domination of the Ottomans." 

The Porte had but a feeble dread of the Bnasians. It was sepa- 
rated from them by deserts, and by the Tartars of the Crimea, whose 
incnrsions had so often compelled them to implore peace and pay 
tributes. It had not comprehended the importance of the alliance of 
1685, between Bnssia and Anatria — an alliance sn^i^ested to the 
Emperor Leopold by MontecucnlJi, and which, for the first time, 
caused the barbarians of the North to enter into the aSairs of the 
South of Europe. It was only humiliated by the c^sion of Azof, 
which unveiled, however, the aspirations of the Russians with r^ard 
to the Black Sea. After the peace, the Porte did not disquiet itself 
on seeing Peter the Great extend his projects upon that sea, fortify 
Azof, and build ships there ; attempt, hy an establishment at Yoronez, 
to pierce the barrier which the Tartars opposed to him ; it even su- 
pinely regarded the terrible war in which Charles XII. tried to stifle 
the Muscovite eagle by giving a new life to Poland. However, it 
secretly led the King of Sweden to hope that the Khan of the Crimea 
would march to his assistance. Beckoning upon that futile hope, 
Charles XII. adventured into the interior of Russia with an army of 
16,000 men; he was conquered at Pultowa (1700), sought a refuge 


A.D. 1700—1710] CHIRLBB III. AT BKKDER. 2ol 

IB Turkey, eateblished himself »t Bender, and from thence he intrigued 
with the Divan to draw Achmet III. into the war againnt Peter I. On 
bis aide the Ciiar complained of the hospitality accorded to his enemy, 
and demanded the extradition of Mazeppa, hetman of the CoBsacks, 
who had delivered np the Ukraine to the King of Swedoii. The 
French ambaseadore joined their remonstrances to the solicitations of 
Charles XII. ; bnt they would have remained without result, as well 
R8 the nt^^ency of the Tartar Khan, if the embassy of the Czar had 
not come by way of the Black Sea on board a squadron which cast 
anchor before the windows of the Seraglio ! Mussulman pride was 
irritated at the appearance of infidels in the seas interdicted to 
Christian commerce, and regarded as eacred by the fanaticism of the 
Oamanli War was declared. 

3. War agaitut Ruggia. — Peace of FaXkten. 
Peter the Great appeared at first sarprised at that enei^tic reso- 
Intion. He reokoned upon the artifices of Tolstoi, his ambassador, 
upon the corruption of the Viziers, upon the dilatorineas of the Divan, 
and the weakness of Achmet III. But, in reality, he had only been 
anticipated, as, for some time past, he had taken measures to begin 
the war and to secure to himHetf partisans in the States of the Grand 
Seignior. His emissaries, traversing secretly Moldavia and Walla- 
chia, excited everywhere the inhabitants to revolt. The hospodars 
whom the Porte had nominated to administer those provinces were 
Bold to Bnssia. Immediately after the rapture there appeared a pro- 
clamation of the Czar, which guaranteed to the Moldo-Wallachians 
the exclusive ezerciee of the Greek religion, and enfranchisement 
from Turkish domination.* Finally, a bishop, the chief agent of 
these intrigues, was seen at Jerusalem circnlatiiig a report that a pro- 
phecy bad been found within the tomb of Constantine, which an- 
nounced that the Turks would be driven ont of Europe by the 
Russian nation. Peter I., reckoning upon the revolt of all the peoples 
of the Greek religion, flattered himself that he was about to plant 
the Rnssian eagle npon the minarets of the Seraglio. He wae at the 
head of a formidable army ; he brought with him the celebrated 
captive of Marienburg, whom he had just acknowledged as his wife ; 
he was marching surrounded by the pomp of his Conrt, as to a certain 
victory, with a oonfidence and a presumption that he had never 
before shown. 

Meanwhile, Charles XII. had been straining every nerve to incite 
the Porte to hostilities against Russia ; in this he was assisted by his 
friend Count Poniatowsky, by the Khan of Tartary, and by the 
French ambassador at Constantinople Their efforts at length suc- 
ceeded. On the 2Ist November, 1710, the Sultan Achmet III. de- 
clared war against the Czar, and, according to the Turkish custom, 
imprisoned Tolstoi, the Russian ambassador, in the Seven Towers. 
Peter, relying on the negotiations whioh he had entered into with the 
* Fen7, "TbeBlatoor Eania,"p. 4S. 


262 TUBKET out anh nbw. [^d. int. 

hospodan of Moldavia and Wallachia, thoagli their indifference at 
first snrpriBed him, and who did nothing towards pnTchasing the 
liberty he had promised them, despatched a Bnasian division nnder 
Scheremetoff to the Prath ; and he himself marched in the same 
direction in the spring of 1711. DemetrinB Cantemir, the Hoapodar 
of Moldavia, a pnnce of Greek origin, who had engaged to assist the 
Czar in his war with the Turks on condition that Peter should aid 
him in rendering his sovereignty hereditary, induced the Bnasiana' to 
cross the Pmtb by representing that tbey wonld be able to seize some 
considerable Turkish magazines. Bat Peter, when he had crossed 
the river, found that he had been completely deceived. The Mol- 
davians were not inclined to rise, and he found himself without 
provisions, without mnuitions, surrounded by a Turkish and Tarter 
army of 200,000 men, in a position in which there remained only the 
alternative to surrender or die (1711). The pressing want of neoea* 
earies compelled him to an immediate retreat ; but he had not pro- 
ceeded far when he was overtaken and hemmed in by an enemy 
infinitely more numerous than his owti forces, in a spot between the 
Pruth and a morass. In this situation to retreat or advance seemed 
equally impossible; yet the want of provisions compelled him to 
remain stationary. Despair now seized upon Peter's heart. A. single 
hour might upset all those plans and labours for the benefit of his 
coantry which had occupied his whole life; and in his distress and 
agitation, which he cared not to betray, he shut himself np in bis tent, 
and gave strict orders that no one should be admitted to his presence. 
In these circumstances a council of the principal Russian officers 
determined that the only chance of escape was to come to terms with 
the Grand Yizier, Mahommed Baltadschi, who commandud the Turk- 
ish army. None, however, was bold enough to communicate this 
decision to the Czar, except the intelligent and courageons Catherine, 
his wife. Catherine, who, before her capture at Marienburg, had 
been betrothed to a Swedish corporal, and had subsequently been the 
mistress of Scheremetoff and Menschikoff. In this last capacity Hhe 
attracted the notice and love of Peter, who secretly married her in 
1707, before setting out on his expedition against the Turks. Al- 
though so illiterate that she could not even read or write, she had am 
intuitive skill in penetrating the characters of those with whom she 
was oonnectod, and of adapting heraelf to theirviews and dispositions. 
She had gained complete empire over Peter by entering warmly into 
all his plana, and while she seemed to humour him in all his caprices 
she entirely governed him. She, alone, undertook an office which 
might have cost another his life. She entered Peter's tent, soothed 
him by her caresses, and persuaded him to s^id a messenger to the 
Tizier with propositions of peace. She obtained from the principal 
ofBcers what money they had to make up the present customary on 
such occasions, to which she added her own jewels. Fortunately for 
the Russians, Baltadschi was anything but a hero, and, indeed, held 
war in abhorrence. An intimation on the part of the Czar, supported 
by a slight demonstration in the Bossian oamp, that, if his proposals 


*.]>. 1711.] TBBATI OF rAXiKBBK. 203 

were not accepted, he meant to force his way through at the point of 
the bajonet, induced the Viaier to come to terma. In this moment 
of Awini enapense Peter displayed the great qoalities which he really 
pofiBeased, thongh they were sometimes obscured by the peculiarities 
of his temperament. He addressed a letter to bis Senate, in which 
he directed them that, in the event of his being made prisoner, they 
should no longer regard him as their Sovereign nor obey any instruc- 
tions they might receive in his name, even though signed with his 
own hand ; while if he should be killed they were immediately to 
elect another Czar. The Vizier, however, consented to receive the 
BuBsian plenipotentiaries, and thought the hnmiliations of Carlowits 
sufficiently avenged by the conditions which he imposed in the treaty 
of Falksen. Russia restored Azof t« the Porte, destroyed the port 
of T^aurog, razed the fortiBcations which she had erected upon the 
frontiers of Turkey, whilst the Czar engaged to recall his army from 
Poland, and to forbear from all interference in the affaire of the 
GoBBacks subject to tbe Khan of Tartary. 

Apart from the latter illusory condition, the advantages which the 
Porte drew from that treaty were evident. " The campaign of the 
Prnth," says Voltaire, " was more disastrous to the Czar than the 
l»tt1e of Narva had been; for, after Narva, he knew how to reap 
advantage even from defeat ; to repair all his losses and to carry oS 
Ingria mim Charles XII. ; but after having lost, by the treaty of 
Falksen, his porta and his fortreBses upon the Pains Mseotides, he 
was compelled to renounce the empire of the Black Sea " Thus all 
the ships, the construction of which had been begun, rotted upon the 
stocks; their timbers were sent to St. Peter^ntrg. In vain did 
Fetor desire to retard the restitution of Azof, he was not strong 
enough to forfeit his word with impunity : his bad faith was only 
calculated to cause the disgrace of the Vizier, who had accorded 
peace to him, and he was constrained to fulfil all its conditions. 

When the Bnssian army was first surrounded in a situation from 
which it seemed impossible to escape Poniatowski, who had aocom. 
^nied the Grand Vizier, despatched a messenger in all haste to 
Charles XII. at Bender, begging him to come withoat delay and 
behold the consummation of his adversary's ruin. Charles instantly 
obeyed the sammons, but, to his unspeakable mortification and mge, 
arrived only in time to see in the distance the last retreating ranks of 
the Russian rear-guard. Loud and bitter were the reproaches which 
Charles addressed to Baltadsohi for his condnot. He besought the 
Vizier to lend him 20,000 or 30,000 men, wherewith he promised to 
bring back the Czar and his whole army prisoners ;- but Baltadschi, 
with a mortifying apathy, pleaded the &itji of treaties, and Charles, 
rushing from the Vizier's tent with a loud and contomptuous laugh, 
leaped upon his horse and rode full gallop back to Bender. There 
be and Poniatowski, in conjunction with the Khan of Tartary, em- 
ployed themselves in effecting the ruin of the Grand Vizier. He 
was accused of having taken bribes to grant the peace ; and thongh 
the news of the capitulation had at first been received at Constanti- 


284 TDBXET OLD AHD HBW. [a.ii. 1711—1713. 

nople irith every demonstratioa of jot, tlieae B«cDB&tioii8, sapportod 
by the enemies of Boltadschi in the Seraglio, procured Ilia banieh- 
ment to LemnoH, where he died the following year. 

Charles XII. and the French ambassador strove in vain to compass 
the abrogation of the treaty of Falksen ; the Divan became tired of 
their persistence. The Snltan'now endeavoured to hasten the depar- 
ture from his dominions of the Kin^ of Sweden, who was boUi a 
troublesome and an expensive guest. But Charlee was not disposed 
to quit, except on the most exorbitant terms. He demanded a pay- 
ment of 600,000 dollars and an escort of 30,000 men, while the Porto 
was inclined to grant only 6,000 men and no money. After a for- 
bearance of many months the Snltan at length prepared to use force. 
Charles's daily allowance was withdrawn, and the Janissaries were 
ordered to seize his person, dead or alive. Charles betrayed on this 
occasion a characteristic obstinacy and reckleasnefls. Although snr< 
ronnded by a force that left no hope of snccessfnl resistance, he 
resolved, with a few hundred followers, to defend to the last sitre- 
mity his little camp at Yamitza, which he had fortified with a 
barricade composed of chairs, tables, casks, bedding, and whatever 
oame to hand ; and it was not until after a desperate hand-to-hand 
conflict, in which he was more than once mounded, that he was at 
length secured (February, 1713). Charles was now carried to Demo- 
tica, in the interior of the empire, where a residence was assigned to 
him, and he was compelled to live almost as a prisoner upon a very 
reduced allowance. In that retreat he carried on fresh intrignes 
successfully. Shortly after his departure from Bender King Stanis- 
laus arrived at that place, with the view, it is said, of mediating a 
peace between Charles and Augnstus of Poland, by resigning the 
crown of Poland. But Charles would not hear of such an arrange- 
ment. He still entertained the hope that the Porte might be indnced 
to take up his own cause as well as that of Stanislaus. Bnt these 
expectations were frustrated by a treaty concluded between the 
Porte and Augustus II., by which the peace of Oartowitz was confirmed. 

By a sudden change the Porte had again declared war against 
Russia in 1712; but EnglEind and Holland intervened to prevent 
hostilities, and a new treaty, more explicit than the preceding, was 
concluded at Constantinople. The Czar gave hostages to guarantee 
the execution of his engagements; but as he did not decide upon 
withdrawing his troops from Poland those hostages were imprisoned 
in the Seven Towers. Fresh negotiations were set on foot ; and 
finally the treaty of Adrianople (15th Jane, 1713) enlai^ed the limits 
of the territory of Azof, restored to Turkey, and completely shut ont 
from the Russians access to the Black Sea. On the other hand, the 
ancient tribute was definitively abolished of 40,000 ducats which the 
Czars paid to the Khans of the Crimea. 

About the same time, Charles XII., at length abandoning all hope 
of inducing the Porte to take up his cause gainst the Czar, was 
persuaded by Gleneral Lieven to return to his kingdom, or rather to 
his army in the north of Germany. The Emperor promised him a 


jtb. 1715—1718.] WAR A0A1N8T TIHICE AND AUBTKU. 2(J5 

ufe pewaage tlirongh Iub dominions ; the Sultan provided him mtfa 
an escort to the frontiers ; bat Charles, impatient of the slow pro- 
gress of the Turks, set oil with only two companione, and orossing 
the Hnngarian frontier, proceeded tbrongh Hermonnstadt, Bnda, 
Vienna, Uatisboa, Hanaa, to Stralsand. This eztraordinarj joamey, 
which was lengthened hj a considerable detour, and mnst oave been 
at least 1,100 miles in length, was performed for the most part on 
horseback, and was accomplished in seventeen days. 

4. War againtt Venice and against Auttria. — Treaty of Faitarowiti, 
— Fresh Treaty mth Buagia. 

Meanwhile France had terminated her straggle against Earope by 
the treaties of Utrecht and of Bastadt : the Divan did not disquiet 
itself teaching the changes which these treaties caused the Ueditei> 
ranean to nndei^, nor about Spain given to the House of Bourbon, 
nor of the half of Italy given to the Honse of Austria, nor of England 
become mistress of the entrance of that sea by the possession of 
Gibraltar. Bat scarcely had her ally laid down arms, ere Turkey, 
suddenly by a sort of oaprice, drew the sword again, and went to 
attack her ancient euemies, fallen like herself into decadence, the 
Venetians, with the view of recovering the Morea from them (1716). 

The pretext of the war was a revolt of the Montenegrins. In a 
single campaign, the Grand Vizier, Damad Ali, made himself master 
of Corinth, Napoli di Romania, Modon, Malvoisia and of the whole 
Morea. The Turks afterwards took the only two places in Candia 
that etill belonged to the ChristiEuis, and then laid siege to Corfu; 
there their snccesses stopped. 

The Venetians invoked the support of the Emperor Charles VI., 
guarantee of the peace of Carlowitz. The Regent, who then governed 
Fntnce, had abandoned the policy of Louis XIV. ; reassnred on that 
side, Charles VI. did not fear to engage in the struggle against 
Turkey. After having offered his mediation, which the Divan would 
not accept, he summoned the Saltan to lay down arms and indemnify 
the Republic. It was a deularation of war. 

The Emperor was alarmed at the sadden and decisive snccese of 
the Turks ; and as Louis XIV. had died during the campaign he 
was the more disposed to ]iBt«n to the prayers of the Venetians for 
assistance. He was strongly exhorted to this step by Prince Eugene, 
who represented to him the danger that would accrue to his Italian 
and even his Oerman States if the Turks should get possession of 
the Ionian Islands. An alliance was accordingly signed with the 
Signoria, 13th April, 1716. It purported to be a renewal of the 
Holy League of 1684, and the cast** belli against the Fort« was, there- 
fore, the violation of the peace of Carlowitz ; bat instead of merely 
being directed against that Power, it was extended to a general 
defensive alliance with the Venetian Repubhc. Under the energetic 


2b6 TURKBT 0U> AMD KBW. [1.0.1718—1718. 

snpermtendenoe of Engene, the preparationa for war were aoun 
completed. In tlie course of Apnl three Anstrian divisions entered 
Hungary, Eugene himself being at tGe head of the lai^est, composed 
of 70,000 men. On the other side, the Grand Yizier, with 100,000 
men, marched towards Belgrade ; while the agents of the Porte 
incited to insurrection the malcontent Hnngarians, and their leader, 
Bagoczy, who aimed at obtaining the principality of Transylvania, 
and even the title of King of Hungary. 

Damod Ali gave battle to Eugene of Savoy in his entrenched 
camp nnder the walls of Peterwat^ein on the lith of Angnst, 1716. 
The Tnrka lost on that day six thousand men, one hundred and 
fonrteen cannon and five hundred standarda ; the Grand Vizier 
sought death by rushing into the m§I6e. That victory was chiefly 
. ascribed to the nse of heavy cavalry, with which the Tnrka were as 
yet unacquainted. The fmits of it were the snrrender of Temes- 
var, and even Wallachia declared for the Emperor ; a manifestation, 
however, which led to no result. 

The victor of Zenta and Peterwardein pursued his triumphal 
course upon the Ottoman territory, and the year following be de- 
feated the new Grand Yizier, Ehalil Pacha (16th August, 1717), and 
two days after he entered Belgrade, whilst General Petmsch 
invaded Bosnia, and in Dalmatia the Venetians obtained some un- 
important advantages. At this juncture, Ibrahim Pacha having 
received the Imperial seals, his first care was to n^otiate a peace. 

Meanwhile, the Regent Duke of Orleans and the Ejng of England, 
Geoige I., bad entered into an alliance to constrain the King of 
Spain and the Emperor to respect the stipulations of the Utrecht 
treaty, and a war between France and Austria appeared imminent. 
The Marquis da Bonac, the French ambassador at Constantinople, 
solicited the Turks to continue hostilities, by promising them the 
assistance of his Court. But Charles VI. of Austria hastened to 
yield to the requirements of the B^ent and King George ; and 
England having offered her mediation to the Divan, peace was signed 
at Paasarowitz {21at July, 1718). 

France, which the Regent and Cardinal Dabois were then dragging 
in the wake of England, took no part in the negotiations : and the 
mediatrix thus hod full leisure, first to despoil the Venetians, who 
thenceforth no longer possessed any weight in the affairs of Enrope, 
afterwards to aggrandize Austria and take a new influence over the 
Ottoman Porte. Two treaties were signed, one with the Emperor, 
the other with the Republic of Venice. Austria aggrandized her 
possessions ; she acquired Belgrade, Temeavar, Wallachia as far as 
the course of the Aluta, and a portion of Servia. Venice kept the 
Btrongbolds which she occupied in Albania, bnt lost the Moreo. 

At the news of the Peace of Paesarowitz, Peter I. solicited modifi- 
oatioQs in the treaties of Falksen, Adrianople, and Constantinople, 
and he obtained, in fact, a new treaty, which contained two remark- 
able articles — the one relating to Poland, the other to the Holy 
Places. V'The Czar declares in the most formal manner that he will 


t.b. 1716.1 '™" BOLT PLACES. 267 

not ftppropriate any part of tbe territorr of Poland, and that he will 
not meddle 'with the government of that Bepnblic ; and, as it ia 
important to the two empires to prevent the sovereignty sjid the 
hereditary suoceseion from being attached to the Crown of Poland, 
they join together to effect the maintenance of the rights, privileges, 
and conatitntions of that State ; and, in the event that any Power 
irbatsoever shonld stnd trooops into Poland, or that it should 
seek to introdaoe therein the sovereignty or the hereditary sncceBsion, 
it shall be not only permitted to each of the Powers to take snob 
measnres as ite own interest shall diolata, bat the two Powers shall 
prevent, by all and every way poeeible, that the Crown of Poland shall 
not acqnire Bovereignty and hereditary snccession, that the laws and 
constitution of the Bepnblic may not be violated, and that any dis- 
memberment of its territory may not take place. 

Ah. 2. It is open to the merchants of both nations to travel and 
traffic, in all safety, from one State to the other. The Bnssians shall 
be permitted to make pilgrimages to Jerusalem and in other Holy 
Places, withont being subjected) neither at Jerasalem nor elsewhere, 
to any tribute (Kharadj), nor to pecnniary exactions for their pass- 
ports. The Bnssian ecclesiastics who shall reside in the territories 
of the Porte shall not be molested.* 

" All things have a beginning," says an historian, " and, as we 
shall see, the first step is a modest one, and has nothing which 

Eresages the exorbitant pretensions that were one day to excite to so 
igh a degree the attention and the fears of the Powers in alliance 
■with Turkey." 

Fioa THB Fuel ot Fissisowm to taa Puob oi Bnaum (1718-1789). 

1. Disattroui Policy of Turkey. — War agwinit Persia. 
Pbtib the Gkiat, as has been seen, took no part in the war which 
the Peace of Paasarowit^ terminated. He continued covertly hi^ 
enterprises against Sweden and Poland, and, not content with having 
isolated the Ottoman Empire from those two States, he attempted 
even \a break ap the old amity existing between Prance and Tarkey. 
During the visit which he made to the Conrt of Lonia XV. (1717), 
he proposed an alliance with the Regent, but obtained from him only 
a treaty of commerce ; yet he made partisans among certain French 
nobles, who, looking npon England and Anatria as their natnral, 
irreconcilable enemies, were desirous of replacing the Alliance of 
Sweden, Poland, and Tnrkey, henceforth more onerons than profit- 
able, by that of Bnssia. The Ottoman Court became nneasy at the 
Czar's visit. Since it had become mixed up in all the affairs of 
* Ginr?*imn, "Hiat d« la riTilit^dw figliiet OlirMeniiMea Orient," p. 2C6. 


268 TUKEMT OLD AND NEW. [i.D. 1721—1722. 

Europe, it began to recognize the neceesily of penetrating deeper 
into the policy of the ChriBtian States, and m order to form an exact 
idea of the situation of the West, it sent to France (1721) an extra- 
ordinary embassy, to conduct which it selected one of the negotiators 
of Paasarowitz, Uahommed Effendi, a sensible and well-informed 
man. The pretext of his misBion was to present to the King, with 
eifte from the SnltaJi, finnany which gave validity to the demands of 
France concerning the Holy Places. That embassy made a great 
noise, but led to no result. Mahommed ESendi met with a graoiou 
reception ; all the necessary instmctione were given him wherewith 
to enlighten the Divan as to its true interests ; a project was even 
brought forward of an alliance offensive and defensive between the 
two Powers. Bat all this did not sncceed in arousing the Ottoman 
Court from its apathy, its ignorance, and its prejudices ; and France, 
being desirons at that janctare of inducing it to intervene in the 
Northern war to save Sweden from the grasp of Russia, found it only 
tnrned a deaf ear to every argument, and was herself com3>elled, at a 
cost of millions and by her menacing mediation, to prevent the com- 
plete spoliation of that Power by the Treaty of Nystadt (1721). 

The Czar had scarcely terminated that war ere he turned his eyes 
towards the other side of his empire in search of ^grandizements. 
In 1722 the Shah of Persia, the last real sovereign of the dynasty of 
the Sofis, having abdicated in favour of Mir Mahmond, civil war 
broke oat among the Persians. Peter the Great profited by these 
troubles to seize upon the countries adjacent to the Caspian Sea. 
The Khan of the Crimean Tartars, vividly alarmed, sent word to the 
Porte that "the BrDBsians, not content with seizing upon the shores 
of the Caspian Sea, strengthened their conquests and kept up an 
understanding with Georgia ; that, if the Ottomans and the Tartars 
remained inactive, that new Power would extend itself to sach a 
degree that it wonld surround all the possessions of the Porte in 
Asia" Whereupon the Sultan caused his troops to invade Armenia 
and Persian Georgia ; and war seemed declared between Turks and 
Bussians. The Ciar became uneasy, and soliuited the alliance or, at 
least, the mediation of France. On another side the Grand Vizier 
had become the friend of the French ambassador at Constantinople ; 
" holding for certain that the Ottoman Empire and the kingdom of 
France ought only to bo at one in political precept, he listened with 
avidity to all the systems that the Marqnis de Bonac detailed to him, 
and appreciated especially that one of being sparing of the forces of 
the Ottoman Empire, in order to impose by such means equally on 
all hie neighbours." He proposed to the ambassador to undertake 
the office of mediator between Russia and the Porte. Bonac, although 
he hod apprised the Court of Prance of these events, was without 
instructions ; for Dubois feared to displease England by oontrihnting 
to the a^randizement either of the Turks or of the Unssiana; a 
partisan of the Unseian alliance, and believing that he would satisfy 
the interests of the Porte by an augmentation of territory, he 
accepted the office of mediator ; but, in order to conciliate the re- 


l.V. 1724— 1730] ACCKSBtOM or CATHIKIMB. 269 

qnirementa of the two belligerent States, he violated the right of 
a&tioDB by a treaty which left to each of thorn the Feraian provinces 
they had just cooqnered (1724). The PersianB did not accept that 
gtrao^ arrangement. Moreover, the Coart of France, dissatisfied 
with the conduct of Bonac, recalled him and appointed as his enc- 
oesaor the Marqnis d'Andrezel (1?25), with orders to suspend the 
mediation, uid to thwart Bnssia in her projects. The Turks speedily 
made themselves masters of Hamadan, Erivan, Tebriz, Ac. One 
campaign sufficed to pat them in possession of the Persian territory 
which Russia had abandoned to them. 

Peter the Great died ; Catherine, heiress of his ideas and of his 
Boeptre, songht, in a close alliance with Anstria, the support which 
Rassia needed to min, in spite of France, the Ottoman Empire, and 
the treaty of Vienna was oonclnded (1726). That treaty, which re- 
newed, reinforced, and fixed the alliance between the two Courts 
against Turkey, had for ito principal condition — a condition kept 
secret down to the present tune — that Austria and Rnssia bonnd 
tiiemselves in perpetuity, in case of war with the Porte between 
either of them, to unite their armies and not to make a separate peace. 

Heanwhile, the Turks extended and consolidated their conquests 
in Persia ; that unhappy country was desolated at once by foreign 
invasion and civil war. Eohref caused his cousin Mir Mohmond to 
be strangled, and seized upon his power. His rival. Shah Thamas, 
offered to the Porte the sovereignty of the provinces it had occupied. 
The Turks treated with him, hut Eohref, in the ascendant, demanded 
peace, acceded to the conditions proposed by his competitor, and was 
recognized as legitimate sovereign of Iran. He was speedUy over- 
thrown by Nadir, lieutenant of Thamas, and the latter having re- 
entered Ispahan, Nadir invaded the Ottoman frontiers. Ibrtdiim 
Pacha was desirous of peace ; he tried to negotiate, and only set out 
with regret to repulse the Persians. Kis tergiversations irritated the 
Turks. The Janissaries, excited to revolt by a certain Patrona Khalil, 
demanded that in twenty-four hours the Grand Vizier, the Mnfti, 
and the Capudan-Facha shoald be given up to them. The Saltan 
was unable to shield his favourite from the fury of the soldiers and 
popalace ; Ibrahim was put to death ; but that detestable sacrifice 
did not save Achmet III. The rebels shouted, " Long live Mahmoud !" 
and the Saltan Achmet, without attempting a uselees resistanoe, 
himself acknowledged as Padischah his nephew Mahmoud I. (1730), 

2. Mahmoud J. — Peace with Persia. — War of France in 
favour of Poland. 
The capital and the Empire remained for some time in the power 
of Patrona Kha1iI,who, whilst still wearing his uniform of a common 
Janissary, dictated hie will to the Divan, imposed decrees for the 
relief of the people, and, through the favour of the soldiery, and the 
populace, seemed sole heir of Aichmet III. This energetic ruler was 


270 TOKEBT OLD AND KBW. [*.D. 1782— 1788. 

got rid of by h^ason ; he was assassiiiBted ia an ambneli, under the 
eyes of M&hmond and biR Ministers. Hia partiBanB rose in arms, bat 
the insnirection had no longer a head; it was stifled in the blood of 
several thousand victims. 

Order once more re-eBtablished, the Forte resumed the war against 
Persia. Shah Thamas underwent namerons reverses and was cion- 
atmiued to sue for peace, which was signed the 10th of Janaary, 

1732. Tnrkey kept Daghestan, the Karthli, N^akhtchivan, Erivan, 
Tiflie; Persia recovered Tebriz, Ardelan, Hamadan, and all Loristan; 
the Arazes thns became, on the side of Aderba'idjan, the limit of the 
two States. Bnt that treaty was not destined to be long kept. 
Nadir, who, nnderthe title of ThamaH-Konli-Khan (Ehan the slave of 
Thamas), reigned as a sovereign over several provinces of Persia, 
protested londly against the conclnsion of the peace ; he marched 
npon Ispahan, deposed Tham&s, declared himself rs^ent of the king- 
dom, and snmmoii^ the Tnrks to restore the territory and townfi 
which the treaty had jnst conceded to them. He besieged Bagdad, 
bnt he could not make himself master of it ; Topal-Osnum Pacha 
having come to the sncconr of that city, a t^rible enoonnter took 
place npon the Tigris at Donldje'ilik, and Thamas-Konli-Ehan, 
woanded in the combat, was harried ofi the field by his rented army 
(19th Jnne, 1733). Osman Pacha snatched a fresh viototy neu^ 
Leitam. Lastly, he was in tnm defeated, and perished npon uie field 
of battle. His death was a public misfortune for the Tnrks, who 
experienced a continnous series of checks, and on the 14th of July, 

1733, the Ottoman army was almost annihilated in a vast plain 
between Baghawerd and Akhikendi. That disaster decided the Porte 
to negotiate, and the plenipotentiaries which it sent to Tiflis were 
present at the ooronation of Nadir Shah. The treaty, concluded in 
the month of September, 1736, fixed the boundaries of tiie two 
Empires conformably te that of 1639, and stripped the Ottemana of 
all their recent acquisitionB. 

The signature of that treaty was hastened by the threate and 
annaments of Bussia. The results of the Treaty of Vienna soon 
became manifest. Poland, consumed daring two centnries by per- 
petual anarchy, seemed devoted te certain ruin, and in the whole of 
Enrope there was only one Power that had interested itself in its 
preservation— France. ThnsBossia, Austria and Prussia, foreseeing 
that at the death of Augustus II., the proiigi of Peter the Great, 
the Poles would seek to regenerate their country by choosing, under 
the protection of France, a national king, concluded between them- 
selves a secret pact (1732), by which they matnallv engaged te 
nullify by every possible means French influence over Poland, a pact 
which may be regarded as the origin of the projects for the dismem- 
berment of that kingdom. Augustus 11. died (1733); the Poles 
elected Stanislas Leczinski ; but two armies, Russian and Austrian, 
seated the son of Angostns II. on the throne. France promised aid 
te the Poles, declared war against Austria, and solicited the Porte 
to avenge the injury that Bussia had just done her, by intervening 


A.I>. 1788—1731.] EMBASSY OF M VILLENECTTE. 271 

in a cotmtry the icdependence of which the treaties ot Falksen and 
Constantinople placed nnder its protection. To the Marqais d'An- 
drezel had'aacceeded the Marqnis de Tillenenve, a minister fall of 
talent and activity; he had several conferences with the Grand 
Vizier, in which he explained to him the sitaation of Enrope, the 
necessity for the Forte to retnm to the policy of Charles XII., that 
is to say, to an alliance with Sweden and Poland, and the iaolatiou 
in which Turkey would speedily find itself by the ahasenient or the 
despoiling of those two States. The Yizier waa moved by these 
^presen^tions ; he addressed to the two Imperial Conrts a protesta- 
tion against the entrance of the Bnssians into Poland, and threaten- 
ingly demanded the ezeontion of the treaty of Constantinople. Bnt 
that protest and those threats were fntile, and a year passed away 
irithont war being declared, withont even the assembling of an army, 
the Divan reserving against Persia all the forces of Tnrkey. Where- 
upon Villenenve, to extricate the Ottoman Conrt from its error, 
despatched to the £han of the Tartars, the inveterate enemy of the 
Bossians, an Hnngarian gentleman, a refugee in France, the Baron 
de Tott, adroit and well-informed, who incited him to invade the 
Ukraine for the enforcement of the tribnte which the Enssiana had 
formerly paid him. The Khan entered readily into the views of the 
agent of France, and declared openly that he wonld willingly give all 
he possessed to see the Bnaaians driven oat of Poland. Bat then 
Angnstos III. flang gold lavishly into the Divan ; the declaration of 
war was stil] delayed, and a prohibition was given the Tartars against 
entering the Ukraine. The Rnssians thus found themselves masters 
in Poland, and Stanislas was driven therefrom. France directed all 
her eSorts against Austria, and incited anew the Porte to attack 
Elassia, by pointing oat that that enemy was preparing to beside 
Azof. The Divan still continued deaf to these instances. The Court 
of Yersailles then, to attain its ends, employed the offices of a French 
renegade, the Count de Bonneval, who was daring fourteen years the 
secret soul of the Ottoman policy in its relations with the £uropeau 

This adventurer, after having deserted France to serve in thq 
armies of the Emperor, had forsaken Oermany and his religion 
to tnm Mnssulmui, and had become a general of bombardiets, a 
pacha of two tails, the friend and counsellor of the Grand Vizier. A 
body of troops had been confided to him, which he had trained in 
the European mode, and while attempting to reform the whole of the 
Ottoman army, the fears of the Saltan and the representations of 
Brossia arrest«d him in bis projects. It was he who revealed to the 
Porte the secrete of European policy; who made known to it, by 
memoranda which headdresaed to the Sultan, its true interests ; who 
■Dggested the means of continuing the wars in which it found itself 
engaged. An implacable enemy of Austria, he coold have wished, 
by the services he rendered France, to obtain his pardon at the Court 
m Versailles; but, jealous of his ambassadors, and desiroas of keep- 
ing to himself every n^otiation ; going, by a spirit of intrigue, be- 


272 TnUEET OLD &KD NEW. [a.ii. 17SS. 

jaad the orders of Cardinal Flenrj, he was, whilst continaing to tie 
the pivot of the efforts directed by France a^inst Auetria and Russia^ 
more hurtful than nseful both to Turkey and to France, 

Flenry, pursuing his modest and timid policy, intended, in the 
war which he was carrying on against Austria in favour of Poland, 
to profit by the diversions which Turkey should undertake, without 
being constrained to make with her an alliance ofEensive and defen- 
sive ; that would arm, he thought, England in favour of Austria, and 
would thns kindle a general war. This was to follow the example of 
Lonis XrV., without perceiving that the elevation of Russia had 
changed the necessitiGS of French policy. He had therefore ordered 
Villeneuve only to incite the Turks to enter Hunji^ry, and he wished 
Bonneval to support to the utmost that negotiation. But the latter 
thought that the occasion had arrived for restoring to the Franco- 
Turkish alliance the character which it had under Francis I. He 
therefore sent to the Court of Yereailles a project of alliance by 
which France should be bound not to make a separate peace, and not 
to direct its operations save in concert with the Ottoman Court. 
Flenry, offended at a negotiation which he had not ordered, rejected 
the alliance, but continued nevertheless to demand a diversion of the 
Turks in Hungary. Then the Emperor Charies VI. having got 
intelligence of Bonneval's intrigues, saw his ruin foreboded in the 
armed alliance between France and the Porte : he therefore hastened 
to ward off the blow by making Fleury very advantageous offers of 
peace. The Cardinal, before listening to them, endeavoured to make 
the Porte comply with his demands ; but the latter stood out firmly : 
then France acceded to the proposals of Charles VI,, and the Treaty 
of Vienna was concluded (1736). 

3, Wo* with Butna and Aiutria. — Part taken by Fnvnee. — Treaty of 
That glorious but impolitic Treaty was scarcely signed ere Russia 
commenced hostilities against the Porte, which was then embarrassed 
by the Persian war, and weakened by the successes of Nadir Shah. 
The Tartars of the Crimea, summoned to Asia, directed their ront« 
towards the Caucasus by crossing Muscovite territoiy. That viola. 
tion of the frontiers was the pretext advanced by the Russians in 
order to break the Treaty of 1720. The Divan immediately sought 
the intervention of France. Villeneuve, seeing the war he had 
fomented break out, dared not, unempowered, enter npon peace 
negotiations; He therefore solicited orders from Versailles, and the 
Qr&nd Vizier himself wrote to Flenry. The Austrian ambassador 
then offered to mediate on the part of the Porte, and he succeeded in 
obtaining the support of the English and Dutch ambassadors. 
Bonneval warned the Ottoman ministers that " the Emperor's design 
was merely to amnse them until he had t^ain filled np the ranks of 


*.!>. 1735—1787-1 WAH WITH RUSSIA AKD ADST8IA. 273 

hie forces, whioh had retnmed in a shattered condition from Italy." 
KlenTj wrote to the Grand Vizier in the Bnme souse, tellinff him that 
"this war woald infalhbly dra^ the Emperor into it, in order to 
satisfy the engagementB by which he was bound by his alliance with 
the Czarina." The intrigues of certain Greeks in the pay of Buasia 
prevailed over these counaels, and the mediation of Austria was 
accepted. But, whilst the mediator amneed the Tnrka with abortive 
conferences, an Austrian army advanoed into Hungary. The Divan, 
perceiving at length the treason concealed nnder the Austrian 
mediation, demanded to know what wonld be the destination of that 
army, in the event of the Russians refusing to treat. " If peace 
cannot be concluded," he was answered, " the Emperor will lend his 
aid to KuBsia." 

Villenenve, however, received his instructions. Flenry had con- 
sulted the English minister, pointing out to him the interest Great 
Britain had in arresting the nsnrjjationa of the RoBeians. But the 
Cabinet of St. James's gave him to understand that a diversion on 
the part of the Conrt of Versailles in favour of the Turks would 
bring abont a coalition in which England would be forced to take 
part with Austria. The Cardinal then directed Villenenve to use 
every exertion to procure peace for the Turks ; to prevent, as far as 
possible, the Hnssians from obtaining the navigation of the Black 
Sea ; in fine, to declare explicitly to the Divan that France would 
not make any diversion in its favour. " Yon cannot represent too 
sbx>ngly to the Porte," he wrote to him, " oithough with reservatioo 
proportionate to its delicacy, the danger it will incur by continuing 
the war, and bring under its consideration that, if it should lost, it 
-would be difficult for the majority of the Christian princes not to 
esponse the Emperor's quarrel " (1737). Whereupon Villenenve 
despatched the Baron de Tott to the Grand Vizier, then encamped at 
Bender, to represent to him " the fatal consequences the war might 
have," and to persuade him " that, in the present conjnnctnre, the 
Tnrks, being aaanred that the House of Anntna would declare for 
Bnssia, and that France would not take up arms against the Germans, 
it was the interest of the Port« to make peace; that the Eussians, 
insisting upon keeping Azof, of which General de Lascy had made 
himself master, it was practicable to abandon that place to them 
without leaving open to them for all that the entrance to the Black 
Sea, by fortifying Koaban, situate upon the shore of the Zabach 
Strait; that Uien the Tnrka wonld neither fear the incursions of the 
Bussian ships of war nor the competition of their merchant vessels." 
The Grand Vizier complained at first to Baron de Tott that France, 
which three years previously had wished to arm the Turks against 
the House of Austria, was ezhortiog them at that moment to make a 
disadvont^feoos peace. The negotiator replied : " We exhorted yon 
to war when the Bnasiana had an army in Poland to sapport the 
election of King Augustus, when the Emperor, whom you now menace, 
was attacked at once by France, Spain, and Sardinia. Tou might 
then have hoped for saccess, and your efforts against the House of 


274 TUBKET OLD IHU NKW. [i.D. 1738— 1739. 

Austria might have been aa UBeful to tib as to jonivelveB. At the 
present time, King AnguBtue is tranquilly seated upon the throne of 
Poland ; peace is firm between Aaatria and the confederate Powers ; 
the King of France neither wishes nor onght to make his Bn^ecta 
support the weight of a useless war ; he owes yon onlj good offices, 
and he will always render yon them. We did advise war, three yean 
since, for the common interests of onr empire and yours. 
wo advise posrce solely for yonr advantage." 

This advice, which Villenenve repeated to the Snltan at Constan- 
tinople, was sincere ; for the Knasians, already masters of Azof, 
had jnst seized npon Oczakof and Kinhnro, and Miinnioh, who com- 
manded thorn, penetrated into the Steppes, but was compelled to re^ 
tarn with great loss. 

" The Christians of the Ottoman Empire, '' he wrote to St. Peters- 
bni^, " look npon the Czarina as their legitimate Sovereign ; wo 
mast profit by their enthusiasm and their hopes, and march on Con- 
stantinople." At the same time, Charles VI,, raising the mask, com- 
menced the invasion of Bosnia, Servia, and WallaoLia. Bnt the 
Imperialists were punished for their perfidy by cmel defeats. De- 
feated at Banyalonka and at Tallievo, they were driven ottt of Nisna, 
Crajova, Semendria, Mahadia and Orsova, and withdrew in disorder 
from the provinces they had invaded. The Emperor foand himself 
reduced to sue for peace, promising to make the Russians give their 
adherence to it, who had also jnst undergone a series of chocks, in 
spite of the skill of Milnnich. The Turks rejected this demand, 
although it was supported by England and Holland, and they 
declared that they would only receive proposals of peace on the part 
of France. The latter offered immediately its mediation, proposing 
to place the Treaty under its guarantee. The Porte e^erly accepted 
the offer, and Yilleneuve, after having received the highest honours 
at Constantinople, set oat with a magnificent escort to join the Tizier, 
who WHS besieging Belgrade. 

When Villeneuvo arrived at the camp of the Grand Vizier the 
Imperialists had just experienced a complete rout near Kroska, and 
the garrison of Belgrade wasreduced to extremities. The negotia- 
tions began immediately, and they were conducted with great ability 
by the mediator, who, following the instructions of his Court, suo- 
ceeded in obtaining a, peace signed separately with Austria and 
Russia, under the guarantee of France (September, 1739). 

The Emperor restored to the Porte the province of Servia, Bel- 
grade, the fortress of Crabaoz, minus the artillery and mnnitious of 
war, the whole of Austrian WaJlachia, the island and fortress of 
Orsova. The Danube and the Save became the bonndariee of the 
two States. The truce was to last for twenty-seven years. 

By the treaty of perpetual peace concluded with Russia it was 
stipulated that the fortress of Azof should be demolished, and that 
its desert territory shoaJd form the boundary between the two 
Empires, The Russians were permitted to build a new fortress upon 
the banks of the Don, near Azof, and the Turks to constrjict onq 


4.0.1738—1740.1 TBEATT OF BELGEADE. 275 

near Koaban. Commerce was declared free on both sides, hat with 
the condition that the Bneeians shonJd only employ Turkish veseele 
on the Black Sea.* 

The Peace of Belgrade restored the Ottoman Porte to the rank 
from which the peace of Carlowitz had canaed it to fall. " That 
treaty," says Von Hammer, " which established a new line of fron- 
tiers advantageoQB to the Porte, and which was concluded nnder the 
mediation and gnamntee of France, is, nnder that twofold point of 
view, one of the most salient acts of which the French and Ottoman 
diplomatic annals make mention. The inflaence of France over 
Ottoman aSairs waa never so decisive either before or after, and the 
mission of M. de VilleneaTe is assnredly the most memorable that 
the history of the diplomatic relations of France with Turkey sig- 
nalises. Villonenve, invested with the imposing title of Ambassador 
Extraordinary, was at once the soul, the connsellor, and the gnide of 
all the negotiations entered upon with the Porte by the different 
European Cabinets." 


Fbom ihi Fbiok or BitLaitun to the Fiaoe or KtisiNui. 

1. Treaty with Sweden. — Capilulatiom of 1740, 
Thb firet nse France made of her inflaence was to enlighten the 
Porte npon the 'political system which it was incumbent upon it to 
follow, pointing oat to it that the existence of Sweden and Poland 
was intimately connected with its own. Thns, being unable, in the 
existing conjunctnre, to unite itself with Poland, become the vassal of 
Russia, it signed with Sweden, at first a treaty of friendship and 
commerce, then a treaty of alliance offensive and defensive, in virtue 
of which the two Stat«s afforded one another a mutual support in 
case of aggression from Russia. That alliance was in reality the first 
of the kind ever signed between the Porte and a Christian Power ; 
as it was at variance with the custom of the Ottomans it testifies to 
the change which had been operated in their European position and 
of the conscioasnesB they were beginning to entertain of their perils. 
The Bnesian ambassador strove to break that treaty by corrupting 
the French ambassador and the Ottoman ministers ; bnt the Csarina's 
presents effected no change in Villeneuve's policy, who forewarned 
the reis-effendi and the interpreter of the Porte against the Russian 
offers ; and the treaty was maintained ( 1 740). 

Villeneuve profited by tlte ftll-powerfal infinence he eujoyed with 

the Divan to demand the renewal of the capitulations. The Sultan 

Uahmond hastened to satisfy him by bringing to the hatti-sherif of 

1673 all the modifications required by France, and the capitulations 

* One of lliB ol«Q>es of the Treaty of Belgnule. 

T 2 


276 TURKET OLD AND NEW. [a.d. 1710. 

of tbe 30th May, 1740, became a formal treaty of friendship and 
commerce in eighty-five articles, which has only been renewed once, 
in 1802, and which still regulates at the present time the relations of 
France with the Ottoman Empire. 

" In that treaty, the Snltan, after having renewed the precedent 
capitulations, recalls to mind that the ambassadors and consuls of 
France ought to have precedency over the ambassadorn and consuls 
of Spain and other monarchs. The new privileges coocem, in the 
first place, the position and the jnrisdiction of the French consuls; 
they exempt the French merchants and traders from the broterage 
tax, called meeeterie ; they extend to every kind of merchandise indif- 
ferently the cnstoma dnty of three per cent., the benefit of which was 
only granted before to six articles, whether for importation or ex- 
portation : cottons, wooUon or spun, morocco leather, wax, leathers 
and silts. Briefly, the French and the proliijis of France might go 
and oome freely m the States of the Sultan without being liable to 
pay the kharadj, and it shall he permitted to them to wear Oriental 

An ambassador extraordinaTT, Mohammed Said, went to present 
these capitulations to Louis Xv., with the thanks of Mahmoud and 
rich presents. He was received with distinguished honour, and re- 
turned to Constantinople with two ships of war and a small corps of 
French gnnncrs, which were placed under the command of Bonneval, 
and with which it was attempted to regenerate the Ottoman artillery. 

France continued t« enlighten the Forte upon its interests, its 
dangers, its alliances, and to point out to it the politic path in which 
she might not only find safety but recruit her power. The path 
■waa that in which Lonis XV. ordered his amhastiadors to restrict 
themselves, and he indicated it in hie secret correspondence in these 
words : — " It is necessary to unite by a perpetual slliance Turkey, 
Foland, Sweden, and Prussia, nnder the mediation of France, against 
Austria and Russia." But, since that her arms have regained some 
honour, since that she has absolved herself of her greatest humilia- 
tions by the Treaty of Belgrade, since moi-eover she has seen all the 
Christian States soliciting her friendship, showing esteem for her 
power, interesting themselves in her grandenr, the Porte bas resumed 
all its ignorant and apathetic pride. She (Turkey) did not perceive 
that those States excitement about her, not because she was 
to be dreaded, but because she had become a counterpoise too weak 
for the equilibrium of the Continent, since the appearance of the 
Russians upon the European ett^e had changed the conditions of 
that equilibrium ; and, deaf to t£e voice of her ally, defying her 
counsels, rejecting more and more her influence, she bad lulled herself 
asleep with a haughty carelessness, in the belief that she was still the 
arbitresB of Europe. 

• C. Pamin, p. 277. 



2. War of the Austrian S'lccaiaion. — NeulraKti/ of Turkey. 
The Treat; of Belgrade was scarcely signed than a decieive oppor> 
tnnitj presented itaelE for the Porte to resnme its old position. The 
States of the House of Austria having fallen into the hands of a 
woman, Maria Theresa, France, in accoi-d with the majority of the 
princes of Germany, resolved to make war to effect the ruin or dis- 
memberment of that Honse, and she-solicited Turkey to invude Unn- 
firy, promising her that kingdom for her portion of the spoil (1741). 
altan Mahmoad replied to that solicitation by a formal refusal ; he 
published even a manifesto urging the belligerent Powers to remain 
at peace ; and, remembering that a mediation had abased Turkey at 
Carlowitz, and that a mediation at Belgrade had raised her np again, 
he offered in turn his mediation. European diplomacy smiled at a 

Sopoeition so strange issuing from the month of the sncceasor of 
ahomet II., and only replied to it in expressions of vagne thanks. 
The Snltim felt much offended at this, and cherished a lively resent- 
ment in conseqaence against France. 

Villenenve had resigned the Constantinople embassy, and the 
Marquis of Castellane had succeeded him ; " but the talents of the 
new ambassador," says a correspondent of the time, " were not tomeiA 
in ,the direction of intrigue and bosiness, and the French minisicr 
Bonght to turn to profit those of Bonneval Pacha, to whont a pension 
had been given, with the promise of his retnm to France. The rene- 
gade exercised all his wonted activity, used all his influence to decido 
the Porto to make war ; bnt he failed : the Snitan was still irritated 
at the refusal of his mediation, and his ministers remembered the 
revelations Bonneval had made them touching French policy at the 

Eeriod of the war of the Polish succession. " I knew, ' wrote 
astollane to the minister Argenson, " that the reis-eEendi had 
imbibed from M. do Bonneval the prejudice that has always been an 
obstacle to oar views ; I mean that preposeession that France desires 
to involve the Tarks in war only to get rid of them and to sacrifice 
them in time of jteace. It was in 1734, at a time when the reis- 
effendi and the Count do Bonneval entered into our affairs concerning 
Poland, that the most malign inferences of the procedure of France, 
at the Treaty of Ryswick, were brought into their full light, and 
that the negotiations of the Marquis de Villenenve ware caused to 
fail by demnnding that France should bind herself I^ engagements in 
writing with thg Porte, for the continuation of the war. It is in 
that school that the Turks have learnt to mistrust us, and that the 
reis effendi himself has imbibed those principles of which he has 
given a very candid explanation, even on this occasion." 

England, however, had come to the aid of Maria Theresa, and 
France, abandoned by her German allies, having alone to support the 
bnrden of the war, fresh solicitations were made to the Divan by 
the Cabinet of Yersailles : " We need a diversion in Hungary," 


2?8 TUEKEY OLD AND NEW. [>.D. 17*3— 1748. 

wrote d'Argenson to Bonneval ; " do everrthing to obtain it. . , , 
If we are compelled to sign a peace which leaves to Austria her 
ascient States, with, a bost of veteran troops, that will be the min of 
the Tarks. Their interest demands, therefore, that they should arm 
id the preeent conjuncture, to coatribnte of themselTee to the dimi- 
nntion of that power: that fntare danger is a reason which permits 
them not to balance." Bnt Bonneva] found the Saltan and his 
Ministers immovable. " They are altogether determined," he replied 
to d'Argenson, " not to canse the Queen of Hungary disqaietode, 
and not to depart in anything from the last treaties, and that so much 
the more, say they, that affairs have taken, in Christendom, an ad- 
Tianti^eons turn for the Ottoman liimpire." 

France experienced reveraea and the Aastrians penetrated into 
Provence. Then the Porte became agitated by the perils and repre- 
sentations of its ally ; it declared that it would be chagrined to see 
the Crown revert to a new Honse of Austria ; it urged the Conrt of 
Versailles to persist in its political system ; it even entertained the 
propositions of Bonneval for an alliance offeneive and defensive be- 
tween France, Prussia, and Turkey. Castellane thereupon asked for 
instructions from Versailles, and he presented (1747) a project to 
the Divan which bore for its principal stipulations : 1. The Allied 
Powera shall engage not to lay down arms until the husband of 
liaria Theresa has renounced the Imperial Crown; 2. The Porte 
retains its conquests in Hungary; 3. The Ministers of the Porte 
shall assist at a Congress which will take place for the re-establiah- 
ment of a general peace, Ac. Three great Conferences were devoted 
by the Ottoman Ministers to the diseusEicn of that project ; the am- 
bassador showed them the downfall of the Kcnse of Austria as cer* 
tain when its States should be surrounded by the armies of the three 
Powers; he reminded them that, in the first year of the war, when 
the French were at some leagues distance from Vienna and the Prus- 
sians masters of Silesia, if the Turks had entered Hungary, Moris 
Theresa would have been forced to sign her own ruin. The Divan 
seemed shaken, althongh its most inflnential members were persuaded 
that France only desired to clear herself of that war in order to throw 
the effort of it upon the Turks. But then there came, on the part of 
Maria Theresa, the laont formal protestations of friendship, which 
were supported by the threats of Russia and the gold of England ; 
at the same time, it became known that the King of Prnssia had 
just made his separate peace with the Queen of Hungary. The 
negotiation with France was broken off, and all the efforts of Castel- 
lane, all the intrigues of Bonneval, to renew it, failed. The Divan 
found itself so completely circumvented by the enemies of France, 
that, at the instance of England and in the hope of thus delivering 
itself from all war, from al! danger, it eigned a treaty of perpetual 
peaoe with Austria and Rnesia (1748), Bonneval, irritated at the 
dl-cnccesB of hia overtures, espired on the very day upon which he 
received a tetter from Versailles authorizing him to return to France. 

Austria and England, rejoicing in the blindness of the Porte, 


I.S. 17«6-^]750.] MBDTKALITI OF TUBCBV. 279 

solicited the aid of Bassia in order to pnt an end to the war ; in fact, 
30,000 Rnasians directed their march upon the Rhine. Connt Desal- 
lennhadsncceededCaatellatie. "He was," Bays a contemporary report, 
"a man of strong sense, thonghtfal, speaking little, and going at once 
to the fact ; with a simple and natnral manner, bnt subtle and acate." 
He made very lively representations to the Saltan, with the view to 
determine him to protest AKt^inet the march of the Russian army, 
and presented to him no less than seven memorials in order to 
demonstrate the abounding peril of the intervention of the Northern 
Powers in the affairs of Southern Enropo. Bnt the Porte, content 
to see the Bnssiana direct their arms and their ambition far awaj 
from its frontiers, remained silent, and thought only of giving fresh 
evidences of friendship to the two Powers which were secretly leagued 
to effect her min. Desallenrs, to roose it from its immobility and 
make it see that its peril was more disquieting to France than the 
yiciseitndes of her own war against Anatria, renewed the proposition 
of a quadruple alliance between the Porte, f ranee, Pmssia, and 
Sweden, an alliance by which the fonr States eng^ed themselves to 
repress the amhition of Russia, and never to make a separate peace 
with the Courts of Yienna and St. Petersburg. All that was rejec- 
ted, and the Court of Versailles had no li nger wherewith to occupy 
itself save ito own interests, in difiarming its enemies by the peace of (1748). 

3. Efforts of, France to erUigklen Turkey. — Encroachments of Sus&uk ' 

France, far from testifying the slightest resentment against the 
Porte, strove once more to bring it back into its natural way, and she 
did it with a perseverance, a solicitnde, and disinterestedness which 
reflected much honour upon her diplomacy. " Kecover at Constanti. 
nople the highest influence," wrote the Minister to Desallenrs, " pro- 
tect Sweden, do not abandon Poland, arrest the career of the vast 
projects of Russia, are the four designs that the King orders you 
never to lose sight of." But Desallenrs knew the obstacles which be 
had to overcome. "Things are mnch changed," he wrote, "since 
the peace of Belgrade ; the pretended refusal of the mediation of the 
Porte by France, and the treaty of perpetual peace concluded with 
the Gonrts of Yienna and Russia, the exhaustion produced by the 
PersiaD war; finally, the particular interest of the Qrand Seignior, 
have caused the adoption of the pacific system as the only means of 
sustaining the Grand Seignior on the throne and of preventing a 
genera] revolution." 

However, notwithstanding the little attention the Divan paid to 
his advice, French influence in the East had undergone no diminu- 
tion ; yet, whilst France enjoyed, amongst the peoples of the Levant 
an influence and a prosperity that was the envy of England, all the 
representations and solicitations of its diplomacy failed before the 
ofcutinate indolence and senseless security of Uie Sultan and hia 


280 TUREBT OLD AND HEW. [^D. 17^3. 

MiniatetB. In vain did DeBallenrs expose the desigii which Baesift 
had of incorporating Sweden with its Empire, inviting them to ofier 
their mediation ; in vain ho ni^d tlie Divan to conclnde, in concert 
with France, a treaty of alliance with PrxiBsia ; in vain did he sapport 
the efforts of an ag-ent of the K'lag of Denmark, who solicited a treaty 
of commerce i in vain did he propose a direct alliance against Bassia, 
in order to save Poland, already twice threatened with dismem. 
berment. Lonis XV. wrote himself (1752) secretly to the Saltan 
three pressing letters, in which he declared that he was ready to 
defend Sweden against Russia, if the Forte would join its efforts to 
his ; in which he anveiled the designs of the Conrta of Vienna and 
St. Petersburg npon Poland,* in which he renewed the demand for 
an alliance offensive and defensive between the Porto, Franco, and 
PrURSia. The Snltan and his Ministers only made evasive answers to 
the French King's propositions, as well as to those of his ambassador ; 
they even considered themselves as offended by the obserrations of 
Desatleurs npon the state of decadence into which the Ottoman army 
had fallen, and they refused his concurrence in the remonnting of 
their artillery, fortifying their strongholds, a.nd instructing their sol- 
diers in the hi st principles of modem war. 

Hnssia, meanwhile, did not scruple to commit (he most flagrant 
violations of its treaties with the Porte; it founded and fortified a 
new province under the name of New Servia, in that extent of 
country which lies between the Bag and the frontiers of the Ukraine, 
and which, by the terms of the Treaty of Belgrade, was to remain 
. uncultivated and uninhabited, and presenting only an immense desert, 
to serve as a barrier between the two Kmpires. By that novel 
arrangement she not only cat off, in time of war, commnnioation 
between the Turks and the Tartars, and procured herself the facility of 
forming magazines for her armies, hut, moreover, usurped a consider- 
able extent of country bolnnging to the domains of the Ottoman 
Kmpire. To all these infractions she did not confine the irregnlarity 
of her conduct towards the Turks: after having solemnly engaged 
not to meddle further with the affairs of Poland, she therein main- 
tained a powerful party, and negotiated a treaty of alliance with <he 
King and the Republic; she protected the Kabardians and the Cir- 
cassinna, sent emissaries and troops amongst them, there established 
mnpaKincB and barrncks. and strove to withdraw those peoples from 
their obedience to the Khan of the Tartars. That Khan, Arslan 
Gherai, a fipry and warlike prince, devoted to France and Sweden, 
cherishing an implacable hatred of the Russians, suffered impatiently 
their aggressive enterprises, and did not cease to stir up the Porte to 
repel them; be warned it of all their manceuvres, exhorted it inces- 
santly to firmness, and neglected nothing wherewith to force its hand ; 
he laboured, in concert with the French ambassador, to put it in re- 
lation with the King of Prussia, who had not yet a minister resident 
at Constantinople ; he obtained its permission to despatch to that 
* Luuis ZV. liul murricil llaria Leciinnki, daughter of Staaislaiu Ledinbki, Kiog o( 


A-D. 17ES.] THE riN&BIOTES. 281 

prince an nnHcmpnlouH emissaiy, whose task was to sow the first germ 
of an understanding between tlie two Conrts ; he took npon himself 
likewise authority to send to the Polish Diet, in 17^3, a Minister to 
assure the Polish patriots of all the protection of the Porte as well as 
his own, and to decide them to reject the alliance of Russia, in which 
their king was desirona of engaging them ; he made nse of, withont 
the ^rreement or even the participation of the Porte, the pretext of 
wishing tn chastise the Circaseiana for a refnsal of slaves which they 
bad made him, to hare an opportnnity of passing into Circassia and 
the Konban a large number of troops, then to seek a qnarrel with the 
Hnssians, and fall upon those which they had brought into Circassia 
and the Kabardia, at a time of peace and against the faith of treaties. 
But the constant efforts of that prince to bring the Porte to a mpture 
only obtained from it a few slight demonstrations ; the Ottoman 
Minister persisted in preferring a tolerance which prolonged the ameni* 
tieH of peace to an animadversion which should rekindle the flames 

4. N»u) adminittration of Wallachia and Moldaoia. — Th« 


Whilst the Porte, believing the Empire saved for ever by the 
Treaty of Belgrade, turned a deaf ear to the warnings of Hb ally, 
France, and of its faithfn) vas^, the Khan of the Cnmea, it took, 
with regard to the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, measures 
which have favoured the ambition of Russia, brought about intermin- 
able embarrassments, and dealt a disastrous blow to the Ottoman 

The To'ivodes Brancovano in Wallachia, and Cantemir in Moldavia, 
had given the fatal example of alliance with the Czar, and their 
treason had favoured the Russian and Austrian invasion. To secure 
the fidelity of the two provinces the Porte took from them the 
administration of the native boyards ; but, instead of simply making 
o( them two pachalics, desirous of respecting the relijrion and manners 
of the inhabitants, as well as the ancient treaties that united them 
to the Empire, it resolved to have them governed by Christian rajahs, 
subjects and creatures of the Sultan. The Greeks of the Fanar, for 
a long period the lowest, the most corrupt servants of the Porte, 
solicited those dignities, and Mavrocordato was the first Fanariote 
who left the shores of the Bosphoms to govern Wallachia. 

The new prince paid for his elevation by increasing the tribute 
paid to the Porte by 500,000 piastres ; he desired to reform the 
administration of the country, but he displeased everybody : the 
boyards, by the suppression of their feudal rights ; the peasants, by 
the augmentation of taxation: be was deposed in 1741. Recovizza, 
who succeeded him, still further increased the tribute ; but he held 
power only for three years; " the Sultan did not grant a longer leas^ 
to the Fanariot«s who fanned the Principalities; so that they were 


282 TCEEBT OLD AND NBW. [l.B. 1761. 

obliged, every jew, to pnrcbeBe at great cost the confinnaition of tkeir 
title. The YoiTodes were thas placed almost on the same footing as 
tfeo pachas in the other Turkiith provinces,"" Uavrocordato, re- 
instated in Wallachia (1744), again increased the capitation tribute 
to pa.y for hia establishment. At the end of three years, he went to 
reign in Moldavia, but was replaced by Gregory Ghika (1?48). " That 
prince," says a Roumanian historian, " like all his predecessors and 
BDCcegsors of the same stock, showed himself faithf al to the Fanariote 
system, and only regarded the principality as a conqaered connfcry in 
which he was at liberty to enrich himself by pillaging it, without 
. caring for the poor inhabitants and the rights of humanity." Those 
exactions ruined and depopulated the Priucipalitiee ; several thon- 
sands of families emigrated, and all the nation conceived agaioBt the 
Turks a hatred too well justified by the bad choice of hospodars and by 
the angmontation of the tribute. Russia had demanded, in 17'A7, that 
Wallachia and Moldavia should be declared independent under her 
protection ; it was towards Russia that the oppressed Ronmaoians 
turned their faces and their hopes. Turkey was soon about to expiato 
its greedy and barbarous policy, and the enslavement of the Princi- 
palities to the tyranny and the rapacity of the Fanariotes wan destined 
to prove a cause of ruin to her, as well as the abandonment of Poland 
and Sweden. 

Mahmoud I. died at the close of 1754, in his (if ty-eighth year, while 
returning from Friday prayers, after a reign of twenty-four years. 
Osman III., his brother, succeeded him. 

5. Otmam III. — Change in tke poliot/ of France. — Affair of the 
Holy Placet. 

Turkey had enjoyed a long interval of tranquillity. Sultan Mah- 
mond, though not endowed with great abilities, and entirely governed 
by the Ministora who surrounded him, enconraged the arte of peace. 
He built numerous mosques, founded several ecbools and profesaor. 
fihip^ as well as four libraries. He enconraged the art of printing, 
which had been introduced at Constantinople by an Hungarian rene- 
gade ; but it had many opponents and made slow progress. By 
granting the Janissaries an exemption from import duties he indaced 
a large number of them to eng^e in commerce, and thus rendered 
them sednlouH for the tranquillity of the government. These regu- 
lations, however, contributed to break the military spirit of the nation, 
as was but too manifest in its subsequent struggles with RuEsia. 

Osman, drawn from the retreat in which he vegetated at fifty-nine 
years old, brought to the throne an incapacity verging on iiubecility. 
Inheriting from his ancestors only their cruelty, he commenced by 
causing the death of three sons of Achmet III. The Grand Vizier 
-Ali Pacha, accused of au understanding with them, met with the 
* Balbny, " Esau sar lei PaDariotes, " p. SO. 


*;». 1754— 1757.] OBMAH III. 283 

same fate. In less ibui two years eight roinistera snoceeded each 
other in that perilona post, and were Bnccensivelj' deposed of executed 
bj the weak and capricioas monarch. In the end, a clever man, 
Uohammed-Raf^bib, received the seal of the Empire, and kept it 
nntil his death. 

Osman reigned only three years (1754-1757) ; hie reign is merely 
marked bj a terrible conflagration, which conenmed two-thirds of 
Consta&tiiiaple and had a great namber of victims. With, regard to 
Earope, he remained faithful to the pacific system of Saltan Mah- 
mond. M. de Vergcnnes, the snccessor of Desallenrs (1755), conid 
obtain nothing from the Divan. Then the Court of YersailleB, 
despairing of drawing the Porte from its nallity and pressed by the 
enmity of England, was driven to adopt the great change in the 
political system which the alliance of 1756 between France and 
An stria signalized. 

The necessity which in its origin inspired that alliance is well 
known, looked npon at first as a master-pieoe and later as a diplo- 
matic monstrosity. France, in engaging itself against England in a 
maritime war in which nothing less for her was at stake than that 
of being or of not being a colonial Power, desired to avoid having 
her forces occapied npon the continent by Austria, even as it had 
happened to her in all her stmggles with England. It was there- 
fore, in that respect, that the alliance of Louis XV. with Maria 
Theresa seemed a master-stroke, and at first had the effect of star- 
tling the Court of St. James's. Bnt there was wanting in it an 
important condition, which was that Austria should enter into the 
policy of France for the preservation of the Ottoman Empire — a 
policy to which it did not appear difficult to convert her ; for the 

?)wer of Russia was beginning to dinquiet Maria Theresa, and the 
reaty of VersailleB|of 1756 implicitly annulled the Treaty of Vienna 
of 1725. In a word, "the alliance of Austria deprived France of 
the confidence and friendship of the Porte : it sufficed to destroy the 
bad effect of it, to guarantee the integrity of the Ottoman territory 
in Europe."* Nothing was done in the matter, and the Trenty of 
1766 had only fatal results, not only because the silly vanity of the 
mistress of Lonis XV. caused that alliance of precaution against 
England to degenerate into a war of destruction against Prussia, bnt 
further because that the basis of the union of France with the Porto, 
which was the abasement of the Honse of Austria, after two hundred 
and thirty years of existence, found itself shaken. 

The Court, of St. James's eagerly availed itself of this treaty to 
again warn the Porte that France was repudiating its alliance and 
becoming its enemy ; the English Ministry sought to substitute, in 
the Divan, its influence in the place of that of France, making it 
sign a treaty of friendship and commerce with Prussia ; it sought 
even to drag the Porte into the war against Austria. The Porte had 
previously resisted the solicitations and warnings of France, not by 
defiance, but Blnggishness. It was discontented and disquieted by 
• "Politique des Cibinelii de I'Biirope," torn. iiL p. 160. 


2B4 tukket old idO (fiw. {ti.. i7B7. 

the Treaty of Versaillee ; bnt it was too much accnstomed to r^ard 
France as ber trne friend to believe in the mptnre of the alliance. 
Meanwhile French influence in the East was affected by the discon- 
tent caused to Turkey by the Treaty of Versailles : Rnssis profited 
by the temper of the Divan to secretly excite scandalous qnarrels 
relative to the cnatody of the Holy Places, qnarrels by which it strove 
fo despoil Franco of its protectorate over the Christians of the East, 
That ufFair of the Holy Places having had long-standing and grave 
consequences even to our own days, since it was the origin of the 
war of 1854, we will smn np in few words the history of the rights 
of France over the Holy Places. 

The Affair of the Boly Places. 
The possession of the Holy Places disputed between the Latins, the 
Greeks, and the Armenians does not involve the right of proprietor- 
ship, bnt only that of usufruct. The Massulman law opposes itself 
to that which infidels possess in the land of the faithful ; it does not 
permit them to construct new churches, when even that it shonld be 
owned that those churches ought to be considered as public property, 
and to belong, consequently, to the territorial sovereign : but it 
accords to them the authorization of maintaining the ancient churches, 
that is to say, of repairing them and re-erecting the fallen portions, 
without, however, having the power to add thereto new oonstmc- 
tions. In Eastern customs, and especially those of the Holy Land, 
the exclusive possession of a Church, of a sanctuary, of an altar, 
whatever it may be, by a Christian commnnion does not exclude the 
other communions from the faculty of celebrating therein; bnt the 
possessors have solely the right of keeping the keys, of repairing 
those edifices and of maintaining them at their own cost, of lighting 
the lamps, of spreading carpets therein, finally of sweeping them, for 
therein is, in the eyes of the Mussulmans, the principal symbol of the 
right of {K)3sessioR. This must not excite astonishment, for the 
sacred euclosure in which stands the tomb of Mahomet, at Medina, 
is swept every day by forty ferratch (sweepers) ; it is a highly- 
esteemed charge amongst the Mussulmans, and which the Sultan 
confers upon his favourites and the chief personages of his Court. 
lu spite of the jealous pretensions of the Greeks and Armenians, it is 
to the Catholic monks, protected by France, that has always legally 
belonged the care of the Holy Sepulchre and the Holy Places. It 
suffices, in order to prove it, to cite the firmans of the Porte. The 
following is a sentence delivered in 1564, at the demand of the 
French ambassador : "Thekejs of the doors of the said place (the 
grotto in which Jesus Christ was bom) are in the hands of the 
Franks, and pass successively from one to the other of those among 
them who arrive at Jerusalem, and that, as well befoie as since the 
taking of that city by the Sultan Selim I., np to the present date, 
without having passed into other hands than theirs. It is they who 
open to those of the Mussulmans or of the Christians who dwell in or 


ArrAtBS or thx holy cboss. 265 

Tfto come to Jerusalem and who deaire to viait that' place (the 
grotto). There is no record that thejr have ceased to posesBa the 
said keys, nor that anj' one has contested with them for their poBSea- 
■ion, and have diepoBBesBed them of the' keys ; the; are in constHUt 
and unintermpted poBBession of them from the most remote timex up 
to the day of the date of the present act. ConseqneDtly, the ander- 
mentioned jndge has confirmed the poBseaaion of the keys of the said 
place in the hands of the Frank nation," 

A firman of Osman II. (1620) is thna eipresaed: "The Frankieh 
monka, ancient ezclnsive poBsesaors of the Great Chnrch of Beth> 
lehem and the Chnrch of the tomb of the Vii^n, have, of their fall 
accord, granted to each of the other Christian commnniona aanc- 
tnaries in the snperior Chnrch ; hnt the inferior portion, the place 
wherein Jeens Christ was bom (may salvation rest with him !) is the 
BMictnary of the Frankish monks ; no other nation has any right 
therein ; and it is forbidden to each and every nation to nenrp here- 
after the said place. . We order that no individnal be per- 
mitted, Armenian or other, to say mass in the place where Jesus 
Christ was bom, a place situate underneath the Chnrch of Beth- 
lehem, no more than in the cnpola which is called the tomb of Jesus 
Christ, neither in the interior of the tomb of the Holy Vii^in, nor 
finally in the sanctuaries which, from the old time, belonged to the 
Fiankish monks." 

The firman of 1638 is still more explicit : " .... To-day 
the Frankish monks came to produce the titles which are in their 
hands; we hare examined them, and have recognized that they were 
ancient and antbeatic papers ; they prove that all the placex above- 
mentioned, as well as the possession of the three doors of the grotto 
of Bethlehem, and the keys of those doors belonged esclnsively to 
the Frenkish monks since the conquest of Jerusalem by the Khalife 
Omar, and that at the epoch at which Selim I. made himself master 
of those Holy Places that large number of localities has remained, 
aa before, in the hands of the same Frankish monks. We order that 
the Franks have, as anciently, the possession and enjoyment of the 
grotto situate at Bethlehem, and known under the name of the Crib 
of Jesus Christ, upon which the Greeks have seized, as it is said, to 
the detriment of the Frankish monks, by fraud and by producing 
false titles; that they have the poasession and enjoyment of the keys 
of the throe doors, north, south, and west of the said grotto, and of 
two small gardens which belong to it ; that they may have again, and 
in the said manner which they have had from all time, the enjoyment 
and possession of the itone of unction, situate in the Chnrch of the 
Holy Sepulchre, the vanlts of Calvary, the seven arches situate below 
Baint Mary, the two cupolas, great and small, which cover over the 
tomb of Jesns Christ ; that they may have, besides the enjoyment and 
pofiseaeion, whether ^t Jerusalem of the tomb of Saint Mary or 
monastery called Deir-al-Amoud, with its belongings and depen- 
dencies, or whether in the village of !Nazareth, of the churches and 
monasteries, in a word of all the places of which, up to the present 



day, thej ha.Te had nnconteated poaseBaion ; that henceforth oeithor 
the Greeks nor the Armenians, nor any other Christian nation, trouble 
or disquiet them, or caase them to be tronbled or disquieted . . . ; 
that always, in the said places, and chiefly in the Caivaiy, the 
Prankish monks may exercise their worship at their will and as in 
the past; that they may place therein, as before, candies and torches, 
without any one hindering them; that, in the exercise of their 
worship, the prefect of the Frankish monks have, au in the past, pre- 
cedence over all the monks of other nations, provided that they pay 
the tribnt« desired by ancient custom (abont JE300)." 

Kot withstanding the tenoar of that firman, a year after, as we have 
said elsewhere,* the charge of the Holy Sepulchre was forcibly 
taken away by the Greeks from the Latins, and all the efforts that 
France made to put an end to that nanrpation failed during forty 
years. At length the capitulations of 1673 repaired that damage, 
and an article recognized to France the formal and exclusive rig^ht of 
protection over the Holy Places. Then the Greeks and other enemies 
of France had recourse to secret means little compatible with hoaoar 
and the faith of Christian nations. The agents of the Porte, the 
Governors of Damasons and Jerosalem, greedy and corrupt indi- 
viduals, had e,n interest in maintaining a misunderstanding which 
enriched them at the expense of the Greeks and Latins, and when 
the ambassadors of France, Austria, and Venice, moved by the oom- 
plaints of the Catholics, carried their proteste to the Divan, they fell 
into the hands of interpreters, Greefca for the most part, interested 
to present the matter in a light the most favourable bo their co> 
religionists. In 1676 a berat of Sultan Uahomet lY. accorded to the 
Greeks the keys, the carpels, and the lamps of the sanctnaries of 
Jerusalem, on the condition of paying, annually, a rent of one thon- 
sand piasti«s for the keeping ap of the Snltan Achmet-mosque ; for 
tiierein lay a means of seduction employed by the Greeks. Aftef 
having persecuted the Latins as the spies of France, and the abettors 
of a new crusade, they offered to the faithful rayahs of the Porte, 
and paying duly the kharadj, to add to their ground-rents a snbveti- 
tton to the profit of such and snch a mosque. However, that spolia- 
tion had only a transitory character. The French ambassadors — 
GailleragnaB, GKrardin, and Chateaunenf — sncceesively followed up 
that negotiation for a prize so greatly coveted by the French 
monarchs, and unfortunately interrupted by political agitations, ex. 
t«rior wars, Seraglio revolutions, and the death of two of the nego- 
tiators, GnJlleragues and Girardin. On the 20th of April, 1690, in 
the reign of Solyman II., a judgment delivered by the Divan re- 

C' jed the Frankish monks in possession of all of which they had 
n deprived since 1635, t Finally, nnder the administration <^ the 
Grand v izier Ibrahim Pacha, the Marqois de Bonao, French ambas- 
sador at Constantinople, obtained the renewal .of the firmans which 
accorded to France the protection of the Holy Sepulchre, whilst, by 
the Treaty of 1718, as has been already stated, Peter the Great stipu- 
* Vidt p. 140. t C. PuDin, p. 328. 


i-B. 1757.] AFriiBs or thk holt, cross. 287 

]ated only that the Bnssi&iiB ahonld have the right of making pil- 
gnmagea into Palestine, without being put to ransom, there or 

The capitulations of 1740 baring solemnly confirmed the rights of 
France, all intrigno among the Greeks yraa interrupted, and peace 
Beeraed seriouslj established ; but in 1757 things nndei-went a change. 
" Some Greek pilgrims, " sajB M. de Marcellns in bia Souvenirs d'Oriettt, 
" having pillaged the Catholic monastery of Jaffa, that skirmisb an- 
nounced a general attack. In fact, a few days afterwards, at Jeru- 
Balem, the schismatics assailed the monks and the Catholics in the 
Gburch of the Holy Sepulchre, broke their lamps and scattered their 
ornaments ; then, armed with proe^t-verbaux purchased at great cost, 
they declared themeelres insulted, and complained to the Divan of the 
pretended interruption of tbe Latins. At last, finding the Grand 
Vizier favonrable to tbeir wishes, tbej raised tbe mask, and presented 
a request tending to dispossess entirely tbe French priests from the 
Holy Places. Tbe Porte had tbe appeat^nce of giving serious atten- 
tion to that demand, sa also to the contradictory instances of the 
French ambassador (the same being ' supported by those of all the 
Catholic Powers), and, after conferenoes and examinations without 
result, the Grand Vizier isened a hatti.cberif, which dealt the first 
and most vigorous blow against tbe privileges of France. That 
decree drove out tbe Latins from tbe Cbnrcb of the Viivin, from the 
great Church of Bethlehem, and placed under the special care and 
protection of the Greeks the Holy Sepulchre and several other sanc- 
toaries. The protestations of the French ambafisadors against that 
spoliation, frequently renewed in the sequel, were always unsncceBsfnl. 
SveiT year, since thkt period, has seen France lose some one of those 
religions prerogatives ; and firmans, wrested from time to time from 
the impartiality of some Sultans, in conferring upon the Latins slight 
privileges, have failed to coant«rbaIaiice the influence of their stub- 
bom adversaries." 

6. Mvitapka III. — Intervention of Rtuna in Poland; ker intriguea in 
the Greek Provineet of Turkey. 

Ihiring the quarrel of the G^«eks and Latins on the subject of the 
Holy Places, Osman III. died (29th October, 1767). He had for sno- 
cesser his nephew, Muatapha III., son of Achmet IIL, then in his forty- 
first year. This Sultan and Khalife was an accomplished and ener- 
getic prince, an astrologer and poet, and very pious. 

Tbe new Sultan, on his accession, declared his intention of com- 
pletely changing the policy of the Porte and of taking an active part 
in the affaire of Europe. The day on which be repaired to tbe Eyonb 
Mosque to gird on tixo scimitar of Oaman, he stopped before tbe 
barrack of the Janissaries, and when, according to custom, he received 
from the hand of the aga the cup of sherbet, " Comrades," said he, " I 
I, in the next spring, to drink it with you under the walls of 


288 TURKIT OLD AND KEW. [i.n. 1760— 17fl%. 

France rejoiced at those intentions of Unstapba, and neglected no 
opportunity of testifving to him that, notwithstanding the blow re- 
cently dealt (gainst her religions privileKca, nothing was changed in 
her relations with Turkey. Thns some Christian HlavCB had boarded 
by surprise the flag-ship of the Admiral of the Turkish Fleet and 
carried her into Malta (1760). The Sultan, fnrions at such an affront, 
demanded of the French ambassador restitution of the vessel, which 
he called his " ocean throne," He even wrote abont it to Lonis XV,, 
telling him that, if he did not afford him eatisf action, he mast regard 
his friendship " as words written in water." The Court of Versailles 
tried at first to make him nnderstand that France was in no way 
mixed np in the matter, and that it conld only bnsy itself abont it oat 
of friendship for the Porte ; then, being nsed to treat the Turks aa 
children whose fnu^tiousness might be pardoned, instead of being irri- 
tated at their pretensions and their insolence, it purchased the vessel 
from the Knights of Malta, and sent it in great pomp to Constan- 
tinople, where the populace received it with transports of joy. The 
Porte showed no gratitude for that act of good will, and refased even 
to send an embassy to- Louis XV. to thank him far his generosity. 
" Gratitude," wrote Vergennes, " was never the virtue of that nation ; 
its pride, which prompts it to believe that everything is ito due, leaves 
it little liberi^y to estimate the worth of the complaisance, att«aition, 
and friendship shown it." 

7. Buman Aggrettion. — Deeign* of Catherine II. 
Turkey had now enjoyed a long interval of tranqnillity : bat the 
death of Aagastas III., King of Poland, the murder of Peter III., 
Emperor of Rassia, and the accession of the ambitions Catherine 
(1762) to the Imperial throne, at length compelled the Ottoman Porta 
to quit its inaction, and to draw closer its alliance with the Court of 
Versailles. Russia, daring the first half of the eighteenth century, 
had profited by all the events, all the errors, and all the wars of 
Europe, with a view to overthrow the triple obstacle which hindered 
her from becoming completely European — Turkey, Sweden, and Po- 
land. We have seen what efforts she had already made gainst 
Turkey, and what success she had obtained ; hut the conquest of the 
Empire of the Osmanli was not the work of a day, and prerairation 
thereto could only be made by the destruction of Poland and Sweden. 
The latter had only escaped utter ruin by the Treaty of Nystadt ; it 
was now the turn of Poland. Already Russia had preladed the 
subjection of that country by giving it two kings whom she 
had made her vassals ; and, as a finishing stroke, now compelled 
it to elect a noble of obscnre family, an old favourite of 
Catherine II. — ^Stanislas Poniatowski — who coald only sustain 
himself on the throne by Russian bayonets. Moreover, she had 
imposed upon Poland a code of laws destined to perpetuate the 
anarchy by which it was weakened and torn asunder through the per- 


ii-B. 17fl4.] DE8IQN3 OP aTHERIKE II. 269 

petnal disBensions of a tnrbnteat aristocracy ; and, finallj', she sent an 
army to invade that distracted conntiy when it rose in arms against 
sncli a sericB of ontragea. " The Northern Powers," wrote the French 
Minister, De Cboiseul, " aeem tied to the car of Catherine ; Sweden, 
br the sncccBB of cabals fomented within her own government; the 
Court of Berlin, bv the hope of separating Austria from Busaia ; 
lastly, the English Court, throngh opposition to Franca" As for the 
other Powers, Austria declared herself neater, becanse of the treaty 
of 1756, but UnsMJa was sure of again finding in her an ally wliea 
offered a share of the spoils ; France was oshansted by the disasters 
of the Seven Years' War ; finally, Turkey was no longer looked npon, 
save as a victim which tonst inevitably nndergo the fate of Poland. 
The Pules, however, implored the sncconr of all Enrope, chiefly at the 
hands of Tnrkey and France, which had both protested gainst 
the election of Stanislas Poniatowski and the intervention of the 
- Bassians. 

The natnral policy of France was to oppose itself to RusBian pro- 
jects, and in spibe of nnmerons errors she had followed it, and was 
ready to follow it still. Bnt, at that epoch, she was emerging from 
the humiliation of the Seemi Years' War, and the paramonnt aim of the 
Cabinet of Versailles was to avenge itself. Choisenl regarded as in- 
evifAble a renewal of the struggle with England, and he found an 
occasion for it in the tronbles of !North America, troubles which he 
fomented, and by the aid of which he desired that France should 
resume her power on the seiui. The affairs of Poland cansed him em. 
barrassment, for he saw Russia ready to aggrandize herself ; and there 
was only one policy which conld efficaciously hinder her — accord 
between England and France, an accord impossible to he brought 
about. In fact, England not only refused to aid France in her nego- 
tiations on behalf of Poland, but fettered the efforts made for its 
safety, and even threatened France with a European coalition if she 
declared herself openly against Russia. In that state of things there 
remained to Choisenl no other part to take than to 'incit« the Porte 
to afford active succour to the Polen. In fact, the French ambassador 
received orders to incite the Tnrks to war, by promising them, the 
neutrality of Austria. 

The Porto had at first shown great indifference to the fete of 
Poland. During the vacancy of the throne it had contented itHelf 
with presenting a moderate note to the Russian resident (12th April, 
1?64), protesting against any interference in the election. When 
the tumults broke out, Count Vergennes, the French ambassador at 
the Porte, endeavoured to incite it in favonr of the Polish patriots. 
Catherine II., stimulated by ambition and the desire of territorial 
B^randizement, had not confined her views to Poland. She had 
also cast her eves on some of tho Turkish provinces, and hnd marked 
them out for ier future prey ; but so long as the afFai™ of Poland 
remained unsettled she wished to remain at peace with the Porte, 
and with this view she had bought with large sums of money the 
votes of some of tho most inflnential members of the Divan. The 


290 TUItEET OLD AMD KBW. [i.D. 17C0. 

Sultan MnBtaplia HI., a prince fall of entirgy and good intentions, 
hod been infamonsly deceived by Catfaerine in the affarirs of Poland; 
for he had ewom to leave the election free, bnt in exclndine singn* 
larly and formally Poniatowski; and Poniatowski, despite the 
TOomiBee of the Czarina, had been imposed upon the Poles bjr 
Ilnssian bajonete. At the news of that monstrons election Mnstapha 
flew into a violent rage, exclaiming ; " I will find some means of 
hambling those infidels 1" and hisMinisteredeclared that their master 
wBa readv to sacrifice everj-thing to avenge himself npon Bossta. 
Bnt the Ottoman power, its armies, its finances, had fallen daring a 
quarter of a centarj into the deepest disorder, so that the Saltan's 
ardoar was destined to speedy extinction, as well from the opposition 
of his Miaistera, whom Bassia caased to believe that the tronbles of 
Poland were merely religions qnarrels, as from the impoesibihtj' of 
drawing his people oat of the slaggish apathy in which they were 
sunk. "What can I alone doF" be remarked to the Khan of the 
Crimea. " All my pachas are corrupt and eSeminata. They care 
for nothing but kiosks, musicians, and beaatifal slaves. I am 
laboaring to bring aboat order in the Empire, bat there is no single 
person willing to assist me." 

Meanwhile, the agents of Catherine, by means of the religions pro- 
paganda, prepared the way for the Bassian invasion in the Greek 
provinces of Tnrkey. In 1760 the Czar Peter HI. had sent them 
zealous emissaries. One of them, a Greek of Theeaaly, Papas Oglon, 
an artillery officer in the Bnssian service, traversed the shores of the 
Adriatic, Thessaly, and the Morea; another, the Monk Stephano, 
chose for the theatre of his preachings Servia and Croatia. " Neither 
Germany nor Hungary," said he to the rayahs, " can do anything for 
ns; France slumbers ; Poland is dying; Bnssia alone thinks of yon, 
watches over yon, stretches out her hand to yoa ; for she alone is 
orthodox. Ho yon not recognize in her the fair-haired race who is 
destined to save you ?" Animated by his harangues, his charity, 
and his liberality, the Christians of Albania, Servia, and Monte- 
negro rose in arms ; but the Bpssians went not yet roady. The 
insurrection, abandoned to its own strength, was stamped out by the 
Janissaries. In the Morea Papas Ogloa had an interview with 
Mavro-Michalis, chief of the Munotes. He oonld not come to an 
nnderatanding with him, and turned towards Benati, Bishop of 
Calamata, who promised to raise 100,000 Greeks at the approach of 
the Bnesians. The Cabiuet of St. Petersburg ordered ita fleet to sail 
to the Peloponnesus. But, before venturing npon the expedition. 
Count Orloff had an interview with Mavro-Michalis. The moun- 
taineer neither allowed himself to he seduced by flattery nor terrified 
by threats. " Had'st thou at thy command all the armies of thy 
sovereign," said ho to the Mescovitc, " thoo wonld'st still be only a 
slave. I am, I, the chief of a free people, and were I even marked 
out by destiny to be the last of my race, know that my head would 
have greater value than thine." The Maiuotea confirmed those 
words of their chief. "We will oaly take up arms," said their 



deputy to the Czarina, "in quality of allies, and in the event of jonr 
Majesty havuig decided to treat with the Torkg only when we shall 
have driven them out of Greece. We are neither slaves nor serfs, 
and we desire independence and liberty." A third emissary, sent 
into the Ronmanian principalities, escited the boyards and people to 
insnirection " in the name of conntry, religion, and liberty." In a 
few weeks the Tarks and Fanariotes were pillsf^d in their farm- 
honseH, and only escaped massacre by flight. Bnt that movement of 
the Moldo-Wallachians had no better reenlt than the revolt of the 
Servians and Uontenegring. The Turkish troops re-established order, 
and the Porte, to aflsara itself of the fidelity of the ti-ibulaij' pro- 
vinces, ordered the boyards and the merchants to send all their 
wealth to Constantinople. 

Thns the Mnscovite intrigues only ended by compromising the 
Christians. Abnsed by her doceitfal promises, the rajahs were able 
to pat to the proof the valne of Rnssian protection ; however, they 
oontinoed to invoke in a whisper, with a stabbom &ith, the name of 
the great Catherine, who had sworn to realize the prophecies and to 
restore the Byzantine £mpire. 

8, State oj the Anatic Provinces. — Egypt under Alt Bey. — Syria 
under Daher. 
It was not only the provinces of Europe which were foand to bo 
disposed to detach themselves from the Empiro ; in Asia, the antho- 
rity of the Porte had become more and more restrained and en- 
feebled. " The great paohalic of Bagdad," says an English traveller,* 
" has always been, except during veiy short intervals, really inde- 
pendent since Ahmed Pacha, who detended it i^ainst Nadir Shah. 
The Sultan only confirms the pacha, whom the people, and princi- 

SJly the soldiery of Bagdad, have named to govern them despotically. 
owever that may be, the firman, which is srait nnder these circum- 
stances, always purports that the pacha has been named by the 
Sublime Forte to that high and important function in consideration 
of his merits and some signal service which he has rendered the 
Empir^ This farce is continued by a fresh firman annually, which 
confirms him in his functions, as though really the Porte had the 
power of dismissing him. The Sultan derives no revenue from that 
province, the extent of which is immense. The pacha, who has 
always a considerable force in his pay, and which is wholly devoted 
to htm, sends regnlarly every year an acconnt of the receipts of his 
government. He never fails to prove that they have been entirely 
absorbed by the expenses of the army, which it is indispensable to 
maintain on a respectable footing, in order to preserve the Empire 
from attacks of the Persians and Arabs ; hj the repair of the for. 
tresses (which formerly existed, bnt of which there remains not a 


29'2 TU&KGT OLD AND NEW. [i.D. 176ft 

vestige), and by other objects of the wmo nature. If the Porte ie at 
war with an European Power and deraandB from the pacha hia con- 
tingent of troops, the latter pretends that he cannot detach the 
amallest portion of them ; that all of them are raqaired in the interior 
as a defence against tJie Arabs ; and, in order to give to that pretext 
an appearance of truth, he attacks some tribe. In nhort, the Saltan 
is nominally aorereign, but the pacha is really the despot of that 
province. In Upper Armenia, and in all the neighbouring countries, 
there are whole nations or tribes of people independent, who recognize 
neither the Porte nor any of its pachas. No more do the three 
Arabias recogniKO the sovereign ty of the Sultan, who possessea 
therein only a few towns of smali importance. The pacha of Ahiska 
habitually showed very little respect for the Sublime Porte, and the 
famoDB Hadji Ali Yenikli, pacha of Trobizonde, was master of all 
that country. He could place a considerable army in campaign, and 
has fi-equeiitly caused the Grand Seignior uneasiness. In the oonntry 
lying near Smyrna there are great Agas; these are independent lords, 
who maintain armies, and often place that city under contribution. 
The Porte has never had more than a temporary influence over them 
by fomenting, from time to time, qnarrela between them. All the 
inhabitants of the mountains, from Smyrna even to Palestine, are 
perfectly independent, and considered by the Turks as enemies, 
against whom they figbt whenever they can find an opportunity. 
They form different nations, which have their Governors or especial 
lords, and who are oven of different religions. Those who are near 
Smyrna are Mahommedane; further off, come the Kurds, the 
Maronites, the Dmses, &o. Haher, pacha of Acre, dominated over a 
very extensive territory, which paid no revenue to the Porte, and 
might be considered as an independent State. Between the country 
of the Dmses and that of Acre is to be found a people inhabiting the 
monntains behind Tyre ; these are the Metualis of the sect of Ali, 
snch declared enemies of the Turks that they massacre all those who 
fall into their hands. The Sultan really possesses npon the coast of 
Syria only Latakia, Alexandretta, Tripoli, Sidon, Jaffa, and some 
. other places of very little importance. The caravans which go from 
Alexandretta to Aleppo are compelled to pass by the Antioch ronte, 
seeing that all the country which traverses the direct road belongs to 
the Kurds, who would not suffer the Turks to travel through it. 
Such were the relations of the Asistic provinces with the Porte 
during the reigns of Osman III. aCd Mnstapba III." 

The man who now had made himself master of Egypt was the Ma- 
meluke Ali Bey. By the murder or exile of his enemies he had 
gained possession of Cairo. "Become depositary of all authority (1766), 
he resolved to aggrandize himself still further. His ambition no 
longer confined itself to the title of Governor or Kai'makan. The 
suzerainty of Constantinople offended his pride, and he aspired to 
nothing less than the title of Snltan of Egypt. All hia proceedings 
tended to that end ; he drove out the Pacha, who was no more than a 
representative shallow ; he refused the customary tribute ; at length, 


aId. 1703] THE UtMELDKB ALI BET. 293 

ID ] ?68, he coioed money with hia own die. The Porte did not look 
upon those attacks apnn its authority without iodignatiou; but, in 
order to repreae them, it wonld be necessary to make open war, and 
the circnmBtauces were not favourable. The Uivan at Constantinople, 
occupied with the affairs of Poland and the pretensions of KuBsia, 
devoted attention only to the North. The cnstomary agency of tho 
eapidjis was tried ; bnt poison or poniard always knew how to anti. 
cipato the bowstring they carried. Ali Bey, profiting by circum- 
stancee, pushed on farther and farther his enterprises and sacccsses."* 

The alliance of the Arab Uaher doubled his forces and allowed bim 
to brave the power of the Turks. At first Daher had tor domain the 
small town of Safod ; to it he added Tabarie towards 1785. The 
commerce which he carried on, following the cnatom of all the Gover- 
nors and princes of Asia, made him estimate the advantage there 
would be in communicating directly with the sea. He seized upon 
Acre by surprise, in 1749, fortified that place and obtained pardon for 
his usurpation by presents distributed amongst the Divan and protea- 
tationa of fidelity. " The Porte was not duped by that," says Voiney ; 
"it is too much accustomed to that manceuvring to be taken in ; bat 
the policy of the Turks is not to hold their vaseala in a strict obe- 
dience ; tliey have for long calculated that, if they made war upon 
all rebels, it would be endless work, a great waste of men and money, 
without reckoning the risks of frequent failure, and thereby embold- 
ening them. They hare therefore taken the part of patience; they 
temporize ; they rouse up agaiuHt them their neighboni's, relations and 
children ; and, sooner or later, the rebels, who all follow in the same 
line, undergo the same fate and end by enriching the Sultan with 
their spoils." 

Daber obtained, in 1768, for himaelf and his successors, the per- 
manent investiture of his government, and caused himself to be pro- 
claimed Sheik of Acre, prince of princes, oommandaut of Nasareth, 
Tabari^, Safad, ahd of all Galilee. 

9. E^dtU of France to decide the Porte to make war againtt Bassia. — 
Letters of Louit XV. 
The ill -res trained hostility of the Greets, Roumanians, and Slavs, 
the disorganization of the Imperial Government in Asia Minor, the 
pretensions of the Pachas of Bagdad, Acre, and Cairo to a complete 
independence, the impoverishment of the Treasury, the diminution of 
the army, the decadence of military institutions, the corruption of tho 
^ncrals, the insubordination of the soldiers, degeneracy in courage 
— all this did not presage to Turkey successes and victories, if she 
sbnuld engage in a struggle against Catherine. Vergenncs, who knew 
perfectly the situation of the Empire, osed mncb circumspection in 
A «a Bjdple, pencUDt les &d. 1783, 1734, and 1733," 


294 TDBKBT OLD ASH KEW. [ld. 1768. 

bis proceedisgB w!tb the Divan, and he represented to the Comt of 
Versailles the danger of a war for which the Ottomans wera in no 
way prepared. Bat Choisenl, havinfi; leamt that Catherine was 
fomenting revolt in the Greek provinces, and that nbe projected a 
nnion of all the Northern States nnder her protectorate, ordered Ver- 
gennes " to employ every means necessary to determine, or at least to 
enlighten, the Tnrkiah Ministers." Ho sent him the most circum- 
stantial reports Qpon all the enterprises of Russia, whether in Poland 
or in Sweden, reports that were placed directly under the Sultan 'a 
^es. He placed at hie disposal as much as four millions (francs) 
wherewith to corrupt the Divan. He sent to the Tartar Khan, to 
decide him to take some step that might bring on a war, an adroit 
emissary, the Baron de Tott, who onderstood all the languages of 
those conntries, and whose father had already been entrusted with a 
similar commission. Finally, he drew ap for the Sultan a long memoir 
" npon all the atrocities that Russia was perpetrating in the Diet of 
Poland, the projects the execution of which she was there consum- 
mating, and upon that real incorporation of the Republic with the 
Russian Empire." He reproached the Ottoman Ministers in that 
memoir " for making no difference between the two Courts, of which 
the one, an ancient and faithfnl ally, made it a continual business to 
transmit to the Divan important tmths, and the other, on the con- 
trary, a secret and irreconcilable rival, only concerned itself with 
deceiving it by the grossest frauds. He added that the moment wafl 
decisive, and ne told the Saltan, touching the discredit into which his 
Empire luust necessarily fall, very novel truths for the ear of a Prince 
accustomed to the most outrageous flatteries ; finally, he undertook, in 
the name of Austria, the most positive en^gement that she would 
remain neutral in the war which it was ur^fent for Turkey to declare, 
and he offered the guarantee of France for that neutrality. 

Sultan Mustapha III. was impressed by that memoir — a document 
too important and too authentic of which to keep him ignorant, and 
ho decided to favour the rising of the Poles, and demand from ths 
Czarina the evacuation of Poland. His Ministers, however, were re- 
solved not to yield to the insinuations of France; they aided the 
confederated Poles, but at the same time refused them an ov«rt 
protection ; they demanded the withdrawal of the Russians from 
Poland, but winked at thoir delays and excuses. Yergennes, however, 
pressed by the orders of Choisetu, and still more by the secret corres- 
pondence of Loais XV., redoubled his solicitations to the Diyan with- 
out employing coiruption, and, with the assistance of De Tott, ho 
armed some Tartar l^nds, who were to make a useful diversion in 
favour of the Polish cause. 

Meanwhile, M. de Vei^nnos was recalled, and M. de Saint Priest 
nominated to his post. The following is an extract from the instruc- 
tions given to the latter by Choiseul, in July, 1768 :* — 

" The enterprises of the Russians, their atrocities, the insulting 

* The greater pirt of tha diplomatic inatroeiioiu butt eiMd are drivn from th« 
*t«biTei of ihe Affairei Eirangtrit. 



a1>iii>e wbich they ha,ve made of the coafideiice of the Tnrka in their 
violated promiees, nothing has been able to aronae the Divan from itn 
BnpinenesB. Tbe Turkiab Hinifltera have ingeniunslf glossed over the 
most odiona featnres of the conduct of Catherine II. ; bat their 
secaritj waa secretly founded &pon the promiBcs which that Empress 
had made them, BometimeB to maintain freedom of election, Bometimes 
to dismember none of the doTnaius of the Repnblic, and sometimes 
to canse Poland to be evacuated aa soon as the aSair of the dissenters 
should be terminated. Facte having; successively belied those assnr. 
ances, the Turkish Minister finds himself now in a violent crisis, the 
issne of which will be probably a change of Ministry or of system. 
The Tnrks have songht to justify their inaction by asserting that thu 
Treaty of the Fruth, which forbad the Russians mixing themselves 
np in the affairs of Poland, was abrogated. The Bnssian Plenipo- 
tentiary had, in fact, the address to prevent that treaty from being 
repeated in that of Belgrade, bat many persona, even in Turkey, are 
not the less of opinion that that stipulation continues to oblige Bassia, 
and a Grand Yiitier accredited, who should be determined to make 
war, would know well how to cause the Treaty of the Pruth to be 
revived, of which they only seek to lessen the value because it 
oondenins tbe system that has been adopted. The conjuncture is as 
pressing as it is fovourable : despair, the enthnsiasm of freedom and 
the fanaticism of religion, have armed the confederated Poles ; the 
whole nation awaits only a word from (he Porto to join themselves to 
them. If the Porte lets the moment slip, all is lust for her ; Bassia 
aggravates the yoke of Poland and begins tbe great work of her am- 
bition. The conpideTHtion of tbe Turkish Empire, tbe display alone 
oi her strength, the declaration only of her sentiments, may yet 
rastore Poland to the protection of the Porte, as ought to be done, to 
prevent the dismemberment of that kingdom, to appease tbe troubles 
of Sweden; in a word, the Porte, rendered glorions, will, by soma 
vigorons steps, re-establish her consideration, will watch over the 
aaiety of her frontiers, will be nsefnl to her friends of several cen- 
tnriee dato, and will abase the pride of her natural enemies, who have 
for some years feigned to despise her, in making it known that they 
enchain her vigilance by their sednctions, 

" Russia, by her artifices, her haughtiness and her infidelities, 
seems to be endeavouring herself to tear away the veil of voluntary 
illnsion which the Turks have woven for themselves up to the pre- 
sent moment; it is for us to hasten the waking time of tbe Divan by 
our representations; the Khan of tbe Tartars seconds them; the 
frontier officers provoke the resentment of the Porte ; already it has 
given con epicnons marks of interest to the confederated Poles. The 
King's ambBaRador ought to neglect nothing to forward the germi- 
nation and blossoming of snch happy dispositions ; the entreaties of 
tbe Tartar Khan will help to inflame the Turks." 

These insfcruclions were supplemented by the secret correspondence 
of Louis XV., of the 20th of April, 1769 ; for Choisenl only saw in 
Poland an instrument to be used against the Bnssians, whilst 


296 TU:tKEY OLD AND HEW. [i.B. 17M,' 

LoniB XV. wished to save her for herself, for the salvation of Turkey, 
for the future of France. Thnn, when one reflects on the Bad end of 
that war, one cannot read in the secret correspondence the generotts 
lines dictated by the King and written by the Connt do Brojtlie, in 
which the kiiniiliation of Itateia is proclaimed as the policy of France, 
without deploring that terrible resnlt of a policy in which the in- 
telligence was not sustained by the will, in which the will waa 
bmbilised by the debancheries of the Parc-atix-Cerfs, 

At length the connsels of France prevailed with Mnstapha; the 
Grand Visier was changed, and the war party took possoseion of 

10. War agaiml Sitsda. — Rising of the Morea. — Naval Victory of the 
Russians.— OperaUom in Wallachia. 

The Rnasiane having redoubled their atrocities in Poland, a trick 
of the Tartar Khan brought about the violation of the Ottoman terri- 
tory ; some CoBSacks, Inrod into pursuit of some confederates of Bar, 
entered Balta and there massacred indiscriminately Poles and Turks. 
Thereupon the popalace uttered shrieks of vengeanco; the Divan, 
fearing a revolt, made preparations for war. 

The Orand Vizier, Hamsa Pacha, summoned before him the 
Rnssian ambassador ObrcskofF, who sought to jnstify hia government 
for the massacre of Balta. " Traitor ! perjurer 1" retorted Hamsa, 
" do you not blush in the sight of Qod and man at the horrors com- 
mitted by your troops in a country which does not belong to you ?" 
And he cited him to sign a declaration importing that Itnssia bound 
herself, nnder the guarantee of her four allies, Denmark, Prussia, 
England, and Sweden, to meddle no farther in tho election of the 
King of Poland, nor in the strife between the sects which was 
dividing that country ; to withdraw her troops from the territory of 
the Rt^public ; and to abstain from all attempts t^^inst Polish liberty. 
ObreskoQ refusing to sign, he was imprisoned in the Seven Towers, 
and war waa declared (October, 1768). 

The Cabinet of Versailloa had created for iteelf, upon the power 
which the Turks still possessed, illusions that were promptly dissi- 
pated. The Ottoman army, on entering upon the campaign, gave 
itself up to pillage and massacres calculated to utterly disgust any 
civilized Power from alliance with such barbarities ; its first reverses 
revealed that it was only a shadow of the armies of Solyman, that it 
hod only retained, of the stimulants to action that formerly rendered 
it victorions, a fanaticism as base oh it was sanguinary. Artillery, 
fortifications, discipline, mancDuvrefi, all were wanting; of the simplest 
notions of geography even the Ottoman Ministers were ignorant, 
France strove to enlighten the Divan : De Tott addressed several 
memoirs to the Sultan with that view, and, to make himself under. 
ht<x)d by that prince, he was constrained to conatruct maps of tho. 
theatre of hostilities- Mustapha seemed stupefied at those revela. 


isu. 297 

^oiiB, and, after much hesitation, for he dreaded the discontent of his 
people, he determined to submit publicly to the inspection of De Tott 
all the materiel of the Ottoman artillery. " What was the astonish- 
ment of the latter," says Rulhieres, " on entering the apsenal at Con- 
stantinople ! All therein seemed to announce, to the intelligent eye, 
the approaching ruin of that Empire, and, so to speak, by anticipa- 
tion, upon the bronze and bra£S, its certain fate, the defeat of its 
umies, the capture of its towns, and the wholesale deetraction with 
which it was menaced." 

The Khan of the Crimea, Krim Ghersi, commenced the campai^ 
hy an incarsion into New Servia, and returned to Bender with 
3o,000 prisoners. He died shortly afterwards, and was replaced by 
Dewlet Gherai. The Grand Vizier, Mohammed Emin, obtained, near 
Choczim, a alight advantage over the troops of Galitzin, who with- 
drew into Poland ; but he was conquered m tnm ; the Bussians be- 
si^ed Choczim, defended by Potooki, one of the chiefs of the con- 
federation of Bar. The Grand Yizier came to the sncconr of that 

IS artilleiy from a distance decimated the Turkish army. The troops 
mnrmtired ; Mohammed Emin was pat to death. His successor, 
Moldovandji Ali, threw a bridge acroas the river; a multitude of 
Tartars and Turks assailed the entrenched camp of the Russians; 
but a sudden rise of the Dniester loosened the bridge; the Turks, 
fearing lest their retreat might be cut off, hastened to recross the 
river; then the bridge, shaken by the violence of the flood, gave way 
onder the weight of the battalions which crossed it in disorder. 
Cavalry, infantry, all were precipitated headlong and engulfed in the 
watery disappearing in a horrible pell-mell. Six thousand men, 
placed at the foot of the bridge to protect the retreat, were left 
isolated npon the left bank; the Russians issued forth from their 
entrenchments to fall upon that abandoned rear-guard ; hurling them 
into the river and annihilating them. Whilst the Grand Vizier was 
bringing back the wreck of his army to the banks of the Danube the 
garrison of Choczim evacuated the place ; Galitzin found the gates 
open ; tbence he pursued his march across Moldavia and Wallachia, 
without encountering any resistance (1769). 

Catherine, however, not content with attacking the Ottomans upon 
the Dniester, despatched from the Baltic a fleet to be manned in 
England by sailors, officers, and even an admiral, and which, sailing 
thence into the Mediterranean, was to efEect a rising in the lllorea. 
The Divan manifested in presence of that peril a singular ignorance 
and an incredible carelessness. The French ambassador having be- 
come acquainted with the projects of Russia relative to Greece, 
precise in detail but through a doubtful channel, warned the Turkish 
Ministers, with circumspection, from fear of exposing the Greeks to 
persecution. That advice was received with the most ludicrons in- 
credulity : " Tei! uh," said they jestingly, " how ships can get from 
St. Petersburg to Constantinople." 

Voltaire was at this time endeavouring to awaken a spirit of Phil- 


29S TDBKET OLD AND HEW. [a.D. 1770. 

belleniam in Frederick of PmsBia and Catherine. He nrged them 
to partition Turkey, and to restore the Greeks to independence, 
Frederick, however, avowed that he should prefer the town of Dant* 
zio to the PirtBDB. His dominions were at too great distance from 
Greece to enable him to derive any material advantage from siicli a 

Eroject, But with Catherine the case was different. Her views 
ad long been directed towards this qoarter, and for some years 
BnBsian emiasanes had been Btriving to awakeo a spirit of revolt 
among the Greek Christians in the Morea, the islands, and all the 
Turkish provinces. The conqnest of Greece is said to have been 
soj^ested by a Yenetian nobleman U> Connt Alexis OrloS ; and in 
1769 OrloS had concluded at Pisa a formal treaty with the Maiaotes 
and other tribes of the Morea and of Bonmelia. He had engaged 
to snpply them, with the necessaries of war, and they had promised 
to rise so soon as the Russian flag should appear on their coasts. 
Fleets were fitted out at Cronstadt, Archangel, and Bevel, which, 
under his conduct, were to attempt the conquest of Constantinople. 
The British Ministry then in power approved the project, and even 
signified to the Gabinet§ of Versailles and Madrid that it shonld 
regard ae an act of hoetility any attempt to arrest the entrance of 
the Russian fleet into the Mediterranean. Choiseal, on the oonti'ary, 
endeavoured, bat without e&ect, to persuade Louis XV. to sink it, ae 
the only way of reviving the credit of France both with the Porte 
and Europe. The first division of the Bussian fleet, consisting of 
only three ships of war and a few tramtports, with about 500 men on 
board, appeared oS Port Vitolo, near Cape Matapan, towards the end 
of February, 1770. The Mamotes rose, but no plan of a campaign 
had been arranged, and the whole businosB degenerated into a sort of 
marauding expedition. If^avarino alone seembd for a time likely to 
become a permanent conquest ; but after dome fruitless attempts on 
Modon and Ooron the Russians took their departure, towards the 
end of May, abandoning the Greeks to their fate. They suffered 
dreadfully at the hands of the Turks for their temerity, and the 
Morea became a scene of the most frightful devastation. 

The Russian fleet, which originaliy consisted of twelve ships of 
the line, the same number of frigates, besides smaller vessels, under 
Admiral Spiridoff, remained in the Mediterrane^ till 1774 ; but the 
only action of auy importance that it performed was the burning of 
the Turkish fleet in the Bay of Tchesmeh, near the Gulf of Smyrna, 
after defeating it ofi Chios. The heroic courage of Hussein Pacha, 
enclosed in a badly -chosen position, could not hinder the burning of 
the Turkish ships. That victory (July 5, 1770,) was wholly due to- 
the skill and bravery of the British officers serving in the Russian 
fleet — namely, Admiral Elphinstone, Captain Greig, and Lieut. 
Dugdale, though all the honours and emoluments fell to Orloff, whose 
gross ignorance had more than once risked the loss of the fleet, and 
caused the failure of the ultimate object of the expedition.* Elphin- 

* looke'a " Lite of Calbrrins II.," toI. ii. pp. 44, 45. 


A.B. lT7a] EtBTBtiT or TBI StrBSIAKS. 299 

stone wieaed to force the pasBage of the Dardanelles and sail to 
ConetantiiLople, bnt Orloff prevented him. Yet that insolent 
favourite of Catherine II., the aesaBsta who strangled her nnfortanate 
husband, Peter III., received for that victory the samame of Tchei- 
mentkii a palace nae built for him, and in the gardens of the Em- 
press a rostral colnnm erected to record his naval exploit Tain 
trophy of a sterile trinmph 1 Had the Rnasiana known how to 
profit by that nnmerited saccesa they might have passed the Darda- 
nelles, which were not defended, and have reachai Constantinople ; 
hat, in 8pit« of the advice of the English Admiral, they wasted some 
fifteen days' cmising about the entrance to the Straits. 

Daring that time, De Tott having offered the Divan to proceed to 
the UardaDelles, his services were accepted. All the shipwrights that 
French commerce had brought to Constantinople were employed in 
the constmction of additional defences on those shores. Some of 
his vessels were made into fire-ships ; sulors manned the batteries, 
and carpent«r8 made gnn- carriages. De Tott canaed the gunpowder 
that he had procnred from more than 200 European vessels to he 
stored in the new batteries. In a few weeks the pass^e was rendered 
inexpngnable, and the Russian fleet, aft«r a long and useless lingering 
at Lemno8,set sail to leave the Mediterranean. It did not d!are to 
show itself on the coasts of the Morea, for the men of Sparta and 
Messene, dnped by bo many unworthy manceuvres, found themselves 
delivered over to the vengeance of the Ottomans : Fatraa, Tripolitza, 
Hegalopolie, Laconia and Messene, devastated by fierce bands, long 
showed traces of Massnbnan reprisals exercised over the Christians, 
left defenceless by the Russians. 

The Moldavians and Wallachians, not less than the Greeks, had to 
repent of their devotedness to Bussia. They had offered to the 
Czarina to subsidize a portion of her troops, and to fnmish her with 
12,000 soldiers, on condition that they rfiould retain Bender, "the 
key of onr country," they said, " and our defence against the Tar- 
tam." The Sultan, irritated at this defection, launched a wrathful 
decree against the inhabitants of the Principalities, and threatened 
to reduce them to slaven*. The Kaimakan of Crajova, who had 
remained faithful to the Turks, received the title of Prince of Wal- 
lachia ; he marched upon Bncbarest, and drove back General 
Zamottn into Bessarabia (May, 1770). His successes were of short 
duration : the Russians resumed the offensive, seized npon Toumoul, 
Ginrgevo, Bntila and Crajova, and forced him to retire upon the 
Danube. Count Romanzoff formed, with some boyards of Bucharest 
and Jassy, a supreme council, charged, under his orders, with the ad- 
ministration of the Principalities. The disgrace of that military 
oconpation was only compensated by the diminution of taxation : 
during four years the Roumanians were freed from the capitation 
irhich they were compelled to pay to the Turkish Government. 

The Seraskier Khalil Pacha meanwhile held the right bank of the 
Danube; he crossed the river and advanced to the succour of 
; menaced by an army of 60,000 Russians and Calmncks, led 


300 TURKIT OLD ASD NEW. [4.11, lT70i 

by Connt Panin. The Tartars of the Crimea repulsed a Btrong 

detachment of that army, passed the Dniester aad effected their 
junction with Khalil Pacha. BomanaoH hastened up ; almost snr- 
ronnded by 50,000 Tartars and 100,000 Ottomans, he haz.ardod battle 
near Cahonl, and obtained a aangninary victory. The Turks returned 
to Caostantinople. The Uussiana took Bender, Akerman, and 
Ismail ; all the fortresses on the left bank of the Danabo fell into 
their power (17?0). 

At the same time Azof opened its gates to the Mn.<icovites ; 
Georgia rose in rebellion ; Daber, Faoha of Acre, and AH Bey, 
chief of the Mamelukes, leagued with the Bnssiane and together 
attacked the Pacha of Damascus; the Empire seemed near to its 

11. Efforts of France in favour of Turhey. 
The Cabinet of Versailles watched events with a vivid ftnxifty ; 
bnt it drew back from taking any part in them, on account of the 
hostile attitude of England, of the abounding duplicity of the con- 
duct of Anatria, the only two States that with herself had any 
interest in the preservation of the Ottoman Empire. England wa« 
then negotiating a commercial treaty with Russia ; but the indirect 
aid that she gave her, together with the acclamation with which aha 
welcomed her victoriea, gave reason to believe that that treaty 
covered a political alliance, and that, if France Bhonld proceed to 
declare in favour of the Porte, her navy would be immediately 
attacked by that of England. Aa for Austria, she took the greatest 
care to conceal her projects from the Court o£ Versailles, whilst the 
latter, confident in the alliance of 1756, formed no design concerning 
the Poles and Turks without informing the former of it, and even, 
from the very beginning of the war, had proposed to take np anus 
with her in favour of both those peoples. How was it possible for 
the Court of Vienna to avow that it projected the partition of 
Poland, that it desired to make a private treaty with the Forte, 
that she was even seeking to withdraw France from hor mediation 
between the Turks and the Czarina ? 

After the disaster of Tchesme the Saltan solicited the Courts of 
Vienna and Versailles to enter into alliance in order to arrest the pro. 
greRs of the Russians, and, at the same time, it sought to make with 
one and the other a separate treaty. Anstria promptly replied : " That 
she could take no part in the war without the risk of eztending over 
the whole of Europe a flame which it was her desire to quench ;" she 
proposed, nu the contrary, her mediation for peace ; and she offered as 
conditions the re- establishment of the two belligerent parties in the 
status quo ante helium, and the evacuation of Poland by the Russians. 
Mustapha immediately convoked the Divan and submitted to it the 
question of war or peuce, by communicating Austria's answer. "As 
for France, who had not yet replied, she seemed," he said, " disposed 


A.b. 1770.] MEDIATION OF ACSTRIA: 301 

to EDstain the fortnnes of the Ottoman Empire ; already she was 
beinR treated with for the acquisition of a great number of ships, and 
without havinfj a poeitiye answer from that Court, it was easy to per- 
ceive, by the solicitude of her ambassador, the approaching conclnsioa 
of an alliance." The Divan deliberated, bat the Sultan was alone 
diapoBed to continue the war and to have recoan<« to France entirely ; 
all the ^[iniaterB voted for peace, and secretly the mediation of 
An stria was requested. 

England, having heard of the proceedings of tlie Ottoman Court, 
offered in turn her mediation ; bat partiality foi lluBsia was so mani- 
fest, that she experienced a refusal. "It is bo extraordinary," re- 
marked the Grand Viiier to the Knglisli ambassador, " that the Court 
of St. James's should offer her m.edi8tion to the Porte, whilst she has 
ships in the UnBsian fleet, that there iB every reason to fear lest that 
Bolicitade may be a mask disguising inimical projects." 

The Divan, however, carefully concealed from the French am- 
bassador the steps it was taking to obtain peace, and it redoubled its 
eagerness for an entirely opposite negotiation, that of the alliance. 
On his part, M. de Saint-Priest, suspecting the weakness of the Turk, 
ish lUnisters, n^lected nothing to reanimate their course to get rid 
of a humiliating peace, the result of which must cauBC embarrassment 
to France ; and, whilst awaiting the precise answer of Choisenl, be 
strove to enlighten them upon the true causes of their defeats. " He 
reminded them," says Bnlhi^res, " of all the old regnlationB fallen 
into desuetude, which had made the corps of the Janissaries the fore- 
moBt infantry in the world ; he suggested the nse of the arms at that 
time adopted by all the nations of Europe ; he obtained, by seconding 
with all his inflnence the fresh efforta made by Baron de Tott, the 
establishment at Constantinople of a foundry of light artillery and a 
school of gnnners under the direction of that young foreigner. The 
Dardanelles, put recently into a state ol defence, and the fresh 
dangers which threatened the Empire had then tamed the gaze of 
the dismayed people towards that young Christian, and jnsti^ed the 
secret confidence which the Sultan had for a long time accorded him. 
' The terror was such,' he himself relates, ' that pnblic prayers were 
offered np tor the success of my labours.' " 

The answer of the Court of Versaillea arrived : Choisenl ordered 
M. de Saint- Priest "to pass from active hostility against the Bnssians 
to inertness, withoat at the same time discouraging the Turks from 
efforts that they were still willing to make on beb^f of the confede- 
rated Poles." The alliance was refused, and an ofEer of mediation was 
simply made to the Porte. That change of policy was brought about 
by the hostile attitude of England, who had just recalled her sailors 
from the Rnsaiaa fleet and was preparing considerable armaments mani- 
festly directed against France. Choisenl, whom a powerful party 
threatened to drive out of the Ministry, determined to await events, 
disposed to intervene actively in the Northern war, if he could occupy 
the British enemy in America ; hnt instead of declaring himself openly 
against Russia, who would not ttal to ally herself with England, he 


S02 TUBEXT OLD ANS KIW. [l.D. 1770— 1771. 

only encouraged tbo Turks to cootinue the war ; he sent to the insnr- 
f^ent Poles an aid of 1,500 men, some engineers, officers, and Bnbsidies ; 
finally, he prepared in Sweden the revolntion that shotild remove thai 
conntry from BnsBian inflnence. 

From the commmicement of the war, the Divan, ae has heen B&id, 
had applied all its efforts to divert Anstria from a leagnewitli RuAsia; 
in 1768 it offered her its aid to reconqner ESilesia and to place the 
King of Saxony on the throne of Poland; in 1770 the reis-effendi 
Ismail again proposed a close alliance between Austria and Tarkey 
against Catherine II. ; but, this time, the leE^gne was destined to be con- 
eluded, no longer at the expanse of Prussia, but at the coat of Poland. 
" If the Bnssiana are driven out of that conntry," said the Turkish 
Minister, " it will depend entirely upon the good pleasure of the Court 
of Vienna of placing a king of her choice upon the throne, or of 
, partitioning Poland with the Porte."* The Court of Vienna rejected 
those propositions ; but it conelnded, the following year, a treaty of 
subsidies by which the Porte engaged to furnish 20,000 purses 
(11,250,000 florins), to cade Little Wallachia, to free Austrian com- 
merce &om all onerous taxation, to guarantee her from attacks of the 
Barhary pirates. On her part, Austria promised to sign a peace, with 
the restitution of all the Uussian conquests and the maintenance of 
Polish freedom. But those were only hypocritical promises. Abont 
the month of September, 1771, Frederick II. made it known to the 
Imperial Conrt that he desired to unite a portion of Poland to Proseia, 
notably Pomerania, and that he woold support Aostria if she de- 
cided to take his part. Catherine IL sent him in her turn a project 
for the partition of the Turkish Empire ; she reserved to herself 
Wallachia and Moldavia, and allotted to Austria Bosnia and Dalmatia. 
The Court of Vienna rejected neither of these plans. However, the 
Turks underwent fresh reverses, and the talk was rife already, at 
Catherine's Court, of going to Constantinople. The Cabinets of 
Vienna and Berlin becoming alarmed, offered their mediation, and as 
Russia dictated conditions which seemed to menace the ruin of the Otto- 
man Empire they proposed to the Czarina to have done with Poland 
by a dismemborment, provided she would content herself with a por. 
tion of her Turkish conquests. The dismemberment of Poland was 
determined upon. 

At the moment when these monstrous negotiations commenced 
the only man who could have prevented their snccess — Choisenl — fell 
from power, disgraced and banished from Court, chiefly through the 
inflnence of Madame du Barn, a new mistress of Louis XV. One of 
the Duke's chief objects daring the whole coorse of his administration 
was to raise a navy which might be eqnal to contend with that of 
England. He longed to retahat« all the maritime disgraces which 
France had suffered during the Seven Tears' War, and was prepared 
to foment by every means in his power the discontents which were 
already beginning to spring np betweem England and her American 

* B«port of tbe Anitriso ambundoT Tbugat, of Hutb S4, 1770. 



12. Tkreati of England as regarded France. — Sequel of the War. — 
Death of Mustapha III. 
The Dnko d'Aigaillon desired, it ia true, to pei-sist in the projects of 
his predecesBOr for the deliverajice of PolEUid and the ABatBtAnce of 
Tarkey, and he prepared armaments. Bnt the English Ministry de- 
clared to him that the slightest attempt in favanr of the two menaced 
States -would he r^arded hy her as a caase of war. France, there- 
fore, contiitned her preparations more leiaorely ; she attempted by 
divers means to remove the enspicions or deceive the vigilance of 
England ; hnt in vain : the Conrt of St. James's notified to her that 
it would not suffer any other foreign nation to intervene in the 
quarrel. Thanks to these threats, Poland nnderwemt hei first dis- 
memhennent, and England had the disgmce of having covered the 
three spoilers oE that kingdom, witboat any profit accruing to her- 
setf. And how did Lonis iV, nee his power, the most absolute ever 
seen ? He allowed, without a pang of remorse, the great political 
orime of that century to be accomplished, the partition of Poland, of 
which Austria, Prussia, and Bussia shared the bleeding members : 
and then, the Court of Yersailles, feigning indignation at the dis- 
memberment, was desiraoa of avenging itself upon Austria by in- 
vading the Netherlands. England manifested great exasperation at 
thatvelleity of conquest; she threatened to join the leagne of the 
three Sovereigns of the North, and thos compelled her enemy to 
abandon her project. AigniUon then, wishing at least to protect 
Sweden, which was equally menaced by Bussia, armed a flotilla at 
Brest. Thereupon the English Cabinet immediately demanded ex- 
planations from him, to which he replied by allying the necessity of 
checking Bussian ambition, which was threatening all Europe. Lord 
North rejoined that, "notwithstanding the desire of the King of 
England to avoid everything which might disturb the good under- 
stuiding between the two Courts, if a French fleet appeared in the 
Baltic it would be followed by an English fieet." D'Aignillon com- 
plained that England always met bis friendly protestations by 
menaces, and he declared that France could not abandon Sweden. 
The like answer was given him ; thereupon he canned the armament 
at Brest to be suspended ; bnt, at the same time, had another in pre- 
paration at Toulon. The English Cabinet directly declared to him 
that "the prohibition made to Frence against sending a fleet into 
the Baltic applied equally to the Mediterranean ; that, if the French 
fleet set sail, the English fleet wonld immediately follow its example, 
and that finally England could not consent to France having a fleet 
in either one or other of those seas. The disarmament of the Tonlon 
fleet was the immediate resnlt. " Thus," says an English historian, 
" thanks to the happy manifestation of an energetic resolution, Eng. 
land not only avoided the misfortune of a war, but further served 
the cause of ner Bossiao ally." 


301 . TOBKET OLD AND HBW. [i-B. 1771—1773. 

Is 1771, however, the Bnasiaiu failed in thoir attempts apon 
Trebizonde and Georgia ; their flotilla, badly handled, could not get 
out of the Sea of Azof. Upon the banks of the Dannbe the buc- 
cesses were divided ; but in the Crimea th« Ottoman domination was 
completely reversed. Prince Dolgoronki entered as conqueror at 
Perekop, at Taman, EafFa, Kertch and Yenikale ; he proclaimed the 
independence of the peninsnla nnder the Russian snzeraintT, and 
installed Scherin Bey in quality of EHian of the Crimea. 

At the instigation of Prussia and Austria an armistice was con- 
cluded ftt Giurgevo and a congress opened at Fockshani. The 
plenipotentiaries of the Czarina stipnlated that the Porte ehould 
recognize the independence of the Tartars and freedom of navigation 
and commerce in the Black Sea. The Tnrks rejected those con- 
ditions, which, in relation to the Crimea, were contrary to the prin- 
ciples even of Islam. " To the Saltan," they said, " appertained the 
religious sovereignty of all the Sunnites ; if he did not exercise it 
over India, Bokhara and Morocco, it was on acconnt of the too great 
distance of those countries ; bnt he would neglect his duties aa 
Khallfe by abdicating his authority over the Tartars." The con- 
ferences at Fockshani had no result. 

Another congress was held at Bacbarest, and the Czarina sent 
thither her ultimatum (15th Feb., 1773), which demanded : " 1. Ae 
a guarantee for the independence of the Tartars, the cession of Eertch 
and Tenikale to Bnsaia ; 2. Freedom of navigation in the Black Sea 
and in the Archipelago for ships of war and merchaut vessels; 3. 
The restoration of the strongholds of the Crimea to the Tartars; 4. 
The installation of Gregory Ghika, Yoivode of Wallacbia, then a 
prisoner to the Russians, in the hereditary principality, on condition 
of a tribnte payable every three yeare ; 6. The cession of Kilbonm to 
Bnssia and the demolition of the defences of Oczakof ; 6. The title of 
Padishah for the Russian Sovereign ; 7. The right of protecting the 
votaries of the Greek religion in the Ottoman Empire." The Turks 
were indignant. " When your Czar Peter," said one of the pleni- 
potentiaries, "was reduced to eat bark in the forest of HuscQ, the 
Sublime Porte abstained from putting him to death or taking him 
alive; it contented itself with the restitution of Azof." Bnt the 
Czarina was not tempted to imitate the fault committed by the Tnrks 
in the treaty of the Pruth: the ultimatum wae maintained. The 
Divan rejected it, upon the instances and almost at the command of 
the Ulemas. 

Saltan Mustapha earnestly desired peace; but he dcsiiwl to obtain 
it on honourable conditions; irritated by the insolent pretensions of 
Catherine, he resolved to resume hostilities vigorously. His Ministers 
contended zealously with one another to raise and equip troops at 
their own cost. It was along the Danube that every effort of the 
war wa« directed. The Russians sustained a first check at Rust, 
cbnk ; they failed equally at the siege of Silistria (30th May, 1773). 
They basely avenged themselves of their defeat by massacring at 
Baaaradschik, a defenceless town, the women, old men and childreD, 


*.». 1773.] DEFEAT AND DEATH Of ALI BBY. S05 

irhom they dashed to death againat the walls.* Speedily, at the 
approach of the Ottoman troops, they withdrew " with such precipi- 
tation," says Von Hammer, "that the Turks fonud the flesh-pots on 
the fires with the meat half -cooked." Finally, General Unger having 
besieged Varna, he nao repulsed. 

Fortnne was not less favonrable to the Tnrks in Syria and in 
I^fypt. All Bey had entered into relations with the commander of 
the Rnssian sqnadron in the Meditermnean, and had been supplied 
by him with troops and mnnltiona of war. Notwithstanding those 
reinforcements, he was defeated under the walls of Cairo by Ebn 
Schel, and forced to take refuge with his ally the Pacha of Acie, 
Daher, to whom the Russian fleet fnmished also arms and prorisions. 
Osman Pacha, GhtTemor of Damascna, supported by the Druses, gave 
battle to Daher ; the action took place upon the coaet, and a Russian 
frigate was able to assist the operations of the Facha of Acre ; the 
Druses took to flight ; the Busaians bombarded Beyrout and burned 
SOO houses. The victorious army marched upon Jaffa, which de- 
fended itself courageously aud only surrendered in February, I ?73. 
The Mameluke chief Ali then thought of going back to Cairo. In 
the early part of April, letters having the signatures of his friends 
reached him, in which they told him that they were tired of Ebn 
8chel, and that, to expel him, they only awaited the presence of Ali 
Bey. Instantly, the latter determined upon his departure; and, 
without giving the Russians time to arrive, he sot out with his 
Mamelukes and 1,600 Safadiens, commanded by Osman, Daher'a 
BOn ; but he was unaware that the letters from Cairo were a ruse of 
his enemy. In fact, having entered some way into the desert which 
separates Gaza from Egjpt, he encountered near Salable a body of 
1,000 picked Mamelukes. That corps was led by the yonng Bey 
Monrad, who, smitten with the wife of Ali Bey, had obtained her 
from Ebn Schel, in the event that he might have to deliver up the 
head of that illustrious but ill-fatod man. Scarcely had Monrad 
descried the dust that annonnced the enemy afar oS, than, rushing 
upon them with his troop, he threw them into disorder; to complete 
hiB good fortune, he encountered Ali Bey in the miUe, attacked and 
wounded him on the forehead with a sabre stroke, then seized and 
conducted him to Ebn Schel. The latter, encamped some two 
leagues in the rear, received his old master with ihat exaggerated 
respect so familiar to the Turks, and that sensitiveness which perfidy 
knows how to feign. He gave him a magnificent tent, recommended 
that the greatest care should be taken of him, avowed himself a 
thousand times his slave, kissing the dust upon his feet ; tint, on the 
third day, that performance terminated in the death of Ali Bey, due, 
according to some, to the consequences of his wound, according to 
others, to poison,t That event delivered the Turks from a formid- 
able enemy. Four Unssian officers and the head of AH Bey were 
Bent by Ebn Schel to Constantinople in testimony of his fidelity. 

It was in the midst of these unhoped-for succesBCS that deftth 
' "AoitiunUilitu; JoDiDil," to), iii. p. 98. t Vo'nej, vol. i, t<. 125. 


306 TDKKET OLD AND KEW. [x.1,. 177*. 

eurprised the Snltan, at the moment when Miifitapli& waa about to 
^ace himself at the head of the army of the Danube (Jan. 1774). 
He deserved to be regretted by his Bubjects for his activity, for 
his constancy, and by a wise spirit of reform. If his reign was 
not a happy one, he had at least the honour of opposing the en- 
croachments of RnsBia and of protesting by arms against the sub- 
jection of Poland. He cannot be reproached for the inevitable 
tergiversations that were imposed upon him, in the face of Muscovite 
ambition, the perfidious counsels of Austria and of Prussia, the 
feebleness of France, his long-tried but impotent ally, and above all 
the disoT^nizatioQ of the Ottoman Empire. Ho had the good-will 
but not the strength and genius required for repairing the fanlts of 
lu3 predecessors, to regenerate his people and to resist the ascendancy 
of BfUssia. Thus in spite of his courageous and persevering efforts, 
in spite of the advantages obtained by his arms in the campaign 
of 1773, he left to his brother, Abdul Ahmed, a burthensome in- 

The Russians dominated in the Crimea, in Moldavia, in Walla- 
chia ; HoracliuB, Prince of Georgia, was sold to Catherine ; Ahmed, 
Pacha of Bagdad, only recognized nominally the snzersiuty of the 
Snltan ; Daher, supported by the Arab tribes, preserved his inde- 
pendence; l^gypt, under the anthority of the Mameluies, kept up 
only an apparent fidelity. In Albania, Mahmond, Pacha of Scntari, 
was in open revolt; and Ali, Pacha of Janina, was laying the 
fonndations of his power. Such was the stBt« of the Empire when 
the sceptre of Othman fell into the hands of a prince who, during 
half a century had dwelt within the inmost recesses of the Seraglio, 
and who had passed his days in copying the KorAn or making bows 
and arrows. 

13. Aeeesgion of Abdttl Ahmed, — Treaty of Kalnardji. 
Abdul Ahmed, the yonngest son of Achmet IIL, conld not, accord- 
ing to custom, pay to the Janissaries the " earnest-money " of the 
accession : money was even wanting for the most urgent necessitiefi 
of the State. Its officials, however, succeeded in mustering an army 
of 40,000 men upon the right bank of the Danube. Bat the Sultan 
did not plaoe himself at its head : be contented himself with 
witnessing the artillery practice and the European manceuvrea which 
Baron de Tott directed. Russia, on her side, bad made formidable 
preparations ; after her failnres at Rustchuk, Silistria, and Vama, 
she desired to strike a heavy blow and terminate the war by a 
decisive campaign. Bomanzofi, seconded by Sonvarof and Kramenski, 
forced the passage of the Danube, succeeded in turning the front 
of the Ottoman army and separated it from Yama, which contained 
al) its magazines. A Russian division carried by assault the camp 
of Korlidsohe, defended by25,000Turks(16thJnne,1774). Thence- 
forth panic seised the Ottoman army. The reis-effeudi confronted 


l-B. 1771.] TBBATT OP BUBTCHnK-KiiiriEDJI. 307 

the Janissaries who were fleeing headlong, and tried to lead them 
back into action, when a mnsket-Bhot, which etrack him down life- 
less, was the only reply Tonchsafed to his eihortatiotis. 

With snch soldiers to sastain the straggle was impossible. France 
advised the Forte to discontinne a disastrons war, in which she 
conld not lend the slightest aid without bringing down the arms of 
all Enrope npon her, and she proposed her mediation. Catherine 
refused it at first, throngh resentment against France, r^arding it, 
she said, as the depth of hnmiliation, after her victonee to owe 
peace to a Conrt which had been so contrary to all the designs of 
her GoTemment; she pretended even to allot the mediation to 
- England, which had been so fovonrable to her. But the Tnrks 
obstinately refnsed to accept any other mediation than that of 
France ; the Czarina yielded, and peace was concladed at Rostchnk- 
Kainardji, in Bulgaria, 10th Jnly, 1774, 

By that fatal treaty the Crimea was declared independent of the 
Porte, the navigation of the Black Sea was accorded to the 
Bnasians; and Kilbonm, Tenikal^, Kerteb, Azof, — that is to say, 
the keys of the Black Sea, of the Crimea, of the Sea of Azof {Palut 
Mceotit) ; and, moreover, Great and Little Kabardia in the Ctincasas 
were ceded also. Poland, in whose behalf Tnrkey had undertaken 
that war, had not even her name mentioned in the treaty, and all 
the anterior treaties, which stipulated the right of the Porte's pro- 
tection over that kingdom, were abolished. Moldavia and Wallachia 
were more fortunate : in restoring them to Abdcd Ahmed, Catherine 
exacted the solemn promise of a general amnesty and a diminution 
of tribnte. But, by a clause which had proved ^tal to it, the Porte 
consented : — " That, according to the circumstances in which the 
Principal t ties and their tovsm^tu shall find themselTes, theUinisters 
and the Court of Bussia may speak in their favour, and she 
promises to have r^ard for those representations, conformably to 
the amicable consideration and regard that the Powers have one 
towards another." Snch is the origin of the Protectorate which 
Russia has long exercised in Boumania (Uoldo-Wallachia). Article 
7 has, as the precedent or rather pretext, opened a wide door to 
Bnssiau usurpation. " The Sublime Porto promises to protect con- 
stantly the Cnristian religion and its Churches ; and also it permits 
the Ministers of the Imperial Court of Bussia to make, on all occa> 
sions, representations, alike in favour of the new Church at Constan- 
tinople as for those who officiate in it, promising to take them into 
consideration as made by a confidential person of a neighbouring 
and sincerely friendly Power." This was the origin of the Crimean 
War of 1854.» 

* The tipienian of pTotoetiiig thg CIiriBtiftD religion and ita Cfaiin:li« beins taken 
ID ■ Tafiae and generie&l leDBe, the Cabinet dI Bt, Peterahnrg bas pretsnded that it 
might tpplj (a t^e labjscti of the Port«, which voald implicitlj nj that, in the case 
ID which the nfahi profeniDg the ChmtUo Teligion should complain of being ill-treated, 
EuMia would have the right of demtoding explanatioos and mi)un<t remoDBtranora to 
bring biek Uw Forte to the obaerruee of tba itipnlited pact But the spirit of that 



" Sioce the Peace of Ka^lnardji," gays Yon Hammer, " Rnefiia has 
been the oracle of the diplomatic negotiatiouB pttraned by the Porte, 
the arbiter of peace or war, the booI of the most importuit afFairs of 
the Empire." As to France, her infiaeace received a mortal blow 
from it. The Treaty of Ka'inardji fatally imposed upon her, so to 
speak, a retrof^rade course, in giving her a rival in the Protectorate 
of the ChriBtians in the East, a rival who, having over her the 
advantages of position of race and origin, could hear away from her 
Ruccessively all her privileges ; a rival whose projects she was no 
longer able to baffle, since, henceforth, Raasia conld keep her in 
check, not only by Anetria and PmsRia, but also by England, the 
duped accomplice in the murder of Poland and the dismemberment - 
9f Turkey. 


Pbi» thb Fiici Of EAbtunji to m Peaci of Jimt (1771-1792).' 

1. Consequences of the Peace of Kainardji. — Convention o/1779. 
The mischievous consequences of the Treaty of Kainardji did not 
make themselves immediately felt in France. It was even durmg 
the fifteen years which followed that treaty that French commerce 
in the Levant attained its greatest prosperity. That commerce em- 
ployed 20,000 sailors, 700 vessels, and was diatribnted amongst 
seventy-eight mercantile firms. M. de Saint-Priest gave it a wide 
development in establishing, between the ports of the Black Sea and 
those of the Mediterranean, relations that had not existed until then 
save between Constantinople and the Archipelago. Eventnally, as 
the wealth.seeking traders of that time were harassed by the pirates 
who infested the coasts of Greece and particularly the porte of 
Corinth and M^ara, the French fleets, at the request of the Porte, 
banted down those robbers, and for several years served in the 
capacity of police of the whole Archipelago. 

That commercial prosperity, the rights expressly conceded to 
France of its official protection of the Holy Places, her perseverance 
in enlightening the Porte upon the causes of its disasters, tcgether 
tended to produce a tension of the league of the rival Powers inimical 

trextj ie nowiu in accord with that rlfroroaalj litsrjl interpretation. Knuia thoa 
restund to the Forte certain Chrialinn prorinces uf which she had etripiwd it in the lut 
nar, Buch ai Beuara^ia, Wallaohia, and Moldavia ; ii Taa, tliercfan, oatnTal that it 
■bould atipn'atA a conjitioii of ohlivioaof the iiaatiiDd good treiitment of the inhabitanta 
or ihoee provincea wNict their aubniis-ion to the Bn'sian GoTerntneiit had oompromiaed, 
WhaiBfer mtj ba tha traa sense of that article, it jnnit still be, that, if the Ottoman 
QLiTcmment hiul ennaged to protect its Christian lohjccts and thFJr Chnrehea, it had 
stipalated that it ahonld protect them itielf, and had not alienated that right of ton- 
reignti tn th« profit of a foreign Power. Paniu, " Hiftoire de la riralili et dn pruteo- 
tornt," &0. 



to the policy of France. Thus the Government of Loaia XVI., 
inheritor of the embarraesmentB created hj the partition of Poland 
uid by the Peace of Kainardji, fonnd that it had a bard task to 
accomplish ; it found the oonditiona of the European eqnilihrinm 
changed. Her diplomacy had to etm^Ie against a system of alliances 
and intrigueB which even went so far as to attack the preponderance 
that France had bo long exercised; at length, it was complttely 
paralyzed in its eSorts by inteniiil discords ; mnoh indecision, there- 
fore, and very little snocesB attended the attempts it made to preserve 
its position in the East. 

The Conrt of Versailles had merely advised the Tnrks to conclude 
the Peace of Kfunardji to snatch them from the certain min then 
impondin^, for them to gain time and afford them an interval 
wherein to strengthen themselves against their enemies ; but the 
Divan bad relapsed, into its apathy, and it had done nothing either 
to pnt the frontiers into a state of defence or to improve the army. 

The Capndan-pacba Gaii Hassan, however, who had distinguished 
Limself during the last war at Tchesme, at Lemnos, and in several 
other conflicts, undertook to restore the Ottoman navy. He recrnited 
sailors from the Barbaiy States and upon the littoral of the Adriatic 
rnlf ; he also cansed a great number of ships to be repaired. Bat, 
m order to sicceed in placing- the fleet upon a respectable footing, he 
vae compelled to display an inexorable severity. He caused every 
vessel to be recaulked, ordering the captains, under pain of diath, to 
be present at that operation nntij it was finished. Chie day, a certain 
captain took an opportunity of going to his own abode about a 
qaart«r of a mile distant. The Capad^-pacha came in the interval 
to examine the norks, and having some observations to make touching 
the refitting of the absent captain's vessel, he inquired for him ; he 
was told that he bad gone homewards The Pacha seated himself 
upon a carpet, sent one of his saite to bring his unsket and another 
to fetch back tie captain. As soon as that unfortunate man came 
near, he took aim at, and shot him dead, without addressing a single 
word to him. " Let him be buried," he then said, " and let all the 
other captains follow him to his grave ; the work shall be suspended 
during their absence."* The Ottoman fleet, re-oquippod, cruised about 
the Mediterranean to secure the Bubmission of certain provinces. It 
treated rigiirously the Christians of the Morea and the Archipelago, 
ever suspe^-t^d of connivance with RnRsia. The Sheik Daher was 
besieged both by sea and land in the city of Acre ; he perished whiUt 
seeking to escape among the mountains of Snfad. Bnt nothing was 
attempted against the other Pachas of Asia who enjoyed a complete' 

Knsaia meanwhile followed np the resnits of the Treaty of Ka'i- 
nardji. " In releasing the Tartars from Ottoman domination, she 
had contrived to keep in her pay their turbulent hordes. Ere long 
she was desirous of intermeddling in the election of their Khans. 
By means of the divisions which she had stirred np in the family of 
• Bun), rol. i. p. 10». 


310 TDBKET OLD AITD XIW. [ld. 1770. 

the descendants of Zen^his Khan, her infiaence socnred the election 
of Sahim Gherai; and that coerced election, like that of Poniatowski, 
promised the same resulta. The Tartars were divided ; RaBsian 
troops advanced to pacifj the Crimea, as the^ had pacified Poland. 
The dispoBsessed Khan aonji-ht an a^lnm in Constantinople ; he soli- 
cited aid ; he offered to render to the Ottoman Forte a homage which 
it had lost; bnt the faith dne to treaties, pmdence or perhaps cor. 
mption prevailed in the Divan over resentment of that insnlt, and 
the candidate of the Rnseians remained in possession of an anthoritrf 
which he submitted thenceforward to their vassalage."* 

At tho same time, Catherine, who had abandoned Wallachia and 
Moldavia with regret, intrigued in those provinces with the view of 
rendering them independent. She pretended to have the right of 
preventing the Hospodars of Wallachia and Moldavia from being 
deposed nnreasonably. To those claims she added some vagne com- 
plaints touching the restrictions which the Porte placed npon Bnssian 
commerce. The Cabinet of St. Petersbnrg onlv raised at once so 
manj anjnst pretensions in order to obtain that which it most desired ; 
and, as it abated those that it had advanced over WEillachia-Moldavia, 
the Porte thonght to gain mnch by acquiescing in the nomination of 
the protigi of the Empress in the Crimea, on the oonclnsion of a new 
treaty of commerce which endangered the fntnre secnrity of Con- 
stantinople, and on that of an additional convention which was pre- 
sented as the seal of a lasting reconciliation (lOth March, 1779). 

That explanatory convention of 1779 was signed by the advice of 
Prance : the Court of Versailles represented to the Divan the danger 
of a stm^le for which it was not prepared, in which it could render 
Turkey no aid, and which the Unssians sought for ardently. Englandi 
then at war with France and the object of the hatred of all the 
maritime Powers, vainly endeavoured to hinder it. Besides, the 
Czarina averted the attention of Europe from the true aim of her 
policy by her negotiations for the freedom of the seas, and, continuing 
secretly her enterprises against Tnrkey, she became a close ally of 
the Emperor Joseph 11., with whom she projected a partition of the 
Ottoman Empire. 

2. Conquest of the Crimea hy the Ruteiane. 
The Court of Versailles had not been wholly disabused from the 
alliance of 1756, by the complicity of Austria in the partition of 
Poland ; it hoped to bring it back to its true interests in demonstrating 
that that alliance, into which Prussia could enter, was the salvation 
of Europe against the maritime ambition of England and the con- 
tinental aggression of Russia ; it entered, therefore, into a most active 
correspondence with the Court of Vienna, to divert it from its projects 
against Turkey. But Joseph II. was already irrevocably bound to 
the Czarina; nevertheless, he feigned to listen to the counsels of 
■ Mallal iln P&u, Du peril de la balaiKe felitigite, p. 110. 



France. " 1 asBore yon," said he to the French ambassador, " that I 
spare myBelf no pains to repeat to Catherine everything calculated to 
defer a war with Tnrkey ; but that woman ha.s a sinj^ular will of her 
own, and which nothing stops." rinally, Lonis XVI. cansed the 
qneEtion to be pat to him as to the line of conduct he would take if 
■war should break out " If Rns.sia makes war against the Porte," he 
replied, "I will make it also the interest of Ajistria to extend her 
terrifonj in proportion to that which Rusgia may acqaire." M. de 
Vorgennea, Minister for Foreign Affairs, replied, " That consideration 
wonld fnmtsh an example the fatal error of which perhaps not a 
century of war wonld expiate. If the fear lest the Unssian power 
flhonld one day gravitate over the Anetrian power is a sufficient title 
for her to compensate herself at the -expense of an innocent third 
State, ought one not to anticipate that others, fearing with too mach 
reason lest the Austrian power should gravitate in its tnm over 
theirs, may derive authority from the example of the two Imperial 
Courts, to procure for themselves accretions and compensations at 
the expense of whomsoever they may belong P Where wonld Europe 
be then if that monstrous system should be about to accredit 

Vergennes then endeavoured to bring the King of Prussia into 
the alliance of France, in pointing oat to him the dangers of the 
policy of Joseph 11., " the most monstrous system," he said, " to 
which ambition has ever given birth, and the most dangerous for the 
Burety of all nations and of France in particular. It is clear," he 
added, "that the Emperor is resolved to concur in the dismember- 
ment of the Ottoman Empire and to take his share of the spoils. 
The KJng has in v»in done everything that lay in his power to en- 
lighten the prince as to the peril of that enterprise. The sole means 
of pi-eventing it is agreement with the King of Prussia to overawe 
bis Imperial Majesty." That proposition was deatmctive of the 
alliance of 17bii ; but Vergennes excused himself toaching it by 
saying with some reason : " The alliance with the Emperor, notwith- 
standing the wonnda it has inflicted npon the esteem of Fi«nce, had 
in itself a real advantage — that of ensuring the tranquillity of the 
Continent ; but so soon as that resnit was destroyed, the alliance 
found itself broken up." 

Frederick, with his usual duplicity, listened to the propositions of 
France, thoroughly decided not to accept them. For all that, the 
Czarina grew uneasy : profiting by the moment at which the Court 
of Versailles, emerging from the struggle with England, had still ita 
forces dispersed in every quarter of the globe, she resolved to invade ' 
the Crimea. 

Shahim Gherai had been only raised to the dignity of Khan in 
order to be the instrument and shortly the victim of Catherine's 
BUibition. Scarcely was he on the throne, ere she had sent to him, 
nnder the title of ambassador, a spy charged with the task of 
rendering him hateful to his people, to bribe the disaffected and to 
stir up civil war. The Tartars held the Russians in horror, both as 


312 TUBKET OLD ASD NEW. [a.d. I78S. 

to their customs and their government. At 6rst, the nofortnnBite 
Shnhim had been persuaded to solicit the fayonrs of the Court ; ha 
had obtained the cordon of Saint Anne and the grade of Colonel in 
the Imperial Guards, a Bubaltem honour that degraded him in the 
ef ea of the Tartars. The Russian a^nte had inspired him with a 
taste for their manners, their frivolities, their debauchery, their bar- 
barity, their prodigal follies, and their military discipline. They 
made bim conceive, when already tottering upon his throne, tbe idea 
of having a navy and of dominating upon the BWk Sea ; and, whilst 
the prodigious increase of his ezpeuditure raised murmnra, the 
Russian ambassador, indefatigable in bis twofold intrigue, ceased not 
to encourage at once the follies of the K' h '^ n and the plots of the 
mounai (nobles), nnti! a general revolt breaking out, reduced the 
terror-stricken Kban to flee to Tanian and implore snccoar of the 
UuBsiana ; it waa where perfidy awaited bim (l?y3). Then on every 
side, even to tbe centre of the Crimea, the troops penetrated that 
had been long mnstered for that expedition. Blood flowed, bat not 
in battles : no victory honoured that conquest; it was parcbased by 
conscriptions and proclaimed upon scaffolds. Thonsands of noble 
Tartars were stoned or massacred under tbe eyes of tbe Kban, by 
those even who had driven them into revolt. The unfortunate 
Sbabim and his subjects saw too late the effect of tbeir discords and 
the snare into which they had fallen. Long deceived hy promises, 
compelled to give up the sovereignty be had abased, sent prisoner to 
Kalouga, reduced to misery tbe most profound, exposed to the most 
barbarous treatment, he was at last abandoned to Ottoman vengeance. 
■ Thrust forth beyond the frontier, be was seized by the Tnrks and 
carried to Rhodes, where, in spite of tbe efforts of the French 
Consul, he was decapitat^id.* 

In order to justify that sanguinary usurpation, the Czarina pub- 
lisbad a manifesto. " It was," she said, " tbe love of good order and 
tranquillity that bad brought the Russians into the Crimea. . . . 
The restlessness natural to the Tartars had weakened aud ruined the 
edifice which the beneficent care of Catherine had raised for their 
happiness, in procuring them liberty and independence under the 

authority of a chief elected by themselves In fine, the 

expenditure occasioned by the necessity of remaining always in arms 
for the protection of tbe Crimea, and the necessity of putting an end 
to these troubles, compel her to ro-unite to tbe Unssinn Empire the 
Crimean peninsula, the island of Tamau aud all the Konban, as a 
rightful indentnity for the losses and ezpensea undergone to maintain 
therein peace and happiness. t 

Indignant at this infamous violation of the rights of nations, the 
Turks flew to arms, and the Divan decided in trembling to recom- 
mence the war. The Court of Versailles hastened to interpose its 
mediation ; it saw in that war tbe certain lose of Tnrkey, for Joseph 
IE. was ready to enter upon a campaign, Frederick was encouraging, 



by his apparent indecision, the projects of Catberioe, and England 
burning to avenge iieraelf upon the ally of France for the loea of 
bar American colonics. By dint of entreaties the French Cabinet 
decided the Turks to make fresh sacrifices, to a new humiliation ; and 
the Porte, submitting to throw down the arms of which it could only 
make use to its own destruction, testified by that act of aorrowfnl 
confidence, more forcibly than when in time of prosperity the alliance 
of the two States made Europe tremble, that France was alone its 
olobe and disinterested frieod. Bnseia thns acquired (1784) the 
sovereignty of the Crimea and of the Koaban, fresh rights over the 
Black Sea and other advantages calculated to bring abont the future 
dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. 

3. ChaJtge in the Policy of France. — The Empreee Calherine't project 
of a new Eattem Empire. 

That last humiliation of Turkey was productive of a very serious 
f^bange in the political ideas of France in relation to the East. 

It has been shown that, under the regency of the Duke of Orleans, 
at the time that Russia commenced to weigh in the balance of 
Enrope, an upinion was formed favourable to the Russian alliance, 
and which, considering the Ottoman Empire as destined to inevitable 
ruin, desired that France should prepare herself to share in the 
spoils. The continual defeats of the Turks, their decadence which 
nothing could arrest, the blindness with which they persisted in their 
ignorance and their apathy, gave credit to that opinion ; and the fate 
of I'oland seemed to demonstrate that if France allowed herself to 
be surprised by the dismemberment of another of her allies by the 
northern league she fell back into the rank of the secondary States. 
The French ambassadors at Constantinople warned the Government 
of that state of things, and advised a change of policy. 

The Russian Empress now seemed to have taken a step towards 
realizing her project of a new Eastern Empire. Adopting Voltaire's 
idea of erecting a new Greek kingdom on the shores of the Black 
Sea, the recently acquired possessions received the names of Tanrida 
and Caucasia, and Kherson was erected in the midst of a desert as 
the capita] of the new kingdom, bat on a site so ill-chosen that it 
was soon eclipsed by Odessa. Potemkin, dignified with the pompous 
name of the " Tanrian," was made Governor- General of the con- 
quered provinces, and Grand- Admiral of the Black Sea. 

The relations between Russia and the Porte continned t« be 
strained. Disputes arose respecting the Turkish Government in 
Georgia, Uoldavia and Wallachia, and on other points ; whilst, the 
Porte on its side accused the Cabinet of St. Petersburg of repented 
violations of the Treaty of Ka'inardji. 

The Ministry of Louis XYI., without believing in the immediate 
ruin of the Ottoman Empire, was anxious to bold itself prepared for 
that great catastrophe, and not the less directed its efiorts towards 


314 TDUKBT OtD AMD mw. [ 17S4, 

enlightening the Tnrks and arresting the ambition of Russia. Emis- 
saries were aont to the Levant (1784) chareed to find ont the points 
of which France shonld take possession in the event of a general war. 
It had tnraed its eyes especially npun Candia and Egypt. Cboisenl 
Gonffier, who succeeded to Saint-Priest in 1784, waa specially in- 
stmoted to take every means possible to ensure the preservation of 
the Turkish Empire ; officers, engineers, builders and mechanicians 
of every kind were placed at his disposal ; a small corps of French 
soldiers was given him to instruct the Turks in European tactics ; 
finally, he sncceeded in obtaining thesignature of a fresh convention 
between the Porte and Russia which put an end to their gravest dif- 
ferences. But Catherine disquieted herself very little at these efforts ; 
she knew France to be embarrassed in her finances, fermented by the 
approach of a revolution, and undecided in her policy with regard to 
Turkey. She had justgiven even more force to the opinion of those 
who reprobated the Turkish alliance, by signing with France a very 
advantageous commercial treaty, a treaty which was universally re- 
garded as a change of system at Versailles, that is to say, a tendency 
to approach the Ruesians and abandon the Turks. Thus, confident in 
her BnccesB, in the alliance of Austria, in the immobility of Prussia 
and England, she manifested openly the desire to drive the Turks out 
of Europe, and to re-establish the Emp.ire of the East. Her intrigues 
in Greece, her pretensions to Georgia, her hostilities against the Cau- 
casian peoples, the education of a host of young Greeks brought to 
St. Petersbni'g, the name of Constantine borne by one of her grand- 
sons, the creation of e, formidable fleet at Kherson and at Sevas- 
topol, unveiled her secret designs ; and she carried insolence so far 
as to intervene directly in the Ottoman administration, by demanding 
the dismissal of Pachas and officials who displeased her. At the 
moment when she had jnst signed her commercial treaty with France, 
she made a pompons journey to the Crimea, found there her obse- 
quious ally, Joseph II., with whom she discussed the proximate re- 
establishment of the republics of Athens and Sparta, and at Kherson 
Ced under a triumphal arch which bore these words : The road to 
Tintiitmr. That journey caused a great sensation in Europe, and 
every one thought that the Czarina was disposed to recommence war. 
The Emperor Joseph paid assiduous court to the " Semiramis of 
the North" (as Voltaire, by way of equivocal compliment, ironically 
and sardonically called her), and every morning attended her levfo us 
a private person. Future projects against Turkey were cautiously 
aTid suspiciously discussed by them during that jonmey, bnt no 
definite plans were formed, and neither sovereign desired immediate 
war. At the same time, the Russians violated the last convention 
concluded by tbe mediation of France ; their incursions in the Can- 
caans recommenced ; their ambassador used threatening words. The 
Sultan, his Ministers, and the people, indignant at so many outrages, 
clamoured for war. The Czarina, who had been scared from con- 
tinuing her journey to Kinbum by the apparition of a Turkish fleet 
in the Liman, had scarcely returned to St Petersbui^, when the 



Rnssian Minister &t Constantinople was arrested and flnng into the 
Beven Towers (10th Angust, 1?87). At the same time war was 
declared against Bnssia. 

The Cabinet of St. James's had been grieTOasly humiliated hy the 
€!abinet of Versailles on acconnt of the declaration of independence 
on the part of the American colonies, and by the neutral lea^e for 
the freedom of the seas ; it was moreover irritated against the latter 
by reason of the prosperity of French commerce in the Levant, as 
well as by the Treaty made with Rnssia which deprived England of 
the monopoly of the Baltic Sea. The Cabinet of St. James's therefore 
sought to attack its Gallic rival in all its political inflaences, 
alliances, and commercial interests. It stirred up the Divan to 
reject eveiy method of conciliation. In concert with Pmssia, the 
Porte was mode to believe that Raaeia drew back through fear, that 
the opportunity had arrived for the Tnrks to resume their conquests, 
and that Rnssia must be snrprised by a vigorous ag^jreaaion. More- 
over, England, it was alleged, had promised to restrain Anstria, to 
arm Sweden and Poland, and to give aid with the whole of her navy. 
In thns driving Tnrkey into war, England, the French Minister as- 
serted, had but one object — to profit by the internal embarrassments 
of Franoe and canse her to lose either ber inflnence in the Levant if 
she abandoned the Turks, or ber Treaty with Russia if she sustained 
them. The Porte, eager to take np arms, heeded not those repre- 
sentations, and refused to adopt tJie line of conciliation proposed 
by Prance (Angnst, 1787). 

4. War with Riufia renewed.-~Dealh of Abdul Ahmed. — Selim III. 
{1792).— Continuation of the War.— Peace of Jasty (1792). 
Anstria forthwith took part with Rnssia; Sweden pronounced for 
the Porte ; England and Prussia co-operated, but remained quiescent. 
As for France, which then the Cardinal de Briesne tried to govern, 
that country becanie greatly alarmed at the event of a war by which 
it saw England about to envelop Europe in flames in order to deprive 
France of her influence over Turkey, Sweden and Poland, and thus 
play the part she had formely enacted, and rednce her to nothing 
more than a second-rate Power. Bat that war France was not 
permitted to join in, for she was already feeling the throes of the 
most terrible of revolutions seething within her ! The opinion there- 
fore favourable to the Russian alliance broke forth openly ; and the 
most brilliant expression of that opinion was the work of Volney 
entitled : " Coneidiraiion* mr la guerre preiente entre lei Turet et let 
B,tiMe»," a work in which he disparaged, beyond measure, the alliance 
of the Porte, showed that the time for that alliance had passed away, 
counselled the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire in concert 
with Russia, and stirred up France to possess herself of Egypt. At 
the same time, Choiseul Uouffier, who waa so much carried away, 
throogh his admiration of ancient Greece, as to see only in the Turks 


316 TURKEY OLD AKD NEW. [l.[>. 1788, 

the persecutors of the deacendantB of the Hellenes, called the attea- 
tiou of Christendom to the miserable condition of the Greeks : he 
contended that the Morea Hhonld be made an independent State 
nnder the protection of Prance. " To regenerate the Ottomans is an 
impoesibility," was an assertion heard on all aides ; " they themselves 
believe that the moment of their destruction has arrived. The 
alliance of the Porte can no longer enter into combinations for the 
eqnilibrinm of the Great Powers. Ought we, in order to aid snch a 
people, to cany the theatre of war as far as the Black Sea, and 
ourselves cover the capital of that Empire? Could we make snch 
efforts in face of the rival Powers interested to destroy our commerce 
in the Levant P Should we not rather, since a dismemberment ia 
certain, take possession of the best Turkish ports, and seize upon, in 
Egypt and Syria, the true sources of abundance and of commerce ? " 
The Cabinet of Yersailles sufiered it«elf to be shaken by that opinion ; 
striving to balance the mamBuvres of the Cabinet of St, James's by 
its negotiations, it proposed, in concert with Austria and Spain, on 
the one hand its mediation to the Porto, on the other hand to Russia 
an alliance of which peace with the Tnrks should be the first 
condition, and which should have for its chief object the arrest of 
the warlike designs of England and Prussia. Catherine II., seeing 
in these propositions the tendency of France to enter entirely into 
her policy, accepted them ea^riy ; but the Divan rejected the media- 
tion ofiered it ; England threatened war, and the Cabinet of Ver- 
sailles was constrained to suspend its negotiations. 

The war began with a fruitless attack by the Turkish fleet npon 
Kinboum, heroically defended by Suvaroff (September 24). The 
winter was passed in farther negotiations, in the persistent attempts 
of France to mediate a peace, in which she would probably have 
succeeded, had not a courier of M. de Segur, the French Minister at 
St. Petersburg, who was the bearer of Catherine's approval of a 
scheme of conciliation, been assassinated on the road. The Czarina's 
generals had at first very httle success. Their army traversed the 
Tartar provinces ; but " famine, pestilence — all the calamities of a 
long and cruel war had desolated them. It was necessary to trans. 
port supplies from immense distences : the slightest success caused 
terrents of blood to flow ; the provinces, exhaust^, could no longer 
furnish new levies; .the Siberian exiles were even compelled to enter 
the ranks." Kherson and Kinbnm, however, briskly attacked by 
the Pacha of Oczakoff were defended by Suvaroff, who sustained three 
assaults and repulsed the Turks. Romanzoff and the Prince of Saxe- 
Coburg captured Cboczim ; and Potemkin, with 80,000 men, be- 
sieged Oczakof (December, 1788). The Capndan-pacha Gazi.Hassao 
having hastened to rescue that tewn, whilst in pursuit of the Knasian 
fleet allowed himself to he decoyed to the mouth of the Dneister, 
where, in a fierce fight, he lost fifteen ships and 1],CX)0 men. Then 
Oczakof, almost defenceless from its decayed fortifications, was 
^-igorously pressed by an assault under command of Potemkin ; the 
place was carried and put to sack with savage fury. The victors 


jLB. 1788.1 PBOGHHSa or THE WAR. 317 

having lost 20,000 men daring the siege gave no -qnarter, &nd mas- 
sacred more than 25,000 of the inhabitants, 

Joseph II,, who had taken command in person of hia army, obtained 
leae ancceBe than the Rnssians ; be made two fraitleas attempts to 
Burprise Belgrade, but was forced to retire. The Grand Vizier broke 
the &nstrian centre and drove back the Germans aa far as Logos, 
took several places in Hnngary, ravaged the Banat of Temeavar, and 
was very nearly Hurprising the Bm.peror himaelf. These were, how- 
ever, but poor compensations for the disaster of Oczakof. The Prince 
of Gobnrg, indeed, had taken Choczim, and afterwards occnpied a 
considerable part of Moldavia ; but, on the whole, this campaign 
mnst be regarded as a failnre. The Tnrka, indeed, were at last com- 
pelled to evacnate the Banat before the end of antnmn ; but the 
entire plan of the campaign was bad ; and the Emperor retnmed to 
Vienna ill and dispirited. 

A few months ^tcrwards Abdnl Ahmed died (April, 1789), carried 
ofi by a stroke of apoplexy. The snccesaion of his nephew Selim 
III, (son of the nnfortnnate Mitstapha III.), a yonng prince of 
twenty-eight, possessing energy and considerable talents, restored 
some confidence to the nation, terrified by the sla&ghter at Oczakof. 
Having Tcsolved to prosecute th ^ war with spirit, Selim isaned a 
decree commanding all the "Faithful" between sixteen and sixty 
ears of sge, to take up arma. But like some of hia predecessors, 
ited with more zeal than discretion. Dressed as a sailor, or 
in other disguises, Selim went alone, by night as well as by day, 
throngh the streets of Constantinople, entering manufeotories, shops, 
and coffee-honaes, endeavouring to leam the wanta and wishes of 
liii people from tbeir own mouths. By such a conrse, however, 
he was often led into error. By the revival of obsolete enntptnary 
laws, and the severity with which he enforced their provisions 
with regard to apparel, &c., he lost more hearts than he had gained 
by hia apparent zeal for the welfare of his peoplb. 

The war, however, continued ; but France having offered her 
mediation, conferences were opened at Focshani. England and 
Prussia redoubled their efforts to render them abortive ; they pre- 
pared armaments ; they entered into alliance with .Poland, as did the 
latter with the Port« ; they promised aid to Sweden. Hostilities 
recommenced. Selim wished to take command of hie armies himself ; 
the I)ivan, for superstitions reasons, prevented him. 

On the 21st of Jnly Gazi- Hassan, who since the loss of the fleet 
bad commanded the vanguard of the army, was defeated near Foc- 
shani by the Rnasians and Auatriana, commanded by Suv